Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of California
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell Ph.D.

Photo of Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell Ph.D.
Director of Lindcove REC & Research Entomologist UC Riverside
ANR Lindcove Research & Extension Center
22963 Carson Avenue
Exeter, CA 93221
(559) 592-2408 Ext. 152 & (559) 646-6591
eegraftoncardwell@ucanr.edu Create VCard

Also in:
Kearney Agricultural Research & Extension Center

Links

Biography

Research Statement
My research and extension program stuies strategies for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods to manage arthropod pests of citrus in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We establish or verify economic thresholds for key pests, study the efficacy of natural enemies, maximize the use of biological and cultural control methods, develop pheromone trapping systems, screen the efficacy and selectivity of new insecticides and test pests for resistance to insecticides.  In recent years I have focused on invasive pests such as Asian citrus psyllid and pests of export significance such as Fuller rose beetle.  

As of June 2006 I am also Director of Lindcove Research and Extension Center in Exeter California. This 175 acre Center supports research projects on citrus breeding, horticulture and pest management.

Education

Ph.D. Entomology, UC Berkeley. 1985
M.S. Entomology, Purdue University. 1980
A.B. Biology, UC Berkeley. 1978

Specialty

Citrus Integrated Pest Management

Areas of Expertise (click to see all ANR academics with this expertise)

Bibliography

Peer Reviewed

  • He, F.; Jeske, D. R. , et al. (2015). "Identification of hot spots for count data on spatial lattice arrays." Statistical Analysis and Data Mining: 29.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2014). "The Status of Citrus IPM in California." Acta Horticulturae
  • Chueng, W.; Pasamontes, A. , et al. (2014). "Volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling of citrus tristeza virus infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)." Metabolomics: 34.
  • Byrne, F. J.; Visscher, P. K. , et al. (2013). "Determination of exposure levels of honey bees foraging on flowers of mature citrus trees previously treated with imidacloprid." Pest Manag. Sci
  • Garcera, Cruz Y.; Ouyang, Y., et al. (2013). "Effects of Spirotetramat on Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoid, Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)." J. Econ. Entomol 106(5): 2126-2134.
  • Pupin, F.; Bikoba, V. , et al. (2013). "Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality." J. Econ. Entomol 106: 2341-2348.
  • Ouyang, Y.; Montez, G., et al. (2012). "Spirodiclofen and spirotetramat bioassays for monitoring resistance in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)." Pest Management Science 68: 781-787.
  • O’Neal, M.J.; Headrick, D. H. , et al. (2011). "Temperature thresholds and degree-day model for Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)." J. Econ. Entomol 104: 1286-1293.
  • Ouyang, Y.; Cheuca, P., et al. (2010). "Chlorpyrifos bioassay and resistance monitoring of San Joaquin Valley California citricola scale populations." J. Econ. Entomol 103: 1400-1404.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Godfrey, K. E., et al. (2008). "Citrus leafminer and citrus peelminer." University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8321: 12.
  • Sisterson, M. S.; Yacoub, R. , et al. (2008). "Distribution and management of citrus in California: implications for management of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis." J. Econ. Entomol 101: 1041-1050.
  • Rill, S. M.; Grafton-Cardwell, E., et al. (2008). "Effects of two insect growth regulators and a neonicotinoid on various life stages of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)." BioControl 53: 579-587.
  • Cheuca, P.; Grafton-Cardwell, E., et al. (2008). "Influence of spray equipment and water volume on coverage of citrus and control of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) with Mineral Oil." J. Econ. Entomol 102: 296-303.
  • McElfresh, J. S.; Grafton-Cardwell, E., et al. (2008). "Novel Lepidopteran Sex Pheromone Components from the Citrus Peelminer Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)." J. Econ. Entomol 102: 574-584.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Montez, G., et al. (2008). "Response of Citrus Peelminer Stages, Marmara gulosa Guillén and Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) to Various Insecticides." Pest Manag. Sci 64: 1143-1150.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Lee, J. E., et al. (2008). "The role of imidacloprid in the integrated pest management of citrus." J. Econ. Entomol 101: 451-460.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Headrick, D. A. , et al. (2007). "Citrus Leafminer." UC IPM Pest Note 74137: 4.
  • Rill, S. M.; Grafton-Cardwell, E., et al. (2007). "Effects of pyriproxyfen on California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) development and reproduction." J. Econ. Entomol 100: 1435-1443.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Godfrey, K. E., et al. (2006). "Asian citrus psyllid." University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8205: 8.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Lee, J. E., et al. (2006). "Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales." J. Econ. Entomol 99: 733-744.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Gu, P., et al. (2005). "Effects of Temperature on Development of Vedalia Beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant)." Biological Control 32: 473-478.
  • Godfrey, L. D.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (2005). "Microorganisms and their byproducts, nematodes, oils and particle films, have important agricultural uses." Cal. Ag 59 (1): 35-40.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Godfrey, L. D., et al. (2005). "Various novel insecticides are less toxic to humans, more specific to key pests." Calif. Agri 59: 29-34.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Godfrey, K. E., et al. (2004). "Diaprepes Root Weevil." University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8131: 8.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Ouyang, Y., et al. (2004). "The role of esterase enzymes in monitoring for resistance of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides." J. Econ. Entomol 97(2): 606-613.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Gu, P. (2003). "Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: a continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration." J. Econ.. Entomol 96: 1388-1398.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2003). "Cottony cushion scale pest notes." UC ANR Publication 7410: 3.
  • Martinez-Ferrar, M. T.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (2003). "Disruption of Parasitism of the California Red Scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) by Three Ant Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Biological Control 26: 279-286.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (2003). "Insecticide treatments disinfest nursery citrus of glassy-winged sharpshooter." Calif. Agric 57(4): 128-131.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; O’Connell, N. V., et al. (2003). "Photographic guide to citrus fruit scarring." DANR publication 8090: 8.
  • Silvers, C. S.; Morse, J. G., et al. (2002). "Quality Assessment of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) producers in California." Florida Entomologist 85: 594-598.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y., et al. (2001). "Armored scale insecticide resistance challenges San Joaquin Valley citrus growers." Calif. Agric 55: 20-25.
  • Aung, L. H.; Leesch, J. G. , et al. (2001). "Effects of carbonyl sulfide, methyl iodide, and sulfuryl fluoride on fruit phytotoxicity and insect mortality." Ann. Appl. Biol 139: 93-100.
  • Goodell, P. B.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (2001). "Insecticide and Miticide Resistance management in San Joaquin Valley Cotton for 2001." University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources 8033: 23.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Montez, G., et al. (2001). "Lower developmental threshold of and degree-day prediction of larval emergence of citrus cutworm, Egira curialis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." J. Agric. and Urban Entomol 18: 73-85.
  • Toscano, N.; Blua, M. , et al. (2001). "Managing the glassy-winged sharpshooter in vineyards." pamphlet: 6.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Millar, J. G., et al. (2000). "Sex pheromone of yellow scale, Aonidiella citrina (Homoptera; Diaspididae): evaluation as an IPM tactic." J. Agric. and Urban Entomol 17: 75-88.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y., et al. (1999). "Leguminous dover drops to enhance population development of Euseius tularensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in citrus." Biol. Control 16: 73-80.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y., et al. (1999). "Predacious mites for control of citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nursery citrus." Biol. Control 14: 29-36.
  • Gilbertson, R. L.; Ullman, D. E. , et al. (1998). "Insect-transmitted viruses threaten agriculture." Calif. Agric 52: 23-28.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Morse, J. G., et al. (1997). "Effect of insecticide treatments to reduce infestation by citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on growth of nonbearing citrus." J. Econ. Entomol 91: 235-242.
  • Rosenheim, J. A.; Wilhoit, L. R., et al. (1997). "Plant compensation, natural biological control, and herbivory by Aphis gossypii on pre-reproductive cotton: The anatomyof a non-pest." Entomol. Exper. Applic 85: 45-63.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y., et al. (1997). "Predaceous mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for control of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in nursery citrus." Environ. Entomol 26: 121-130.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. (1996). "Influence of citrus leaf nutrition on survivorship, sex ratio, and reproduction of Euseius tularensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)." Environ. Entomol 25: 1020-1025.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Perring, T. M., et al. (1996). "Occurrence of mosaic viruses in melons in the Central Valley of California." Plant Dis 80: 1092-1097.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. (1995). "Augmentation of Euseius tularensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in citrus." Environ. Entomol 24: 738-747.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Eller, A. , et al. (1995). "Integrated citrus thrips control reduces secondary pests." Calif. Agric 49: 23-28.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Vehrs, S. L. C. (1995). "Monitoring for organophosphate- and carbamate-resistant armored scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus." J. Econ. Entomol 88: 495-504.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1995). "Selective use of insecticides for control of armored scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in San Joaquin Valley California Citrus." J. Econ. Entomol 88: 1717-1725.
  • Trumble, J. T.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1995). "Spatial dispersion and binomial sequential sampling for citricola scale (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus." J. Econ. Entomol 88: 897-902.
  • Vehrs, S. L. C. ; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1993). "Chlorpyrifos effect on armored scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) populations in San Joaquin Valley citrus." J. Econ. Entomol 87: 1046-1057.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. (1993). "Toxicity of four insecticides to various populations of the predacious mite, Euseius tularensis Congdon (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) from San Joaquin Valley California citrus." J. Agric. Entomol 10: 21-29.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Leigh, T. F., et al. (1992). "Cotton aphids have become resistant to commonly used pesticides." Calif. Agric 46: 4-7.
  • Ouyang, Y.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1992). "Effects of various pollens on development, survivorship, and reproduction of Euseius tularensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)." Environ. Entomol 21: 1371-1376.
  • Tian, T.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1992). "Resistance of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) to cyhexatin and fenbutatin-oxide in California pears." J. Econ. Entomol 85: 2088-2095.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1991). "Geographical and temporal variation in response to insecticides in various life stages of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) infesting cotton in California." J. Econ. Entomol 84: 741-749.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Granett, E. J., et al. (1991). "Influence of dispersal from almonds on the population dynamics and acaricide resistance frequencies of spider mites infesting neighboring cotton." Exp. Appl. Acarol 10: 187-212.
  • Keena, M. A.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1991). "Variability in response of laboratory-reared and field-collected populations of Tetranychus spp. (Acari: Tetranychidae) to hexythiazox." J. Econ. Entomol 84: 1128-1134.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Granett, E. J., et al. (1989). "Development and evaluation of a rapid bioassay for monitoring propargite resistance in Tetranychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cotton." J. Econ. Entomol 82: 706-715.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Eash, J. A., et al. (1988). "Isozyme differentiation of Tetranychus pacificus from T. urticae and T. turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) in laboratory and field populations." J. Econ. Entomol 81: 770-775.
  • Dennehy, T. J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1987). "Practitioner-assessable bioassay for detection of dicofol resistance in spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)." J. Econ. Entomol 80: 998-1003.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Granett, E. J., et al. (1987). "Quick tests for pesticide resistance in spider mites." Calif. Agric 41: 8-10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Granett, E. J., et al. (1987). "Spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) response to propargite: Basis for an acaricide resistance management program." J. Econ. Entomol 80: 579-587.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Hoy, M. A. (1986). "Genetic improvement of common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Selection for carbaryl resistance." Environ. Entomol 15: 1130-1136.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Hoy, M. A. (1986). "Selection of the com¬mon green lacewing for resistance to carbaryl." Calif. Agric 40: 22-24.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Hoy, M. A. (1985). "Intraspecific variability in response to pesticides in the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)." Hilgardia 53: 1-32.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Hoy, M. A. (1985). "Short-term effects of permethrin and fenvalerate on oviposition by Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)." J. Econ. Entomol 78: 955-959.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Hoy, M. A. (1983). "Comparative toxicity of avermectin B1 to the predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the spider mites Tetrany-chus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetrany-chidae)." J. Econ. Entomol 76: 1216-1220.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1982). "Ovipositional response of Meteorus leviventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to various densities of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Environ. Entomol 11: 1026-1028.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Vail, H. D. (1980). "Selected factors in¬fluencing the number of eggs laid during each ovipositional attack by Meteorus leviventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)." Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci 89: 218-224.

Non-Peer Reviewed

  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Wilen, C., et al. (2015). Asian citrus psyllid is spreading in California. Retail Nursery and Garden Center IPM News. 5 (1): 1-2.
  • Teiken, C.; Lemaux, P. , et al. (2015). Genetic engineering to protect citrus from HLB. Citrograph. 6(1): 24-31.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2015). The status of citrus IPM in California. Proc. XIIth International Citrus Congress, Valencia, Spain, Acta Horticulturae 1065.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Headrick, D. A., et al. (2014). Chapter 17 Citrus IPM. Oakland, CA, Citrus Crop Production Manual -University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 3539: 257-278.
  • Byrne, F. J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E., et al. (2014). Imidacloprid residues in nectar sampled from commercial citrus trees. Citrograph. 5(1): 52-58.
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (2014). Managing Pesticide resistance in Insects, Mites, Weeds, and Fungi. Oakland, CA, Chapter 18 Citrus IPM-University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication. 3539: 279-294.
  • Bethke, J.; Whitehead, M. , et al. (2014). Organic pesticide screening at the Chula Vista insectary. Citrograph. 5(2): 44-51.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Morse, J. G., et al. (2014). Science advisory panel meets to discuss HLB/ACP. Citrograph. 5(3): 42-48.
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2013). Bifenthrin trunk sprays as a strategy for Fuller rose beetle (FRB) field control in 2013. Citrograph. 4(2): 26, 28, 30-33.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Stelinski, L. L. , et al. (2013). Biology and Management of Asian citrus pysllid, vector of the huanglongbing pathogens. Ann Rev. Entomol. 58: 413-432.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Citricola scale insecticide trial 1, 2011. 38, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Citricola scale insecticide trial 1, 2011. 38, 2 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Citricola scale insecticide trial 2, 2011. 38, 2 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D3
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Efficacy of pesticides for control of citrus red mite, 2012. 38, 2 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D5
  • Vargas, R. I.; Haviland, D., et al. (2013). Improving trapping systems for early detection and eradication of fruit flies in California. Citrograph. 4(4): 28, 30-34.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Insecticide control of cotton aphid in citrus, 2012. 38, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D6
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Insecticides for citrus leafminer control, 2012. 38, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D4
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2013) Katydid insecticide efficacy trial, 2012. 38, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2013.D7
  • Rodrigues, J.C.V.; Childers, C. C., et al. (2013). Part I – Citrus Leprosis Viruses and their Known Brevipalpus Mite Vector. Citrograph. 3(6): 26-30.
  • Childers, C. C.; Rodrigues, J.C.V., et al. (2013). Part II – Brevipalpus mites in California citrus. Citrograph. 4(5): 52-58.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2013). Strategies for managing Asian citrus psyllid in California. CAPCA Advisor. 16 (5): 30, 32, 34.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2013). Strategies for managing Asian citrus psyllid in California. CAPCA Advisor. 16 (5): 30, 32, 34.
  • Bethke, J.; Morse, J. G. , et al. (2012). Asian citrus psyllid pesticide testing begins at the Chula Vista Insectary. Citrograph. 3 (3): 36-40.
  • Wilen, C.; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2012). Asian citrus psyllid update. Retail Nursery and Garden Center News. 2(1): 2.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2012) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2010. 37, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2012.D2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2012) Citricola scale insecticide trial, 2010. 37, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2012.D3
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2012) Fuller rose beetle response to insecticide treatments, 2011. 37, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2012.L3
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2012) Insecticides control of cotton aphid in citrus, 2011. 37, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2012.D5
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2012) Insecticides for citrus leafminer control, 2011. 37, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2012.D4
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2012). Management of citrus thrips to reduce the evolution of resistance. Citrograph. 3(2): 22, 24, 26-30.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Stewart, J. (2012). Proper monitoring and management of California red scale in the San Joaquin Valley. Citrograph. 3(2): 18-22.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Stewart, J. (2012). Proper monitoring and management of California red scale in the San Joaquin Valley. Citrograph. 3(2): 12-14,16,18-21.
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2012). The evolution of biologically-based integrated pest management in California citrus: history and perspective. Citrograph. 3(2): 32-34,36-38,40-43.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2012). What are the University of California sources for citrus integrated pest management information? Citrograph. 3(2)
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Aphytis melinus response to citricola scale treatments, 2010. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Aphytis melinus response to citricola scale treatments, 2010. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Morse, J. G., et al. (2011). Asian citrus psyllid treatment strategies for California-Arizona. Citrograph. 2(5): 5-10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2009. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2009. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) California red scale Movento efficacy trial, 2010. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) California red scale Movento efficacy trial, 2010. 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Citricola scale insecticide trial, 2009. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Cottony cushion scale. UC ANR Publication. 7410: 4.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Evaluation of experimental insecticides for control of citricola scale, 2009. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Evaluation of experimental insecticides for control of citricola scale, 2009. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Evaluation of insecticides for citrus leafminer control, 2009. Vol. 36, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Evaluation of insecticides for citrus leafminer control, 2009. Arthropod Management Tests. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 2.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Evaluation of insecticides for citrus leafminer control, 2010. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 2.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Evaluation of insecticides for cotton aphid control in citrus, 2010. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Evaluation of insecticides for cotton aphid control in citrus, 2010. Vol. 36, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2011). How serious is the Asian citrus psyllid and huanglongbing problem for California citrus? California Fresh Fruit. 27(3)
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Katydid insecticide trial, 2010. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011) Katydid insecticide trial, 2010. Vol. 36, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2011). Katydid insecticide trial, 2010. Arthropod Management Tests. Arthropod Management Tests. 36: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Vidalakis, G., et al. (2010). University of California Lindcove Research and Extension Center celebrates its 50th anniversary. Citrograph. 1(2): 8-11.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2010). An update on the threat of Asian citrus psyllid and Huanglongbing for citrus. Topics in Subtropics. 8(3): 2-5.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2010) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2008. Vol. 35, 2 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2010.D3
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (2010). Citricola scale, the scourge of the San Joaquin Valley. Citrograph. 1 (4): 18-21.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Polek, M. (2010). Citrus tristeza virus (CTV): then and now. Citrograph. 1 (6): 16-23.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2010). Current status of citrus IPM in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture, Wuhan, China, China Agriculture Press.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2010) Effects of insecticides on citricola scale, 2008. Vol. 35, 1 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2010.D4
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2010) Effects of insecticides on cotton aphid in citrus, 2009. Vol. 35, 1 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2010.D6
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2010) Effects of Movento on citrus peelminer, 2009. Vol. 35, 1 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2010.D21
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2010) Efficacy of acaricides for control of citrus red mite, 2009. Vol. 35, 2 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2010.D5
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2010). How serious is the threat of Asian citrus psyllid and huanglongbing? 1 (1): 8-10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2010). How serious is the threat of Asian citrus psyllid and huanglongbing? Citrograph. 1 (1): 8-10.
  • Ouyang, Y.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2010). Insecticide resistance management of California red scale and citricola scale populations in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture, Wuhan, China, China Agriculture Press.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Vidalakis, G., et al. (2010). University of California Lindcove Research and Extension Center celebrates its 50th anniversary. Citrograph. 1(2): 8-11.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2009) Asian Citrus psyllid.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2009) California red scale efficacy trial, 2007. Vol. 34 (D3), 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2009) Citricola scale efficacy trial, 2007. Vol. 34 (D4), 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2009) Citrus Leafminer.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2009) Citrus red mite acaricide efficacy trial, 2008. Vol. 34, doi:10.4182/amt.2009 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2009.D6
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2009) Comparison of two formulations of Lorsban for citricola scale control, 2007. Vol. 34, doi:10.4182/amt.2009 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2009.D5
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2009) Effects of imidacloprid on cotton aphid, 2007-08. Vol. 34, 2 DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2009.D17
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2009) Effects of Movento on cotton aphid, 2008. Vol. 34, DOI: doi:10.4182/amt.2009.D16
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2009) Huanglongbing.
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2009). Managing Insecticide resistance will be key to the future of effective citrus pest management. Topics in Subtropics. 7 (1): 6-8.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2009). Where are all the citrus leafminers coming from? CAPCA Advisor. 12 (6): 26, 28.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2008) Asian Citrus psyllid.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2008) Brown Citrus Aphid.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2008) Citrus Leafminer.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2008) Diaprepes Root weevil.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. (2008) Effects of insecticides against citrus peelminer, 2007. Vol. 33 (D2), 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2008) Effects of insecticides on citricola scale, 2006. Vol. 33 (D3), 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2008) Efficacy of acaricides for control of citrus red mite, 2007. Vol. 33 (D5), 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2008). "Efficacy of insecticides against populations of citricola scale, 2006." Vol. 33,
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2008) Huanglongbing.
  • Yokomi, R. K.; Polek, M., et al. (2008). Rapid assessment of the Citrus tristeza virus isolates detected in spring 2007 at the Lindcove Research and Extension Center. Proceedings of the 17th IOCV Conference, Adana, Turkey, USDA-ARS.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Morse, J. G., et al. (2008). UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus. General Pesticide information and Insects, Mites and Snails. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication.: 3441.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2007) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2005. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2007) Effects of insecticides on citricola scale, 2005. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y (2007) Effects of Micromite on katydid development, 2006. 32, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2007) Efficacy of acaricides on citrus red mite and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis, 2006. Vol. 32, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2007) Efficacy of dimilin against citrus peelminer, 2006. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2007) Efficacy of dimilin against citrus peelminer, 2006. 32, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y (2007) Efficacy of experimental insecticides against citrus peelminer, 2006. 32, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Montez, G., et al. (2007) Efficacy of insecticides against citrus peelminer stages, 2006. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Montez, G., et al. (2007) Efficacy of insecticides against citrus peelminer stages, 2006. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. (2007) Efficacy of insecticides against mixed populations of citricola scale and California red scale, 2005. 35, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.E.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (2007) Efficacy of Movento to control California red scale, 2006. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2007) Katydid insecticide efficacy trial, 2006. 32, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Headrick, D. A., et al. (2007). Pest Notes: Citrus Leafminer. UC ANR Publication. 74137
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2007). The 2007 Citrus tristeza virus situation at the University of California Lindcove Research and Extension Center. Topics in Subtropics Newsletter. 5 (2): 5-8.
  • Morse, J. G.; Luck, R. F., et al. (2007). The evolution of biologically-based integrated pest management in California citrus: history and perspective. UC Plant Protection Quarterly. 16(4)/17(1): 1-11.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2007). The Positive Points System for Citrus. Proceedings of the California Weed Science Society, La Jolla, CA.
  • Cheuca, P.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. , et al. (2007). Tratamientos con aceites contra Coccus pseudomagnoliarum en California. Levante Agricola. 386 (2): 268-272.
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2006). Bear citrus thrips resistance in mind when deciding whether & how to treat in 2006. Topics in Subtropics. 4(1): 11-13.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Cheuca, P., et al. (2006). Biologia y Manejo de Coccus pseudomagnoliarum en California. Vida Rural. 234: 18-20, 22-23.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) California red scale spray oil efficacy trial, 2004. Vol. 31, 2
  • Cheuca, P.; Grafton-Cardwell, E., et al. (2006). Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) Homoptera: Coccidae. Levante Agricola. 382: 294.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Comparison of two formulations of chlorpyrifos to control citricola scale, 2004-05. 31, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Comparison of two formulations of chlorpyrifos to control citricola scale, 2004-05. 31, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Mauk, P. A. (2006). Diaprepes Root Weevil. Corona College Heights Packinghouse Newsletter.: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Effects of a neonicotinoid and an organophosphate on citricola scale 2004-05. 31, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Effects of acaricides on citrus red mite and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis, 2005. 31, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Efficac of insecticides against combined populations of California red scale and citricola scale, 2004. 31, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Efficacy of insecticides against citrus peelminer stages, 2005. 31, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.E.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (2006) Efficacy of Micromite and sulfur against citrus peelminer, 2005. 31, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Efficacy of purespray foliar oil to control California red scale, 2005. 31, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2006) Katydid insecticide efficacy trial, 2005. 31, 1
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Godfrey, K. E. (2006). Liquid-sugar ant bait stations are nearing registration for agriculture. Topics in Subtropics. 4(1): 2-3.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Gu, P. (2006). Maximizing the Effectiveness of Vedalia Beetle Rodolia cardinalis for Cottony Cushion Scale Icerya purchasi, Control. 10th International Citrus Congress, Agadir, Morocco.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2006). New developments in the San Joaquin Valley California citrus IPM program. Proceedings of the IOBC Working Group “Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops", Lisbon, Portugal, IOBC WPRS Bulletin/Bulletin OILB SROP 29.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2006). Quarantine to control citrus pest. Southern California target of exotic Diaprepes root weevil. Western Farm Press.: 3,10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2006). The Positive Points System for Citrus: what is it and why should a grower get involved? Topics in Subtropics. 4(3): 2-5.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2006). The positive points system for citrus: what is it and why should a grower get involved? California Fresh Fruit. October 2006: 8-9.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; O’Connell, N. V. (2006). The status of biological control in San Joaquin valley citrus. Proc. California Conference on Biological Control V, Riverside, CA.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2005) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2003. 30(D4), 3
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2005). Diaprepes root weevil infestation found in southern California – A recent exotic pest invasion. Topics in Subtropics Newsletter. 3(4): 4-5.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2005) Effect of water volume on citricola scale control with Assail, 2003. 30 (D7), 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2005) Effects of acaricides on citrus red mite and a predacious mite Euseius tularensis, 2004. 30, 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2005) Efficacy of acaricides for citrus red mite in a greenhouse, 2004. 30 (D7), 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2005) Efficacy of acaricides for citrus red mite in a greenhouse, 2004. 30 (D7), 2
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2005) Katydid insecticide efficacy trial, 2004. 30, 2
  • Haviland, D. R.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2005) Yuma spider mite control in citrus, 2004. 30, 2
  • Haviland, D. ; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2004). Application timing decisions to maintain biocontrol of cottony cushion scale. San Joaquin Valley Entomology News. 2(1): 3.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2002. 29 (D3),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) Citricola scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2002. Arth. Manag. Tests,
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) Citrus peelminer insecticide efficacy trials, 2003. 29 (D10),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Godfrey, K. E., et al. (2004). "Diaprepes Root Weevil." 8131, from http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8131.pdf.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) Effects of acaricides on citrus red mite and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis, 2003. 29 (D6),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) Effects of insecticides on emergence of glassy-winged sharpshooter nymphs in nursery citrus, 2003. 29 (D2),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) Effects of Micromite on citrus peelminer, 2003. 29 (L14),
  • Haviland, D.; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2004). Integrating Admire Treatments for GWSS with Citrus IPM. GWSS Update.: 1.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2004). Integrating GWSS Insecticide Treatments with Citrus IPM. San Joaquin Valley Entomology News. 2(1)
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2004) Timing applications for control of cottony cushion scale, 2003. 29 (D7),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2003). California Citrus Industry Guide to the Glassy-winged sharpshooter and related bacterial diseases. Visalia, CA, Citrus Research Board. 2nd Edition: 25.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2003) California red scale foliar insecticide efficacy trial, 2001. 28 (D4),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2003) Citricola scale insecticide efficacy trial, 2001. 28 (D6),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2003). Citrus IPM in California: Regional differences and their effects on arthropod management in the millennium. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 9th International Citrus Congress, Orlando, Florida.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (2003). Citrus peelminer evades chemical control. UC Plant Prot. Quart. 13 (2): 1-7.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2003) Effects of acaricides on cirus red mite and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis, 2002. 28 (D3),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2003) Efficacy of soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides for control of California red scale, 2001. 28 (D5),
  • Haviland, D.; Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2003). Protect the vedalia beetle while controlling cottony cushion scale and GWSS with properly timed Admire and Assail citrus treatments. GWSS Update. September 12, 2003
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Reagan, C. A. (2003). Surround use in citrus increases California red scale. UC Plant. Prot. Quart. 13(3): 5-7.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2002). Can reduced risk pesticides upset biological control of citrus pests? California Conference on Biological Control III, Davis, CA.
  • Godfrey, K. E.; Grafton-Cardwell, B., et al. (2002). Diaprepes Root Weevil.: 4.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2002) Efficacy of foliar insecticides for control of California red scale, 2000. Vol. 27 (D5),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2002) Efficacy of insecticides against citricola scale, 2000. 27 (D6),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2002) Efficacy of soil-applied neonicotinoid insecticides for control of California red scale, 2000. Vol 27 (D4),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2002) Stages of the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) and its natural enemy, the Vedalia beetle (Rodolia cardinalis). Publication 8051, 3
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Reagan, C. A. (2001). Best use of Admire and Provado in Citrus. Citrograph. 86: 4-6.
  • Gorden, J. M.; Grafton-Cardwell, B., et al. (2001). California Citrus Industry Guide to the Glassy-winged sharpshooter and related bacterial diseases. Visalia, CA, Citrus Research Board.: 23.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2001) California red scale insecticide efficacy trial on Valencia oranges, 1999. Vol. 26 (D5),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2001) Effects of Acaricides on citrus red mite and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis, 2000. Vol 27 (D4),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2001) Effects of irrigation on efficacy of imidacloprid for the control of California red scale on Valencia oranges, 1999. 26 (D4),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2001) Efficacy of Agri-50 and the effects of acaricides on population development of California red scale on navel orange, 1999. 26 (D6),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (2001). Glassy-winged sharpshooter in San Joaquin Valley citrus. UC Plant Protection Quarterly. 11: 4-7.
  • Morse, J. G.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (2001). Management options for citrus thrips in the San Joaquin Valley. Citrograph. 86: 4-5, 12.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2001). Resistance monitoring and applications for arthropod management. Proceedings of the 2001 California Plant and Soil Conference, Fresno CA, California Chapter of American Society of Agronomy and California Plant Health Association.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2001) Southern Fire Ant Insecticide Efficacy Trial, 1999. 26 (D7),
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (2000). Citrus: Integrating Biological Control and Insecticide Treatments for Cottony Cushion Scale and Other Scale Pests. Proc. California Conference on Biological Control, Riverside, CA.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2000). Evaluation of selected insecticide for citricola scale control, 1998. Arthropod Management Tests. 25: 79.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (2000). Insecticide efficacy trial for California red scale control, 1998. Arthropod Management Tests. 25: 79-80.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (2000). IPM project begins in Kern County. Citrograph. 85: 10-11.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Goodell, P., et al. (2000). Trends in pest densities, pesticide use, and pesticide resistance in San Joaquin Valley cotton. 2000 Proceedings of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Antonio, TX, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Goodell, P. B., et al. (2000). Trends in pesticide use and pesticide resistance in San Joaquin Valley Cotton. Calif. Cotton Review. 56: 4-7.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Christiansen, J. A. (1999) 1999 San Joaquin Valley Pesticide Resistance Surveys.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1999). California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 1997. Arthropod. Management Tests. 24: 91.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1999). Citricola scale insecticide efficacy trial, 1997. Arthropod. Management Tests. 24: 90.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.; Stewart, J., et al. (1999). Citricola scale sampling and contro. Citrograph. 84: 4-7.
  • Reagan, C. A.; Grafton-Cardwell, B., et al. (1999). Controlling Katydid in San Joaquin Valley Citrus. Citrograph. 84: 16-18.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1999). Pesticide disruption of vedalia beetle results in cottony cushion scale outbreaks. KAC Plant Protection Quarterly. 9: 9-10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (1999). Section 18s for California red scale control. Citrograph. 84: 8, 10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Stewart, J., et al. (1999). Southern fire ant insecticide efficacy trial, 1997. Arthropod. Management Tests. 24: 92.
  • Bentley, W. J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1998). A series of pages posting populationdensities of San Jose scale and peach twig borer and their associated parasites in prunes and almonds. UC Cooperative Extension Treefruit Pest Management.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B.; Stewart-Leslie, J. (1998). Aphytis Release Programs. Citrograph. 83: 3, 18-19.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1998). California red scale insecticide efficacy trial, 1996. Arthropod Manag. Tests. 23: 64-65.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1998). Citricola scale insecticide efficacy trial, 1996. Arthropod Manag. Tests. 23: 63-64.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1998). Citrus cutworm insecticide efficacy trial, 1997. Arthropod Manag. Tests. 23: 64-65.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Striggow, R. A. (1998). Effectiveness of the generalist predator Euseius tularensis in citrus. Proc. California Conference on Biological Control, Berkeley, CA.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (1998). Insect growth regulators, their effects on citrus pest management. Citrograph. 83: 3,7.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1998). Knack and Applaud Section 18s for California red scale control. Citrograph. 83: 12-13.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1998). Managing insecticide resistance and integrating new insecticides into the IPM program for California red scale in California. Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Applied Entomological Research Conference, Brisbane, Australia.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, B. (1998). New ways to control California red scale. Sunkist Magazine. Summer 1998: 18-19.
  • Bentley, W. J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1998) UC Cooperative Extension Treefruit Pest Management.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Montez, G. (1997). A series of pages explaining degree day units, current degree day accumulations for California red scale and citrus cutworm, explanations of the section 18s for new pesticides, a resistance management program, newsletter postings and links to other addresses. University of California Citrus Entomology Laboratory at the Kearney Agricultural Center.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1997). California red scale pesticide efficacy trial, 1995. Arthropod Management Tests. 22: 72.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1997). Citricola scale insecticide efficacy trials, 1994, 1995. Arthropod Management Tests. 22: 71.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1997). Citrus red mite pesticide efficacy trials, 1995, 1996. Arthropod Management Tests. 22: 69-70.
  • Bruce-Oliver, S. J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1997). Evaluation of acaricide rotation strategies for managing resistance in spider mites on cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California: a three year study. 1997 Proceeding of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, National Cotton Council of America, Memphis.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1997). Facing pesticide resistant armored scale in citrus: What are our options? Plant Protect. Quarterly. 7: 6-8.
  • Goodell, P.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1997). Maintaining an IPM program in a shifting pest environment. 1997 Proceedings of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Goodell, P. B.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1997). Maintaining an IPM program in a shifting pest environment. 1997 of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Goodell, P. B.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., et al. (1997). Maintaining an IPM program in a shifting pest environment: the need for consensus in solving problems. KAC Plant Prot. Quart. 7: 2-4.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Striggow, R. A., et al. (1997). Pesticide resistance in armoured scale influences citrus IPM in California. VIII International Citrus Congress, Sun City, South Africa, Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1997). Pesticide resistant armored scale in San Joaquin Valley citrus: What are our options? Subtropical Fruit News. 5: 7-8.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1997). Pesticide resistant armored scale in San Joaquin Valley citrus: What are our options? Subtropical Fruit News. 5: 7-8.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1997). Status of Lygus bug and cotton aphid resistance in the San Joaquin Valley. 1977 Proceedings of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Montez, G. (1997) University of California Citrus Entomology Laboratory at the Kearney Agricultural Center.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1996). California red scale pesticide efficacy trials, 1994. Arthropod Manag. Tests. 21: 75-76.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1996). Citricola scale increases in pest status in the San Joaquin Valley. Subtropical Fruit News. 4: 1-2.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1996). Citrus cutworm pesticide efficacy trials, 1995. Arthropod Manag. Tests. 21: 76-77.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.E.; Goodell, P. (1996). Cotton aphid response to pesticides in San Joaquin Valley cotton. 1996 Proceedings of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1996). Effects of citrus red mite and cultural practices on navel oranges. Citrograph. 81: 10-11.
  • Bruce-Oliver, S..J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (1996). Evaluation of two seasons oacaricide rotation trials on spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistance in San Joaquin Valley cotton. 1996 Proceedings of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Nashville, TN, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Bruce-Oliver, S. J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1996). Managing mites using acaricide rotations. California-Arizona Cotton. May: 10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Godfrey, K. E., et al. (1996). Maximizing natural enemies in San Joaquin Valley Cotton. Calif. Cotton Review. 40: 7-9.
  • Raulston, J. R.; Henneberry, T. J., et al. (1996). Short- and long-range movement of insects and mites, In: Cotton Insects and Mites: Characterization and Management. The Cotton Foundation Reference Book Series.E. King, J. Phillips and R. Coleman. Memphis, Cotton Found. Pub. 3: 143-162.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1996). Testing for pesticide-resistant scale. Citrograph. 81: 8-9, 19.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1995). Citricola scale re-emerges in SJV. Citrograph. 80: 8-9.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1995). Citrus cutworm pesticide efficacy trials, 1994. Arthropod Management Tests. 20: 57.
  • Bruce-Oliver, S..J.; Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (1995). Initiation of a program to assess the effects of acaricide rotation patterns on spider mite (Acari:Tetranychidae) resistance. 1995 Proceedings of the Cotton Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Addendum, San Antonio, TX, National Cotton Council of America.
  • Forster, L. D.; Luck, R. F., et al. (1995). Life stages of California red scale and its parasitoids. Oakland, Regents of the University of California. 21529: 12.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.E.; Ouyang, Y (1995). Manipulation of the predacious mite, Euseius tularensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) with pruning for citrus thrips control. The 1993 International Conference on Thysanoptera, Towards Understanding Thrips Management, Burlington VT, USA, Plenum Publishing Corp.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1995). Pesticide resistance in California red scale and yellow scale in the San Joaquin Valley. Partial reprint from Subtropical Fruit News. Citrograph. 80: 7, 9.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A., et al. (1994). Citrus cutworm pesticide efficacy trials, 1993. Arthropod Management Tests.: 51-52.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (1994). Impact of armored scale pesticide resistance on citrus pest management. Proceedings of the 2nd National Integrated Pest Management Symposium/Workshop, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2nd National Integrated Pest Management Symposium.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. (1994). Releasing predatory mites to control citrus red mite and two spotted spider mites in citrus greenhouses. Plant Prot. Q. 4: 5-7.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1994). Resistance of California red and yellow scale in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Resistant Pest Management. 6
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1994). Status of insecticide resistance in armored scale insects in San Joaquin Valley citrus. Subtropical Fruit News. Winter/Spring 1994: 1-2.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Reagan, C. A. (1993). California red scale pesticide efficacy trial, 1992. Insect. Acar. Tests. 18: 73-74.
  • Haney, P. B.; Morse, J. G., et al. (1993). IPM: The Crown Butte project. Citrograph. 78: 13-16.
  • Haney, P. B.; Morse, J. G., et al. (1993). The rationale for adopting IPM. Citrograph. 78: 7, 9-12.
  • Luck, R. F.; Morse, J. G., et al. (1992). Citrus IPM - it works! Calif. Grower. 16: 25-27.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Pehrson, J. (1992). Narrow range oils in citrus pest programs. Citrograph. 77: 17, 19-20.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (1992). Pesticide resistance in armored scale of San Joaquin Valley citrus. Plant Prot. Q. 2: 7-9.
  • Haney, P. B.; Morse, J. G., et al. (1992). Reducing insecticide use and energy costs in citrus pest management. Oakland, University of California, Statewide IPM Project, DANR. 15: 62.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. (1992). Responses of susceptible and resistant Euseius tularensis Congdon to AC 801,757 and AC 303,630. Insect. Acar. Tests. 17: 391.
  • Leigh, T. F.; Goodell, P., et al. (1991). Cotton pest management guidelines. Insects and mites. UC IPM IMPACT Pest Management Guidelines Publ. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 3339: 1-32.
  • O'Brien, P. J.; Hardee, D. D. , et al. (1990). Screening of Aphis gossypii for insecticide tolerance, 1989. Insect. Acar. Tests. 15: 254-255.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Dennehy, T. J., et al. (1987). Managing dicofol and propargite resistance in spider mites infesting San Joaquin Valley cotton. Oakland, University of California, Statewide IPM Project, DANR. 5: 10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. Biological control: a guide to natural enemies in North America. Euseius tularensis.

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