Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of California
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Posts Tagged: nutrition

Have a Happy Thanksgiving without unzipping

A typical Thanksgiving meal has more calories than many people need in a whole day. (Photo: Satya Murthy, Flickr)
For many of us, Thanksgiving is truly a feast, and we are preparing our appetites for large servings of turkey, stuffing, and pumpkin pie. In fact, the majority of people consume more than 2,000 calories in their Thanksgiving meal, including appetizer, turkey and the trimmings and dessert, reports Diabetes.org. That's more than a sedentary man should eat in a whole day to maintain a healthy weight, according to the USDA's ChooseMyPlate.gov. This year, you can enjoy the holiday without overeating by serving a healthy and balanced meal. 

  • Portion control: Thanksgiving is about choices. Think about which dishes you don't mind skipping, and plan to fill your plate only once. It's easy to get carried away going back for second and third helpings.

  • Fruits: Get your serving of fruit with a fruit-based dessert. Baked apples, poached pears and fresh figs are a few festive options.

  • Grains: Use whole grain or 100 percent whole wheat bread for a stuffing rich in fiber. 

  • Protein: Serve yourself 3 ounces of roasted turkey or a portion the size of your palm. Skip the fat by removing the skin on your turkey before eating it. Go easy on the gravy.

  • Vegetables: Choose vegetable side dishes that include roasted or cooked vegetables, and skip the creamy sauces and added fat. Instead, season vegetables with fresh herbs to add flavor.  

  • Dairy: Try non-fat Greek yogurt as a healthier topping for side dishes than sour cream or butter.

  • Don't forget to be active. After the holiday meal, go for a walk, bike ride or play football with the family. 

Not sure what to do with your leftovers? Reinvent your Thanksgiving feast with these quick and easy one-sentence leftover recipes. 

  • Cranberry smoothies
    Whirl cranberries with frozen low-fat yogurt and orange juice.

  • Crunchy turkey salad
    Toss cubed turkey with celery, apples, and light mayo with shredded spinach.

  • Stuffing frittata
    Mix stuffing with egg and cook thoroughly, pancake-style.

  • Turkey berry wrap
    Wrap sliced turkey, spread with cranberry sauce and shredded greens in a whole wheat tortilla. 


 Recipe source: www.eatright.org

 Author: Melissa Tamargo

Posted on Thursday, November 12, 2015 at 11:17 AM
Tags: nutrition (106), Thanksgiving (3)

Farm to fingers: Schools provide fresh fruits and vegetables for children’s meals

Congress considers reauthorization of the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010.

If fresh fruits and vegetables are made available, children will choose to eat them.
Several grade school students set down their forks to eat their green salad, picking up individual lettuce leaves with their fingers and pushing them into their mouths. Not that I was there to judge for style, it was just an observation as I looked around the cafeteria festooned in colorful hand-cut paper banners to see how many of the kids had taken a salad.

The youngsters are required to take at least a half-cup serving of fresh fruits or vegetables as part of a healthful meal to meet national nutrition standards, but I noticed they were voluntarily eating the fresh leafy greens and orange slices.

The children had selected the food themselves from a new serving line, which was made possible by a grant from the USDA aimed at encouraging children to eat healthier school lunches. U.S. Department of Agriculture has been providing a new round of grants since 2013 to upgrade kitchen and cafeteria equipment. Ygnacio Valley Elementary School is in Mount Diablo Unified School District, which received a USDA grant.

About one-third of children in California are overweight or obese, which is associated with serious health risks.

According to The Pew Charitable Trusts, 93 percent of school districts in California, and 88 percent nationwide, need at least one piece of equipment to better serve students nutritious foods.

Students serve themselves in Ygnacio Valley Elementary School's new serving line. When the children select their own food, less food gets thrown away.
With Pew funding, the Nutrition Policy Institute in the University of California's Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources is conducting case studies of selected California schools, including Ygnacio Valley Elementary School, to evaluate the effects of the USDA grants program.

Kenneth Hecht, director of policy for the Nutrition Policy Institute organized the Sept. 3 visit to the Mount Diablo Unified School District for Congressman Mark DeSaulnier and USDA executives to see the improvements.

A student's lunch tray. Photo by Deanna Davis.
The school district serves about 20,000 meals each day, nearly half of which (46.2 percent) are free or reduced price for children from low-income families. By replacing a refrigerator bought in 1973 with a new walk-in refrigerator, the central kitchen is able to store and serve twice as much fresh produce while saving energy and energy costs, said Anna Fisher, director of Food and Nutrition Services for Mount Diablo Unified.

The new serving line allows for food to be displayed so the children can select their own food, whereas before, each tray was filled by a server and handed to the students.

“We've seen that when the children select their own food, less food gets thrown away,” said Fisher.

“The examples we are seeing at Mount Diablo Unified School District are perfect illustrations of what these USDA grants can do, from the procurement of food to serving healthy meals to children,” said Hecht.

Ken Hecht, left, Mark DeSaulnier, center, and Jesus Mendoza, USDA Western Region administrator, check out the new walk-in refrigerator.
“At the central kitchen, the modern walk-in refrigerator holds the large quantities of fresh produce the district needs to cook on-site fresh, healthy meals and to keep the salad bars fully stocked,” he said. “The new serving line at the elementary school means the kids can move quickly through the line, pick up fresh food at just the right temperature, and have maximal time at the table to eat.”

Congressman DeSaulnier, who ate lunch with the students, is sponsoring the School Food Modernization Act (HR 3316) to continue and strengthen the USDA grants program.

Another piece of federal legislation aimed at improving child nutrition is the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which includes farm to school support and expires on Sept. 30, 2015.

“This fall is a pivotal time for the future of Farm to School programs across the country,” said Gail Feenstra, deputy director of the UC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP) in the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

RUSD's Chef Ryan shows visitors his summer salad made fresh from local produce.
On Sept. 2, SAREP and the Urban Environmental Policy Institute at Occidental College hosted a tour of farm-to-school sites in the Riverside Unified School District where Los Angeles-area participants were able to meet with farmers, school chefs, food service directors, advocates, researchers and elementary students and to witness firsthand the benefits and challenges of providing farm-fresh fruits and vegetables to Southern California schoolchildren.

Riverside schools have transitioned from heating prepackaged meals to buying local produce and preparing fresh food on-site.

According to Kirsten Roloson, director of Nutrition Services, and Adleit Asi, operations manager, Riverside Unified now buys $400,000 worth of produce from local farmers. One farmer, Bob Knight, who supplies oranges and other produce to Riverside Unified, said he's making five to seven times more money selling to schools than he did before. 

“Farm-to-school programs increase access to fresh, healthy produce among school children while also supporting local farms,” said Feenstra. In California, she noted that 2,626 schools participate in farm-to-school programs, serving 1.8 million students and buying more than $51 million in produce from local California farmers.

Feenstra will be leading a similar farm-to-school tour for policymakers in Sacramento on Sept. 29.

Riverside Unified School District's produce is purchased fresh and whole from local farms and prepared in-house.
Mount Diablo Unified School District is also a recipient of a USDA Farm to School Planning Grant.  “We will be hosting Life Lab to spend a day training teachers at Sequoia Elementary School on Sept. 21,” Fisher said. “We hope to get an implementation grant.”

"With new equipment and fresh produce, schools can prepare healthy and more appealing school meals that may be the most nutritious meal a child receives that day," Hecht said.

Whether children eat with forks or fingers, the nutritional quality of the food they eat can affect their lives, long term.

The University of California Global Food Initiative aims to put the world on a path to sustainably and nutritiously feed itself. By building on existing efforts and creating new collaborations among UC's 10 campuses, affiliated national laboratories and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the initiative will develop and export solutions for food security, health and sustainability throughout California, the United States and the world.

Posted on Tuesday, September 8, 2015 at 12:11 PM

NPI study: Law improves beverage environment in California childcare

Childcare providers must serve only fat-free or low-fat unsweetened, plain milk for kids two years or older.
Obesity among preschoolers is a serious health problem, with one in four obese or overweight by the time the child is ready for kindergarten. Given that well over half of preschool age children are in childcare, UC ANR Nutrition Policy Institute researchers decided to investigate whether healthy beverage standards in childcare could improve their nutrition. Another reason to focus on this age group is that young children are still developing their eating habits. Those who get an early start at eating a nutritious diet will likely have better health outcomes than children who get in the habit of eating junk food and drinking sugary beverages.

In 2008 and 2012, NPI researchers conducted a survey of more than 400 randomly selected California licensed childcare facilities to look at beverages in childcare before and after California's Healthy Beverages in Child Care Act (AB 2084) took effect in January 2012. Under this law, only fat-free or low-fat (1 percent) unsweetened, plain milk for children two years of age or older is allowed, and no more than one serving per day of 100 percent juice. No sugary drinks are allowed at all. Also, drinking water must be readily available throughout the day, including at all meal, snack and play times.

NPI Director Lorrene Ritchie presented NPI's research findings on June 30 at the 8th Biennial Childhood Obesity Conference in San Diego. The NPI study found that the policy was effective at improving the beverage environment in California childcare. Provision of whole milk dropped from nearly 30 percent of childcare facilities in 2008 to less than 9 percent of facilities 2012. The provision of other beverages also improved. In 2008, 27 percent of facilities offered juice more than once a day, compared to just 20 percent in 2012. Facilities offering any sugar-sweetened beverages dropped from 7.6 percent in 2008 to 6.9 percent in 2012.

“We know the beverages children consume can put a child at risk for overweight and obesity,” said Ritchie. “The good news is that the healthy beverage standards did improve the beverage environment in California childcare. This law impacts potentially a million young children in our state.”

Despite the improved beverage environment, NPI found that only 60 percent of childcare facilities were aware of the law, and only 23 percent were in full compliance with all provisions.

Water is a healthful beverage for children.
“We need to do more to improve the beverage environment,” said Ritchie. “Based on our findings, we recommend that all childcare providers have access to nutrition training so that more understand and are able to comply with California's childcare beverage standards.”

The NPI study also looked at the effects of serving water at the table with meals and snacks.  While this was not a provision of the California law, it is a best practice for teaching children to reach for water first for thirst. Putting water on the table did not have an impact on children's intake of milk and other foods, which was a common concern of providers caring for young children. However, the study found the law didn't make much of a difference in increasing children's water intake either.

“Simply serving water at the table with meals and snacks is not likely to interfere with intake of other healthy things,” said Ritchie. “But we don't know what would happen if water were provided in such a way as to substantively increase water intake.”

The University of California Global Food Initiative aims to put the world on a path to sustainably and nutritiously feed itself. By building on existing efforts and creating new collaborations among UC's 10 campuses, affiliated national laboratories and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the initiative will develop and export solutions for food security, health and sustainability throughout California, the United States and the world.


Posted on Tuesday, June 30, 2015 at 12:00 PM

Empowering California youth through food smart families

We are what we eat. Unfortunately, we don't always make the best food choices. Sometimes it's simply a lack of will power. In communities struggling with high poverty rates, it's often the result of low incomes and limited food options. Dangerously high obesity rates, especially among youth, are a major public health concern in the United States.

The health of California youth reflects this disturbing national trend. To address the challenge of childhood obesity statewide, the California 4-H Food Smart Families program will be implemented at four sites in Fresno, Orange, Sutter-Yuba and Tulare counties this year. Additional UC partners will include the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and CalFresh.

Youth need to increase consumption of dark green veggies and whole grains, and decrease intake of sugar and saturated fats. The objective of California 4-H Food Smart Families is to increase knowledge and create behavior change related to nutrition, cooking, gardening, physical activity and food preparation. The program engages youth 8 to 12 years old and teens in 4-H Healthy Living programming. Youth will be directly reached through lessons delivered at after-school sites, low-resource elementary schools and organized field days at four UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Extension Centers (REC): Kearney REC in Parlier, South Coast REC in Irvine, Sierra Foothill REC in Browns Valley and Lindcove REC in Exeter. The program is structured around positive youth development curricula and practices which provide an intensive engagement of underserved children, teens, families and other stakeholders. Local 4-H teens will be recruited and trained to deliver programs and assume leadership roles.

The National 4-H Council partnered with the ConAgra Food Foundation to launch the national 4-H Food Smart Families program in 2014. ConAgra sponsored funding to award grants to five states for program implementation. This year, in addition to the original five states, California and Louisiana were awarded grants as new participants. Inclusion of the UC Research and Extension Centers in the California program is a new model that organizers hope will be replicated elsewhere. Youth and families who visit the centers will witness first-hand not only how food is grown, but also the science behind it. Center specific lessons may be added to highlight the unique nature of local agriculture and natural resources and the food crops cultivated and studied at each center.

Programming at California sites will get underway this fall and will continue through the school year. Look for more exciting California 4-H Food Smart Families news in the coming months as programming and activities kick into high gear.

Author: Roberta Barton

Posted on Tuesday, June 23, 2015 at 8:46 AM
Tags: 4-H (1), CalFresno (1), EFNEP (2), food smart families (1), Kearney (1), Lindcove (1), nutrition (106), Research and Extension (1), teens (1)

New research director at the Nutrition Policy Institute inspires positive change in human health

Pat Crawford
"Not changing is risky," said Pat Crawford, the senior director of research for the University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR) Nutrition Policy Institute. "The United States – along with Mexico – has the highest obesity rates in the industrialized world. With these extraordinarily high obesity rates, we are on a path toward ever-rising chronic disease rates including not just diabetes, but also heart disease and some cancers, increasing healthcare costs and reducing productivity."

"Even more alarming," continued Crawford, "is a little known fact that 23 percent of the adolescents in this country currently have pre-diabetes or diabetes as measured by actual blood tests in our largest national study of health (NHANES). Something is seriously wrong in a society such as ours where so many children are growing up with such a high risk of preventable disease.”

The UC Food Observer published an extensive interview with Crawford, who, prior to joining the NPI, co-founded and directed the Center for Weight and Health at UC Berkeley for 15 years. She is a UC ANR Cooperative Extension nutrition specialist, as well as an adjunct professor in the School of Public Health at UC Berkeley. 

Crawford led the 10-year longitudinal NHLBI Growth & Health Study, an epidemiologic study on the development of obesity in African American girls and FitWIC, the five-state obesity prevention initiative in WIC. She is currently leading studies evaluating a wide variety of state and national nutrition programs and policies. An internationally respected researcher, Crawford served on the California Legislative Task Force on Diabetes and Obesity and chaired the Institute of Medicine's Workshop (IOM) on Food Insecurity and Obesity.

Following is the UC Food Observer's Q&A with Pat Crawford:

Q: You have worked very hard over several decades to inspire positive change in human health. Can you tell our readers a little about the nutrition politics and the situation that encouraged you to do this? What keeps you passionate about your work?

A: From the 1970s to the 1990s, I was involved in research studies measuring the health effects of children's diets and physical activity levels, with particular attention to racial and ethnic disparities. Over this time period, I saw clear evidence of the deterioration of children's diets, with a disturbing and widespread transition to convenience foods and snack-type processed foods. These foods were being sold and distributed in the very institutions where children learned and were cared for. They were widely advertised and marketed to children and were replacing more nutritious foods. New foods were often heavily fortified, deceptively making them seem like nutritious alternatives. While I was watching these dietary changes, I also began to see the rapid, unprecedented, shocking rise in childhood obesity, with accompanying implications for health. We learned that childhood diets characterized by excessive calories from low-nutrient foods could lead to negative population-wide health effects during childhood as well as during adulthood. Our processed and snack-food rich diet was associated with a tripling in the rates of childhood obesity and a new spread of type 2 diabetes never before seen among children. I knew I needed to stop watching the trends and start trying to reverse them.

What keeps me passionate is knowing that change is possible when high quality policy relevant research is conducted and communicated to decision makers and those who work with children. During the last decade we have seen early signs of declines in the rapidly rising child obesity rates. If this energy to improve children's health continues for 20 more years, I would expect rates of child obesity to return to those in the years preceding the1980s, thereby nearly eliminating type 2 diabetes and heart disease risk factors in childhood.

The Nutrition Policy Insitute is part of UC Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR).
Q: Your research team has recently relocated to UC ANR, to become part of the Nutrition Policy Institute. And you've become the unit's new senior director of research. What strategic opportunities and strengths does this new research unit hope to capitalize on?

A: This new unit is in the systemwide UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, rather than being located on a specific campus. This provides more opportunities for multi-campus collaboration on issues that are of statewide and national concern. Being located in UC ANR, we also expect to use a broader food systems approach with a greater diversity of colleagues and, of course, utilize the power and reach of UC ANR Cooperative Extension to assure outreach throughout the state.

Q: People of color generally have poorer health outcomes in America. What public policies could help us change that? You led a seminal epidemiologic study on the development of obesity in African American girls. How does that work inform your thinking about nutrition education efforts and public policies in that arena?

A: The 10-year NHLBI Growth and Health Study was one of the first studies to disentangle the effects of race/ethnicity and family income and education on childhood obesity. We found that poverty is a critical determinant of obesity. This finding has guided my subsequent work conducting research on WIC [Women, Infants, and Children], the School Lunch Program, and SNAP-Ed [Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education, previously food stamps], all of which provide an opportunity to address the most at-risk individuals, including children.

We have seen dramatic improvements in the programs. For example, the WIC program, which serves low-income pregnant women and their young children, revamped their food package to include more healthful foods. Similarly, new school lunch guidelines are assuring more healthful foods are served to children. Most of the children who benefit from this are low income students who qualify for free and reduced-price meals. There is still plenty of work to do to improve the programs, to ensure all those who could benefit have access to them, and that the benefits provided are funded adequately, but I am encouraged by how much has been accomplished.

Q: The average person knows relatively little about how research can inform and shape public policy. Are there insights you'd care to offer?

A: Policy-making bodies at both the state and national levels are eager to have science-based information to make the best decisions possible. Policymakers want to positively impact the health of their constituents. And more policymakers than ever are aware that our country spends far too much on healthcare and doesn't have the best health to show for it. This focuses increasing attention on disease prevention, as we clearly must do more to promote population health and keep people from needing to consume healthcare. Dietary intake is increasingly recognized as a major factor in the prevention and reduction of chronic disease rates in this country. Therefore, providing decisionmakers with good evidence about ways to improve dietary intake and thus population health offers opportunities to do something that helps constituents—and ultimately may lead to improvements in the nation's bottom line as well.

Q: The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recently received a great deal of negative attention when its new Kids Eat Right logo landed on Kraft Singles. They've had to walk back this decision, in part, due to pressure from their constituent group and folks like you. Any comments or insight you can provide on this situation? Is the logo a damaged brand now?

A: The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recently embarked on a new partnership with the food industry. However, it is my understanding that the Academy's membership questioned the terms of the partnership, thus bringing into question the degree of separation of nutrition professionals from the influence of industry. Food industry sponsorship of speakers at annual meetings of the dietetics profession is another example of action that has begun to cloud the Academy's reputation. If the Academy does not change its approach, I fear it could become a damaged brand.

The USDA's MyPlate infographic.
Q: MyPlate politics. We recently did a Q&A with Alissa Hamilton, who advocates for the replacement of milk as the suggested beverage with water. What's your take on this? What kinds of issues are likely to emerge as the Dietary Guidelines move further along in the revision process? What would you like to see? What do you expect to see?

A: The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee is an independent scientific body that reviews the evidence behind the nation's dietary recommendations. The current evidence on dairy supports its inclusion in the recommendations. Thus, in my mind, the issue isn't the need for replacement of milk with water, but rather the replacement of soda, energy drinks, and other sugar-sweetened beverages with water. Hopefully educational materials for the public, including MyPlate, can begin to include water as the beverage that is first for thirst. Free water should be available in schools, childcare centers, worksites, public buildings and all other venues that serve children and adults.

Hopefully, the final Dietary Guidelines, when issued, will reflect the recommendation by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee that added sugars be limited to no more than 10 percent of the calories in a diet. We have had strong evidence of sugar's contribution to diabetes, heart disease, obesity and dental caries. Therefore, in order for consumers to estimate their added sugar intake, it would be necessary for the FDA to modify the nutrition facts label to include added sugar. Without this information the American public has no resources with which to determine the amount of added sugar in their diet.

I also support the Committee's recommendation to consider sustainability when making dietary advice, and their encouragement of a plant-based diet. We are just beginning to understand all of the ways in which our food system is connected. Ensuring an adequate and adequately nourishing food supply for the population in the future demands that we continue to move in this direction.

Q: You're a researcher, but you also exert a profound influence in food politics. A battle is shaping up in Congress over the Healthy School Meals Act, which is due to expire at the end of September. In addition, the SNAP program is under fire by some politicians. Can you talk a little about the dynamics of these situations? Ultimately, what do you think might happen?

A: The safety net programs are under fire by some who seek to reduce or shift priorities in the federal budget, but the data overwhelmingly support the need for these programs for low-income Americans. We are spending more money on safety net programs now because so many people need them. In California, for example, more than half of our public school students qualify for free or reduced-price school meals and most babies born qualify for the WIC program. Thus, our food programs are not serving a small segment of our population but, rather, are necessary to sustain the majority of our population. We need to fix our economic challenges. In the meantime, cutting these food assistance programs would increase the risk for poor diets and the resultant long-term chronic disease costs, which would then paradoxically actually increase budgetary expenditures. Thus, cutting these programs would be an example of action that is penny-wise and pound-foolish.

Q: Can you tell our readers a bit about your most current research projects?

UC ANR Cooperative Extension nutrition educators provide nutrition education in classrooms.
A: One of our exciting new projects is the California Healthy Kids Study, which will assess the school and community programs and policies that may reduce obesity among school children. Using data from school measurements of body mass index over the last decade, and controlling for factors such as location, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we can identify communities where obesity rates show improvement over the last decade. Identifying those communities can help us to determine programs and policies that appear to have been the most effective in stemming rising obesity rates. Communities are looking for guidance on what works. This information can provide guidance for policy development and programmatic change in other locations.

Q: Fomenting change is risky. What keeps you going when things get tough?

What keeps me going is the realization that we, as adults, are not adequately protecting our children. For a long time, we bought into the mantra that children were to blame for not making healthy food choices. We now have overwhelming evidence that children will make unhealthy choices only if given unhealthy food options; conversely, children will make healthy choices if given healthy food options. Adults are responsible for the health, well-being and protection of their children and this means provision of healthy food choices and lack of access to unhealthy food choices. Healthy food consumption is the single biggest factor for preventing chronic disease risk in children. Healthy food for children is an investment in our nation's future as surely as is education.

Q: Many are using social technologies for movement building in your profession (the work of the SugarScience team is just one example).

Children get UC CalFresh training.
A: Research at the university has traditionally been disseminated through academic papers and rather narrow channels. Now it is apparent that a variety of informational technologies must be employed. If we don't use new communication tools, the spread and impact of our message will be diminished.

Q: Your work has a strongly ethical aspect to it. Are there unique challenges that nutrition professionals face in a free market environment?

A: Nutrition professionals have to contend with the enormous power of large multi-national corporations in the food industry. The power of food companies to influence policymakers cannot be overestimated, particularly when it comes to changing nutrition policies for our nation's food programs or trying to establish new policies to limit consumption of products we know are contributing to ill health. Further, the food industry has enormous resources available to market and promote foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value to children. This overwhelms and undermines the efforts of the limited nutrition education that is available to educate them. The free market fails here — consumers aren't able to get the information they need to make good decisions, and the people who profit from selling ill health are not the same ones who pay the consequences. Thus, it is up to those of us working in this area to make sure we share good information and work to change the systems that currently enable selling ill health to be so profitable.

Q: With a proliferation of labels, many consumers are confused. Do labels help someone concerned with ethical and environmentally aware eating?

A: Food companies make claims for their products, both in advertising and on the front of package labels that are deceptive and misleading. For example, a product may claim to have no gluten or no cholesterol despite the fact that that type of product never included those constituents. Products that say “lower salt” are often still very high in sodium. Some products claim to provide energy when they are really only indicating that the product provides calories. Confusion is commonplace.

Access to information on the environmental impact of food production is sorely limited. Only recently has the selection of a diet good for both the individual and for the planet become a part of our discourse. For people who can afford to shop at specialty food stores or farm stands, there are some suppliers in the marketplace that try to sell better choices in terms of environmental impact. But we have barely begun to do what is needed to support wide availability of dietary choices that are optimal for human or environmental health.

Q: Everyone gets the drought question! The California drought impacts the nation and the world. What changes might it bring about in the nation in terms of thinking about where and what we produce? What might the future hold for California, and agricultural production in the state?

A: There is much we don't know. Climate scientists and agricultural scientists are working to identify and predict the impact of various aspects of climate change including increased CO2 emissions, warming, and drought on crop yields and nutrient composition of various commodities. What I can say is that if the yields of fresh fruits and vegetables drop considerably, as they may do, we will have a grave situation. Fruit and vegetable intake by Americans is already inadequate. Eating enough affordable fruits and vegetables is going to be harder than ever, particularly for low-income Americans. This is yet another reason why reducing federal nutrition assistance programs at this time, as some are proposing, is not wise.

Q: What keeps you up at night?

A: I'm most worried that some of the progress we've made on policies to improve the healthfulness of school meals will be reversed due to political pressures based on the costs of healthy foods compared to the lower costs of less healthy foods, and the resistance of some to accept change that is in the best interest of children, particularly when it affects the profits of adults. I am also worried that there will be enormous lobbying efforts on behalf of less healthy foods that have been excluded from the new regulations. School meals should be more fully supported in order to provide children with the foods they need to be healthy.

Q: What might it take to get the next generation inspired to be concerned about nutrition and food policy?

A: I'm really pleased that these issues continue to be in the public eye and in the media. I hope that food and nutrition education will be reinstated in schools with the knowledge that this type of education can be provided in a way that it does not negatively impact test scores in common core subject areas. Currently children in the United States receive an average of only four hours of nutrition education a year, similar to the amount of time students are exposed to junk food advertising in a single week. With even modest increases in annual hours of food and nutrition education, I believe the next generation will be more aware and concerned about the relationship among nutrition, disease and food policy. We are seeing that the millennial generation is more interested in food issues than the generations before them, and this I find very encouraging.

Q: What must institutions and groups do to effect change in the food system?

A: I am heartened by the increased attention being focused on the food environment, policy and systems. A complex issue such as the food system requires input on multiple levels from multiple stakeholders. An example of the kind of effort that is needed is already underway on the University of California campuses. Last year, President Napolitano began the Global Food Initiative to harness the expertise and resources across multiple disciplines the UC system to address healthy and sustainable food systems.

Q: We're faced with challenges on a variety of fronts that have strongly ethical aspects to them, such as climate change, environmental constraints, income inequality, and food access. How do we get groups to move forward together? And is this a movement? How does the work of professional nutritionists fit into the larger food movement?

President Napolitano digs in garden during launch of the Global Food Initiative.
A: The food movement is well under way and is very diverse in its concerns and approaches, including considerations of environmental sustainability; fairness and economic justice in the food system; and providing access to healthy food for all. The next generation is being trained to look at the food system through a variety of lenses. For example, the Berkeley Food Institute is changing the way students are trained in this area. The Institute is encouraging new cross-disciplinary approaches. The UC Global Food Initiative, university-wide, is working to increase research and collaboration among all the campuses. The UC ANR Nutrition Policy Institute is working to train the next generation of nutrition researchers to expand their field of inquiry and include systems science in their work. The work of nutritionists can enrich and inform our understanding of the food system by providing the evidence linking factors within the system to food and health outcomes.

Q: I'm giving you a super power. You can change one thing about the food system with that super power. What change would you make?

A: I would level the playing field by reducing the influence of money to reduce the healthfulness of children's diets, both in the marketing of unhealthy foods to children, and in food industry lobbying of policy makers.

Posted on Wednesday, May 20, 2015 at 8:58 AM
Tags: diabetes (1), nutrition (106), Pat Crawford (1)

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