Keeping current with research activities in cotton is essential for the IPM Professional.
On Wednesday, September 26th, 2013 there will be a meeting to review research efforts supported by the cotton industry. PCAs and growers are invited to attend to learn about recent breakthroughs in research on a number of cotton production issues including insects, Fusarium, weeds, harvest aids, irrigation and varieties.
- When: September 26, 2013, 8AM - 4 PM
- Where: University of California West Side Research and Extension Center
- 17353 W. Oakland Avenue, Five Points, CA
- (Corner of Oakland Ave. & Lassen Avenue, 6 mi. South of Five Points)
- What: 15 Projects will be presented. For full agenda, click here
Lunch will be provided by the California Cotton Growers Association.
Hope to see you there.
Useful Resources: Cotton Pest Management Guidelines - 2013 Revision
Lygus hesperus is a key pest in cotton IPM system. Feeding on the youngest floral buds,
In water short years, trying to compensate for lost early production is impossible. There just is not time to compensate for early loss within the limited time frame we have to make the high yield levels demanded by today’s market and production costs.
Fortunately, we have Lygus management options which can minimize the need for or the results caused by early insecticide intervention.
First: The monitor the Lygus population twice weekly during this critical period. UC IPM has just released revised thresholds for Lygus treatments in the Pest Management Guidelines (PMG) for Cotton which include:
- Early Squaring:
- < 5 fruiting branches, 1 -2 Lygus bug/50 sweeps
- 5-10 fruiting branches, 2-5 Lygus bugs/50 sweeps
- Mid-Squaring (1st flower - 1st mature boll, beginning of July): 7-10 Lygus bugs (at least 1 nymph) per 50 sweeps and expected or better fruit retention. If retention is higher than expected you may be able to wait and monitor again that week before making a treatment decision. If retention is lower than expected and Lygus bugs are present, consider treating.
- Late Squaring (after 1st mature boll): 10 Lygus bugs/50 sweeps, including the presence of nymphs
Second: Monitor the cotton plant’s growth and development, paying attention to fruit patterns and set. The first position is likely the only fruit to be observed during this period so look carefully and document the plant’s progress.
Third: If treatment is required, use the least disruptive product available. Refer to UC IPM information on selectivity and persistence of key cotton insecticides & miticides to help guide your decision.
Keeping the cotton plant in a vigorous reproductive state early in its fruiting cycle is a key IPM practice that will help manage the crop and other pests throughout the season.
- Monitoring Lygus in cotton
- Stripping alfalfa hay
- Movement of Lygus in the Landscape
- Natural enemies in cotton
With growing conditions continuing to look favorable for cotton growth and development, fruiting is beginning or well underway in some locations. Fruiting is being noticed in Firebaugh area at 6th main stem node, which is line with early season temperatures we have experienced and good planting dates.
Setting the early fruit sets the plant up for the rest of the season. With a shortage of the irrigation deliveries this year, the season must be as compact as possible. Protecting early fruit is critical in these water short conditions.
Lygus will be a localized problem. Movement will occur from neighboring sources, most likely other cultivated crops. Key sources for Lygus include safflower, forage alfalfa and seed alfalfa. Within safflower and alfalfa forage, the Lygus population can be managed to prevent mass movement into surrounding cotton fields. Lygus is closely managed in seed alfalfa can still acts as a major source.
Safflower is currently being treated for Lygus to prevent the first generation from
Alfalfa forage is the most common crop which Lygus prefers. It is a unique crop in our cotton landscape because it is harvested frequently for its vegetative biomass, not its reproductive parts, e.g. fruit, lint, seed. Providing even a limited habitat during cutting can have a substantial effect on mitigating Lygus movement into cotton. During the June and July cuttings, if uncut strips of alfalfa are left in the field, Lygus will move to them and stay until the next irrigation cycle, when they return to the larger alfalfa field.
Limiting the movement of Lygus into cotton not only protects the fruit during this critical early stage but can reduce the need for insecticide applications. This allows additional natural enemies to build and helps reduce pressure for the development of insecticide resistance.
Early intervention through the cultural control of Lygus source management will help set the cotton up for high fruit retention, shorter season and fewer secondary insect and mite problems, as well as reduce costs in early insecticide treatments.
Keeping up on all the activities going on nationally in cotton is sometimes difficult. Here is an opportunity to hear from experts in the South and Southeast regarding production issues. Phil Bogdan of Plant Management Network encourages you to listen in to the talks
In the past, those who did not attend Cotton Incorporated’s bi-annual Crop Management Seminar (CMS) had online access to static PowerPoint slides where they could glean information but not get a full impact of what was discussed.
That static offering has been upgraded to a multimedia experience. Growers, consultants, and other industry professionals who missed the CMS, held in Tunica, Mississippi, can now view and listen to the presentations from the comfort of their own homes—at any day and time they like.
Cotton Incorporated and the Plant Management Network teamed up to record and produce webcasted versions of the 2012 CMS presentations, which include all non-proprietary talks from the Seminar and all talks from the Precision Cotton Irrigation Workshop.
“In a recent survey conducted by Cotton Incorporated, the vast majority of farmers across the Cotton Belt listed pest control, input costs, water, and variety selection as their top four areas of concern,” said Dr. Ryan Kurtz, Director of Agricultural and Environmental Research at Cotton Incorporated.
“The CMS addressed these key grower production-related concerns and shared information about new technologies on the horizon. To extend that knowledge to those who were unable to attend, Cotton Incorporated partnered with the Plant Management Network to create open access webcasts of each presentation.”
Collectively, 24 webcasts were produced, covering the latest developments and cutting edge management recommendations on variety selection, insect management, weed management and precision irrigation. Talks include…
- ”Adaptation and Management of New Cultivars” by Dr. Darrin Dodds, Mississippi State University
- ”Managing Thrips in Seedling Cotton With Starter Fertilizer and a Single Foliar Application” by Dr. Michael Toews, University of Georgia
- ”Uses and Caveats With Liberty Herbicide on Liberty Link and WideStrike Cotton Cultivars” by Dr. Larry Steckel, The University of Tennessee
- ”Lessons Learned From Irrigation Pump Monitoring in the Mid-South” by Dr. Christopher Henry, University of Arkansas
This convenient and time-saving webcast format includes an index and keyword search which lets users save time by jumping to any section of the talk they choose.
- 2012 CMS Presentations / Plant Management Network:http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/edcenter/seminars/CottonIncCropManagementSeminar/default.asp
- Cotton Incorporated:
Planting season for cotton is already upon us. A fundamental IPM principle is that a vigorous field can better withstand environmental stresses and pests.
Planting cotton into the most favorable temperature conditions results in good stands and vigorous plants. The 5-day forecast of degree-days (heat units) is provided to help California's San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley cotton growers determine suitable weather to plant cotton and avoid chilling injury to emerging cotton seedlings.
UC Cooperative Extension’s ANR IPM Program has been providing cotton planting forecast to cotton growers and PCAs for over 20 years. The system is now available for the 2013 season. This forecast, with the planting guidelines, should be used in conjunction with soil temperatures (at seed depth) above 58°F for timely, vigorous seedling establishment.
The degree-day forecasts are based on the best available weather forecast from National Weather Service. However, local conditions may cause some variation. Use your judgment if your local temperatures are different. If your min/max temperatures are above those reported, then your degree-days will be higher; if your min/max temperatures are below those reported, then your degree-days will be less.
Planting Guidelines using 5-day
16 - 20
11 - 15
< = 10
The degree-day accumulations are calculated using the single-triangle method and a lower threshold of 60°F with no upper threshold. Forecast temperatures were accessed from the National Weather Service Web sites for Hanford and Sacramento.
In 2004, an evaluation of the accuracy of UC cotton planting forecasts for 1998 through 2002, for Bakersfield and Fresno was published in California Agriculture and showed:
- In March, planting only on days with ideal category forecasts (which occurred on 25% of March days), can likely avoid the need to replant due to incorrect forecasts predicting favorable planting conditions.
- In April, following the forecast is quite safe, since it failed to predict unfavorable planting conditions (which occurred on 29% of April days) on average only 1 day out of 30 April days.
See the article for details.