- Author: Shimat Villanassery Joseph
Save the Date!
Bagrada bug meeting: First Announcement
Friday, December 11, 2015
9:30 AM to 3:00 PM
County of Monterey Agricultural Conference Center
1432 Abbott Street, Salinas, California 93901
This seminar will provide an overview of bagrada bug biology and management for both organic and conventional vegetable production. The presentations will cover the approaches taken by the researchers and strategies adopted or practiced by the growers to manage bagrada bug. The major goals of the seminar are to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize the shorter and longer-term research needs. The presentations can be viewed through a webinar and growers can interact with the speakers.
Organizers: Bagrada bug working group: California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF), University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE), University of California-Davis (UCD), University of California-Riverside (UCR), University of Arizona (UA) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Please pre-register here. Sign-in is from 9:30 to 10:00 AM on 11 December 2015. There is no registration fee for this meeting. Lunch will be provided. Please call ahead (at least 24 hours) for arrangements for special needs; every effort will be made to accommodate full participation. For more information, contact Shimat Joseph (831-229-8985; 1432 Abbott Street, Salinas, California 93901).
It is the policy of the University of California (UC) and the UC Division of Agriculture & Natural Resources (UC ANR) not to engage in discrimination against or harassment of any person in any of its programs or activities (Complete nondiscrimination policy statement can be found at http://ucanr.edu/sites/anrstaff/files/187680.pdf ) Inquiries regarding ANR's nondiscrimination policies may be directed to Linda Marie Manton, Affirmative Action Contact.
La División de Agricultura y Recursos Naturales (UC ANR) de Universidad de California prohíbe la discriminación o el hostigamiento de cualquier persona en cualquiera de sus programas o actividades. (Se puede leer la versión completa de la declaración de política antidiscriminatoria en http://UC ANR.edu/sites/anrstaff/files/187682.pdf ) Las preguntas sobre la política antidiscriminatoria de ANR pueden dirigirse a: Linda Marie Manton, Affirmative Action.
- Author: Shimat Villanassery Joseph
- Author: Steven T. Koike
Situation: During the latter part of the 2015 Salinas Valley season (August through October), significant crop losses have been caused by Pythium wilt disease of lettuce. This disease appeared to be only recently introduced to coastal California, and prior to 2014 seemed to be of minor importance. However, during 2014 and 2015 seasons, the problem spread to a number of locations in the valley and caused perhaps 30% or more losses in some fields.
Symptoms: Above ground symptoms of Pythium wilt develop on lettuce that is at the rosette stage or older. In contrast to Pythium root rots of spinach and other vegetables, this lettuce pathogen does not cause damping-off of newly emerged, young lettuce seedlings. Infected plants will be stunted and lag behind healthy lettuce. As disease progresses, outer leaves will start to wilt during the warmer times of the day and eventually turn yellow before becoming brown and dead. In advanced stages, the entire foliar canopy likewise can wilt and senesce; such plants clearly are not harvestable. Below ground, the pathogen first attacks the small feeder roots of the lettuce, making them soft and brown gray in color. Late in disease development the taproot will also be darkly discolored and the entire root system can be rotted. Pythium wilt does not cause a rot of the lettuce crown. Pythium wilt has so far been confirmed on iceberg (crisphead), romaine, and greenleaf cultivars. See photos below.
Diagnostic challenge: Because Pythium wilt causes a general wilting and collapse of lettuce foliage, this disease can be confused with other problems. Sclerotinia and Botrytis infections both can result in plant wilt and collapse. However, in these cases the symptoms result from crown infections; neither Sclerotinia nor Botrytis infect lettuce roots. Verticillium and Fusarium wilts, which also cause lettuce to collapse, will result in distinctive discolorations of the lettuce vascular tissues while leaving the roots intact. The other root disease new to Salinas Valley lettuce growers, black root rot (pathogen: Thielaviopsis basicola), causes dark bands to form on roots but does not result in the extensive feeder and tap root decay as seen with Pythium. Finally, foliar symptoms caused by Impatiens necrotic spot virus or Lettuce necrotic stunt virus can add further confusion to the diagnostic task because of the yellowing and browning of infected lettuce leaves. Accurate diagnosis of these lettuce diseases usually requires laboratory analysis. For assistance in diagnosing these problems, submit samples to the UC Cooperative Extension diagnostic lab in Salinas. See Table 1 for a comparison of symptoms caused by soilborne pathogenic fungi of lettuce.
Causal pathogen: Pythium wilt is caused by Pythium uncinulatum. In addition to California, this lettuce pathogen has been reported from The Netherlands, Japan, and Arizona. California's first case of P. uncinulatum on lettuce was from the Coachella Valley in 1993. This pathogen was first found in the Salinas Valley in 2011. Pythium uncinulatum, like most Pythium species, produces swimming spores (zoospores) that are released and move within the water film in the soil. In addition to zoospores, the pathogen also produces a sexual spore (oospore) that is encased within a spiny outer covering (oogonium). It is the oospore that allows the pathogen to survive in the soil in the absence of susceptible plants. Pythium uncinulatum is host specific to lettuce and does not infect other vegetable crops such as broccoli, cabbage, carrot, onion, pepper, radish, spinach, or tomato.
Disease cycle: Pythium species are soil inhabitants and persist in most agricultural soils for extended periods of time, especially if soils are moist. Specific information on how Pythium uncinulatum might persist in coastal California soils is lacking; however, we assume this pathogen can persist in soil for a significant amount of time. The pathogen and its ability to infect lettuce are favored by wet soil conditions. Flowing water and movement of soil will spread the pathogen.
Disease management: The following management strategies should be considered when dealing with Pythium wilt disease. (1) Avoid planting lettuce into fields with a known history of the problem. (2) For infested fields, rotate to non-lettuce crops. Various research studies demonstrated that Pythium uncinulatum is host-specific to lettuce. (3) Implement field sanitation practices to minimize the movement of contaminated soil from infested to clean fields. (4) Be aware that surface water run-off from infested fields may contain the pathogen. Flooding events may also spread the pathogen to previously clean fields. (5) Prepare beds so that drainage of water is enhanced, since the pathogen is favored by wet soil conditions. (6) Manage the irrigation so that excessive soil moisture is avoided. (7) The effectiveness of fungicides for controlling Pythium wilt in California is currently unknown and will require field trials.
Photo 1. Romaine lettuce field severely infected with Pythium uncinulatum.
Photo 2. Greenleaf lettuce severely infected with Pythium uncinulatum.
Photo 3. Severely stunted lettuce plants affected by Pythium wilt disease. A healthy plant is on the left.
Photo 4. Dark, rotted feeder roots of lettuce infected with Pythium uncinulatum. Healthy roots are on the right.
Photo 5. In severe cases, Pythium uncinulatum will completely rot the lettuce taproot.
Photo 6. Pythium uncinulatum forms spiny structures called oospores that persist in the soil.
- Author: Richard Smith
1st Announcement- Save the Date
2015 Salinas Valley Weed School
Thursday, November 12
8:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon
Agricultural Center Conference Room
(1432 Abbott Street, Salinas)
This meeting will cover a number of new techniques for controlling weeds in vegetable crops. In addition the effect of weeds on bagrada bug populations and new mechanical tools will be discussed.
4.0 Continuing education credits have been applied for. Please call ahead for special accommodations.
For more information call Richard Smith (831) 759-7357
See attached file for full agenda./h2>/h2>/h2>/h2>/h1>/h1>
- Author: Cheryl Reynolds
The UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) put together a 26-page card set in English and Spanish on understanding pesticide labels. Intended for pesticide handlers, applicators, safety trainers, and pest control advisers (PCAs), the cards explain when to read the label, describe what kind of information can be found in each section of a pesticide label, and point out specific instruction areas so that applicators can apply pesticides safely and avoid illegal pesticide residues.
Traces of pesticide residue are normal and even expected after pesticides are applied to food crops, but by the time produce is ready to be sold, purchased, and consumed, residues are usually far below the legal limit.
In its latest report from 2013, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) reported that there was little or no detectable pesticide residue in 97.8% of all California-grown produce. This demonstrates a strong pesticide regulation program and pesticide applicators that apply pesticides safely and legally. However, there have been instances in California where a pesticide not registered for a specific crop has been used unintentionally, resulting in illegal residues and eventually crop loss and destruction.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets tolerances for the maximum amount of pesticide residue that can legally be allowed to remain on or in food.
DPR regularly monitors domestic and imported produce for pesticide residues and is considered the most extensive state residue-monitoring program in the nation.
The primary way pesticide applicators can assure that they make proper applications and avoid illegal pesticide residues is to follow the pesticide label. UC IPM's new card set was developed from information in the upcoming third edition of The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides as well as Lisa Blecker, UC IPM's Pesticide Safety Education Program coordinator. Bound with a spiral coil, this eye-catching instructional card set was designed for both English-speakers and when flipped over, for Spanish-speaking audiences as well. UC IPM also plans to release a new online course on preventing illegal pesticide residues sometime late fall.
To download copies of the card set in English or in Spanish, see the UC IPM web site.