A couple of pictures below from a farm call concerning unusual damage on the tips of growing raspberry. Some of the leaves are affected as in Photo #1, but others are pretty well aborted and not growing at all. Incidence wasn't more than 5%, but still this is disconcerting and I was over at the grower field within 15 minutes to take stock of the situation. No flowers or fruit yet on the plants.
No signs of frass or webbing that would be associated with leafrollers (some like to feed at the nitrogen rich tips), and I've checked this sort of thing in caneberries before and haven't found that viruses or nutrients are at cause either.
But we did find lygus and Photo #2 explains that we may have identified the cause. While some lygus were to be found wandering around on leaves, others were nestled in the growing point of the plant, which on the very young leaf can show up as a lot of damage later on when it fully expands. It's quite possible that this insect activity could be causing the tip to die entirely in a situation reminiscent of "black flagging" in cotton, which is the death of terminals in cotton caused by lygus feeding.
This is more than tangentially related to our current challenge of USDA – CDFA protocols related to management of the light brown apple moth (LBAM). As most of you know, a field of strawberries or caneberries found to be infested with LBAM by USDA-CDFA personnel is closed until it is confirmed to be cleared of the larval stages of this insect. During the time of closure, the grower is forced to sell his or her berries within the quarantine resulting in lower prices from a less robust market or absent that opportunity, leave it to rot, resulting a total loss. While the government isn't showing with a truck, getting shovels and taking the berries, it isn't difficult to define the LBAM regulatory actions amounting to government taking of the crop.
The Supreme Court decision was in regards to the Raisin Administrative Committee marketing order which demanded up to 47% of the plaintiff's crop in a year. This was to support prices of raisins, but the case turned around what was fair compensation for the crop taken.
The opinion of Chief Justice Roberts is telling: “The Government has a categorical duty to pay just compensation when it takes your car, just as it does when it takes your home”, in a reference to the protections afforded by the Fifth Amendment of the taking of personal property by the US government, which yes does include something like raisins.
Admittedly, the broader applications of this ruling are unclear. This case concerns a marketing order rather than a regulatory regime such as that imposed by the USDA and CDFA for control of the light brown apple moth. Indeed, the Ninth Circuit court found the raisin marketing order to be constitutional since all growers benefitted from the program from the higher prices brought about by reduced supply. This could (arguably) be the case with the LBAM Program as well, since growers outside of California would benefit by not having to deal with this insect.
Whatever the outcome for our situation here, it's encouraging to see the Constitution at work protecting our rights.
I had a former Farm Advisor come by this morning and drop off this Fumigun, an important piece of fumigation history. He used it first to apply chloropicrin in the Pajaro Valley in 1955, and in the years following continued to use it, working with UC greats Art Greathead, Al Paulus and Steve Wilhelm.
The Fumigun is simple to operate. Using a funnel, the chamber of the applicator is filled with liquid chloropicrin, which unlike methyl bromide has a low vapor pressure stays in liquid form at 1 atm. Inserting the Fumigun into the soil up to the plate at the bottom, the chloropicrin is then ejected at measured aliquots by pushing the handle down until it stops, forcing the chloropicrin out of the chamber, through the small pore at the end of the pointed rod and into the soil. The resulting hole in the ground was tamped close with the applicator's shoe to contain the fumigant.
I sure would love to put this thing through its paces again and relive an important piece of Pajaro Valley history, but I don't think current regulations would allow it anymore.
Found this little number the other day when picking one of my trial plots (yes, my job requires that I pick fruit; fortunately I never lack for help from my Research Assistant and the grower). The white tip of the fruit depicted in the picture below was submerged in water pooled in a dimple of the bed plastic.
Watersoaking of strawberry can take on many appearances, oftentimes a soggy and lighter colored area of the fruit. Always comes from extended contact with free water, underlining the value of keeping the plastic on top of the bed very flat and not amenable to pooling water from rain, dew and leaking lines.
- Author: Surendra Dara
IPMinfo is the first app from the University of California that provides Integrated Pest Management (IPM) information. The current version of the app contains information on invertebrate pests and diseases of strawberries and gives agricultural professionals easy one-touch access to quick summaries of various pests, pictures to help identify symptoms, and links to additional resources.
Extending research information is an important part of Cooperative Extension. As communication technology is advancing every day, using modern channels of communication are important for successfully reaching out to growers, Pest Control Advisers (PCAs), and other key players of the agriculture industry. Traditional newsletters (Central Coast Agriculture Highlights), Blogs (Strawberries and Vegetables and Pest News), Facebook, Twitter (@calstrawberries and @calveggies), Tumblr, and online repositories of meeting handouts and presentations are some of the tools that play a critical role in making important information about my strawberry and vegetable extension program readily available to the agricultural industry. The popularity of smartphones has made this information even easier to access.
Smartphone applications are becoming popular in agriculture to provide information and for decision-making. However, because there were no such applications to help California strawberry and vegetable growers, IPMinfo was developed. It is currently available for free download for iPhones on the App Store. The first version was released in December 2014 and an updated version was released in April 2015.
Growers can find information on invertebrate pests such as aphids, cyclamen mite, greenhouse whitefly, lygus bug, spider mite, and western flower thrips. Diseases include angular leaf spot, anthracnose, botrytis fruit rot, charcoal rot, common leaf spot, fusarium wilt, leaf blotch and petiole blight, leather rot, mucor fruit rot, phytophthora crown rot, powdery mildew, red stele, rhizopus fruit rot, verticillium wilt, and viral decline. Each pest entry includes information on biology, damage symptoms, and management options with associated photos. Links provided in the management section will take the user to UC IPM website for more detailed information, especially about various control options.
To download the app on iPhones, go to the App Store and search for IPMinfo.