Current status of the invasive Bagrada bug in California: geographic distribution and affected host plants
Bagrada bug [Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister)] is an invasive hemipteran insect (Family: Pentatomidae) that was first reported in Los Angeles County, California in 2008. It has now spread to several counties in California and is moving northwards.
Distribution: Citizen scientists have been instrumental in reporting the occurrence of Bagrada in various counties and are helping map its current distribution. As of September 2014, Bagrada bug is known to be present in Imperial, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Kern, Kings, Inyso, Fresno, Ventura, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Benito, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Yolo Counties and is likely to be present in some other.
Bagrada bug is also spreading eastwards from California and is currently reported in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, and Texas.
Host plants affected: While Bagrada bugs are known to feed on a variety of host plants in addition to their preferred cruciferous hosts, serious damage to barley, corn, pepper, potato, tomato, and sunflower was recently reported by growers or gardeners. In a previous study where multiple food sources were offered, Bagrada bugs did not feed on tomatoes. They were also found on strawberries and reported to be present on other hosts, but damage has not been confirmed. Bagrada bugs might have been present on these plants as they move around in search of suitable food sources.
Management: Regular monitoring, mechanical exclusion or removal, destruction of weed hosts, and chemical, botanical, and microbial pesticides continue to be available management options. There have been several queries in the past two months from home owners, community garden operators, and organic growers about serious Bagrada bug infestations. Avoiding cruciferous and other hosts at risk should be a serious consideration for community and home gardens where using some of the currently available management options is difficult.
What to do: If you see Bagrada bug in an area or on a host that is not previously reported, please contact Surendra Dara at email@example.com or 805-781-5940. This information will be useful to track the distribution of this pest.
Biology, damage, and control video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=gSj3AZoJIRM
Biology, damage, and control: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=4047
Potential organic solutions: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=11031
Host preference: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=9611
General information: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=8438/span>
Insect Pests of Animals: Searchable Pesticide Database
The UC Riverside Veterinary Entomology Extension Laboratory has developed an on-line database of pesticides registered in the State of California for use against arthropod pests of animals. The database can be found at: http://veterinaryentomology.ucr.edu/vet_pesticides.html Website visitors can search by animal commodity for which pest control is needed (e.g. poultry), by type of pest (e.g. poultry mite or house fly), and by application method and formulation. It is expected that animal producers and extension personnel will find this database to be much easier to navigate than the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product search website.
Animal producers may also be interested in other offerings of the Insect Pests of Animals website (http://veterinaryentomology.ucr.edu/). Visitors can find pest management information for some ectoparasite pests of poultry, cattle, and other animals. We are adding information on additional pests every few months so be sure to check back to see what has changed. We also maintain a Blog (http://veterinaryentomology.ucr.edu/blog/) that producers and extension personnel may be interested to follow. Information shared through the Blog includes recent findings related to pest management in animal facilities or of general relevance to animal producers, extension personnel, and researchers.
Finally, animal producers may be interested in taking a look at the many web links provided in our “other resources” section. In particular, there are links for producers to submit animal management questions to the national eXtension program through their “Ask and Expert” program. Experts from universities, extension offices, private industry, and other relevant organizations are registered with this national eXtension program to answer submitted questions or to provide question writers with guidance to address their questions.
If you have comments about or suggestions for our Insect Pests of Animals website, please send these to me at:
Alec C. Gerry, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Extension Specialist (Veterinary Entomology)
Department of Entomology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
stable fly image
The conference will be March 7 - 10, 2015 at the Marriott Mission Valley in San Diego County.
Attracting approximately 500 participants yearly, the California Small Farm Conference is the state's premier gathering of small-scale farmers, farmers' market managers, university researchers, federal and state agriculture agencies, agriculture students, food policy advocates, consumers and others.
The important work of the Local Planning Committee volunteers ensures the success of the California Small Farm Conference. We are looking for dedicated individuals with a passion for agriculture, who work or live in the San Diego area, to join our 2015 Local Planning Committee!
There are still openings for several volunteers to participate in planning by taking leadership roles on conference committees. These "super volunteers" will receive complementary registration and meals at the conference.
We need your input on local contacts for speakers, workshop topics, field tours and the tasting event! The second meeting of the Local Planning Committee will be held on Monday, September 15 at the San Diego Marriott Mission Valley from 12:30 – 2:30 p.m.
Click here to RSVP to the September 15 Local Planning Meeting.
Questions? Contact Jennifer Roth, Conference Coordinator, 916-508-8937 or firstname.lastname@example.org/span>
A guide for specialty crop promotion and education at California district and county fairs
Almost everyone in California enjoys our county and district fairs, but most people attending California fairs don't know much about local farmers or the crops that are grown in their own region. Many fairs and members of California agricultural communities are trying new ways to connect local farmers with fair attendees.
Specialty crops – fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs, flowers, honey, and the products created from them – are a big deal in California. California farmers feed their local communities, provide about half of the fruits and vegetables eaten in the United States, and export their crops and products around the world. Fairs attract thousands of visitors from urban, suburban and even rural communities who have never met a farmer or visited a farm and often do not know what is growing in fields and orchards surrounding their communities. California fairs offer opportunities for the agricultural community to connect with these visitors.
In 2013 and 2014, the California Department of Food and Agriculture's Division of Fairs and Expositions collaborated with the University of California Small Farm Program to organize 20' by 40' interactive, fun and educational exhibits at four different California District Fairs to teach about local farms, crops and farmers' markets and promote fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs, flowers and honey to fair-goers.
Project staff created a guide to specialty crop education and promotion at county fairs, based on the experience of the many farmers, educators, fair officials and community groups participating in that project. The guide is funded by a California Department of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grant, as part of the "Mobile Agriculture Education Exhibit" Project.
The 22 page guide is available here as a downloadable pdf file:
A homeowner in Goleta recently reported severe infestation and damage of tomatoes by the tomato bug, Cyrtopeltis modesta (Distant) in their home garden. It also appears that they have become more frequent in recent years. This article provides an overview of the pest and some management options.
Tomato bug also known as tomato suck bug belongs to the family Miridae in the order Hemiptera. Lygus bug and other plant bugs also belong to the same family. There seems to be some confusion in the description of C. modesta (Engytatus modestus) and without a good key, identification of related species such as C. tenuis, C. geniculata, and Dicyphus spp. can be complicated.
Origin and distribution: Origin of C. modesta was not clear in literature, but Carvalho and Usinger (1960) referred to it as an American species while reporting a new species of Cyrtopeltis from Hawaii. Tomato bug is reported from Europe, South America, and North America and its related species from other parts of the world.
Biology and identification:
Adults are 7-8 mm or 0.25” long. Body is slender, pale and has a green or red tinge. Pronotum (shield like plate on the thorax) is narrow. Eyes are small. Wings are membranous, pale green or translucent. Nymphs look similar to adults, but without wings or with developing wing pads. There are four to five nymphal instars. Eggs are laid inside the petiole or the terminal shoots. Nymphs and adults actively feed.
Nymphs and adults actively feed by inserting their piercing and sucking mouthparts in plant tissues and sucking the juices. Yellowish red rings develop around the stem as a result of feeding. These areas are corky and break easily leading to the dropping off of flowers or developing fruit. Tomato bugs are common in Central Valley and Southern California both in organic and conventional tomatoes. However, they are usually not a problem in large farms where pesticides are applied to manage major tomato pests. They can be a problem in home gardens and small farms where pesticide treatments are less common (Tom Turini, personal communication).
There is no information available on natural enemies, pesticide treatments, or other management options specific to tomato bugs. Pesticides that are usually effective against lygus bugs (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r783301611.html) or stink bugs (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r783300211.html) in tomatoes can be effective against tomato bugs. Based on my research on other hemipterans, botanical insecticide/insect growth regulator – azadirachtin (especially against nymphal stages) and insect pathogenic fungi – Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium brunneum (M. anisopliae), or Isaria fumosorosea (Paecilymyces fumosoroseus) can also be effective against tomato bugs. These could be good alternatives to chemical pesticides for home gardens.
Carvalho, J.C.M. and R. L. Usinger. 1960.New Species of Cyrtopeltis from the Hawaiian Islands with a Revised Key (Hemiptera: Miridae). Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 17: 249-254.
Goula, M. and O. Alomar. 1994. Míridos (Heteroptera Miridae) de interés en el control integrado de plagas en el tomate. Guía para su identificación. Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 20: 131-143.
Letourneau, D. K. and B. Goldstein. 2001. Pest damage and arthropod community structure in organic vs. conventional tomato production in California. J. Appl. Ecol. 38: 557-570.
Swezey, O. H. 1925. Notes and Exhibitions (Sept. 4, 1924). Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc, 6:18.
University of Arizona http://ag.arizona.edu/ceac/sites/ag.arizona.edu.ceac/files/pls217nbCH4_3.pdf.