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KAC Citrus Entomology
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KAC Citrus Entomology

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Web Author: Dr. Beth Grafton-Cardwell, conducts research in the San Joaquin Valley on insect and mite pests of citrus. These web pages provide up-to-date information about the pests and their natural enemies, including basic biology, hosts, distribution, monitoring methods and management tactics. Please join us in exploring this subject through blogs, information and resources.

Citrus Bugs Blog

Citrus Entomology Staff Present at Woodlake Highschool Career Day

Sara Scott and Joshua Reger, Staff Research Associates with the Dept of Entomology, UC Riverside are stationed at the Lindcove Research and Extension Center.  Their research program centers on citrus integrated pest management.  On October 14, they presented information about citrus fruit and citrus pests for Woodlake High School career day and talked to students about their careers in agricultural research.

Posted on Monday, October 17, 2016 at 9:12 AM

Citrus Thrips Field Day at Lindcove REC Was a Success!

On Sept 13, a field day was held at Lindcove Research and Extension Center to discuss citrus thrips biology and management.  We utilized the mobile laboratory for a powerpoint presentation and to support microscopes that showed various stages of citrus thrips and flower thrips.  We also visited a pesticide spray trial to talk about efficacy of various pesticides.

Take home messages: 

  • The immature stages of citrus thrips are the most damaging
  • In mature trees, protect fruit not foliage
  • In young trees, be careful of spraying too much or you will select the thrips for resistance
  • Thrips are tough to control in drought years

The entomology lab at Lindcove is going to start monitoring for resistance this fall.
If you have sites that have thrips that you would like tested, contact Joshua Reger

Posted on Friday, September 23, 2016 at 7:33 AM

Be Prepared for Changes to the Worker Protection Standard

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently published the revised Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS).  The WPS is meant to increase protections for agricultural fieldworkers and pesticide handlers from pesticide exposure when working in farms, forests, nurseries and greenhouses. The changes will definitely affect California agriculture, and soon-- as early as January 2017 in some cases.

What major regulatory changes are in store for us and when will they happen?

Several changes are required to be in place by January 2, 2017. These include:

  • All 417,000 fieldworkers in California must attend annual pesticide safety training.
  • Records of all fieldworker pesticide safety trainings must be kept on file for 2 years.
  • Fields must be posted when the restricted entry interval (REI) exceeds 48 hours.
  • Instructors previously certified via Train-the-Trainer to lead pesticide safety trainings must now attend an EPA-approved Train-the-Trainer course to maintain that certification.

 The regulatory changes that are required to be in place by January 2, 2018 include:

 Additional training topics for fieldworkers and handlers must be added to the curriculum.

  • “Application-exclusion zones” must be implemented to prevent the entry of anyone into areas up to 100 feet from pesticide application equipment. Application-exclusion zone regulations also require handlers to suspend an application if anyone enters the restricted area.

Who do these changes affect?

Many people who work in the California agricultural community will be impacted by the WPS revisions including fieldworkers, pesticide handlers, farm labor contractors, private and in-house safety trainers, growers, farm managers, licensed pesticide applicators (private and commercial), pest control advisors (PCAs), and crop consultants to name a few.

 The new changes bring about a shared liability with all those involved in employing or training fieldworkers and handlers.

How can I get qualified as a trainer?

To become a trainer, take an EPA- and DPR- approved Instructor Training (a.k.a. “Train-the-Trainer”) workshop.  The University of California Pesticide Safety Education Program (part of the UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program, UC IPM), in partnership with AgSafe, will offer multiple workshops this fall that cover the new federal requirements for fieldworker and handler training.  Visit the Events and workshops page on the UC IPM website to reserve your spot.  At the end of the training you will be a certified pesticide safety instructor. 

Remember, even if you've already participated in a Train-the-Trainer workshop, you are required by EPA to retake the program unless you maintain certain licenses/government designations, including PAC, QAC, QAL, PCA, and certain County Biologist licenses.  UCCE Advisors are also exempted from the need to retrain.

If I am currently qualified, how can I make sure I stay up to date on all these new requirements?

If you are currently qualified as a trainer because you maintain a California PAC, QAC, or QAL, or if you are a PCA, you can attend a Train-the-Trainer workshop this fall to learn about the new WPS requirements and additional training topics.  While a certification may qualify you, a Train-the-Trainer Workshop will prepare you to train! Register today.


Posted on Thursday, September 15, 2016 at 8:09 AM
  • Author: Lisa Blecker
  • Author: Sarah Risorto

Citrus Thrips Field Day Planned for Lindcove REC on Sept 13

Come one, come all - no reservations necessary.  We are going to discuss the latest citrus thrips insecticide trial at Lindcove including walking in the orchard and looking at the level of thrips scarring.  We will have a group discussion about the approaches being taken to manage citrus thrips in young and mature orchards.

Citrus Thrips Field Day at Lindcove

 Tuesday, September 13, 2016

9:30-11 am

Lindcove Research and Extension Center

22963 Carson Ave., Exeter, CA 93221

(559) 592-2408 ext 151. 

 Instructor: Dr. Beth Grafton-Cardwell

 Course Objective: To teach PCAs how to recognize the various life stages of citrus thrips and the predatory mites that attack them.  A pesticide trial was conducted in April-May this year at Lindcove, and PCAs and growers will have the opportunity to look at the scarred fruit in that trial and examine the results.  

9-9:30 a.m. Registration: Lindcove REC

9:30-11 a.m.

A. Powerpoint presentation by Beth Grafton-Cardwell on efficacy of insecticides for citrus thrips control and resistance management

B. Microscope identification of citrus thrips life stages

C. Field discussion of citrus thrips and predatory mite monitoring methods and examination of the scarring damage in the experimental field plots. 

 Continuing Education 1.5 other units have been awarded


Posted on Friday, August 26, 2016 at 3:52 PM

Protect bees from pesticides by using bee precaution ratings from UC IPM


—UC Statewide IPM Program

Various insects, birds, and other animals pollinate plants. Bees, especially honey bees, are the most vital for pollinating food crops.  Many California crops rely on bees to pollinate their flowers and ensure a good yield of seeds, fruit, and nuts.  Pesticides, especially insecticides, can harm bees if they are applied or allowed to drift to plants that are flowering. 

Our mission at the University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources (UC ANR), Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) is to protect the environment by reducing risks caused by pest management practices.  UC IPM developed Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings to help pest managers make an informed decision about how to protect bees when choosing or applying pesticides.  You can find and compare ratings for pesticide active ingredients including acaricides (miticides), bactericides, fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides, and select the one posing the least harm to bees.

Ratings fall into three categories.  Red, or rated I, pesticides should not be applied or allowed to drift to plants that are flowering.  Plants include the crop AND nearby weeds.  Yellow, or rated II, pesticides should not be applied or allowed to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations.  Finally, green, or rated III, pesticides have no bee precautions, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations.  Pesticide users must follow the product directions for handling and use and take at least the minimum precautions required by the pesticide label and regulations.

A group of bee experts in California, Oregon, and Washington worked with UC IPM to develop the Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.  They reviewed studies published in scientific journals and summary reports from European and United States pesticide regulatory agencies.  While the protection statements on the pesticide labels were taken into account when determining the ratings, it is important to stress that UC IPM's ratings are not the pollinator protection statements on the pesticide labels.  In a number of cases, the ratings suggest a more protective action than the pesticide label.

The UC IPM ratings also include active ingredients that may not be registered in your state; please follow local regulations.  In California, the suggested use of the bee precaution pesticide ratings is in conjunction with UC Pest Management Guidelines (for commercial agriculture) and Pest Notes (for gardeners).  Each crop in the UC Pest Management Guidelines has a link to the Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings database and provides guidance on how to reduce bee poisoning from pesticides.

For more information on protecting bees from pesticides, see UC IPM's Protecting Natural Enemies and Pollinators, and use the Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.


Posted on Friday, August 26, 2016 at 10:54 AM
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