Foothill Farming Blog
1. Understand that food safety on your farm is your responsibility. Good food safety practices can protect you and your customers. It is a cost of doing business. If you don't pay the cost upfront, it may cost you the farm if a customer gets sick.
2. Make a plan and keep good records. If it is not in writing, it does not exist as far as inspectors are concerned. Make a food safety plan and follow it. Monitor all areas on your farm on a regular basis, and keep records of what you do and when you do it.
3. Identify which produce is higher risk. Focus on reducing those risks first. Higher risk produce includes: produce eaten raw; produce that comes into direct contact with soil; and produce that is hard to wash such as salad mix, lettuce, strawberries, and cantaloupes. Don't assume that because your produce has a peel (e.g. cucumbers), it is lower risk. Additionally, do not pack damaged or dropped fruit. Foodborne illness pathogens can enter damaged fruit, as well as fruit that may have come into contact with animal feces on the ground.
4. Know the quality of your irrigation water. Irrigation water that touches the edible portion of your crop should be tested for foodborne illness pathogens such as E. coli. Compare your test results with the EPA's recreational water standards currently used by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).
5. Minimize risks when using compost and manure. Some foodborne illness pathogens can remain in manure for 3 months or more, so it is important to compost manures properly. Plan for 120 days between applying compost and harvest of a crop that comes into direct contact with soil. The interval required for a crop that does not come into direct contact with soil is 90 days. Document the application dates and what was applied. Be aware of your neighbors' use of manures as well, since pathogens can be airborne, carried in runoff water, or transported on equipment.
6. Be aware of possible contamination by animals. You cannot prevent all wildlife intrusion onto your farm, and many farms have working animals, livestock, and pets. You can make a pre-harvest assessment of your fields. If there is evidence of feeding damage or fecal contamination, you should not harvest affected plants and those growing in close proximity.
7. Keep vehicles and equipment clean. Reduce the risk of contamination by cleaning harvesting tools, farm equipment, and other vehicles used in harvest and transport of your produce. If a vehicle is used to transport anything other than produce, it should be cleaned and sanitized before using.
8. Know the flow of your produce from field to consumer, and identify sources of contamination. Identify every surface your produce touches. This includes packing containers, sorting tables, cooler shelves, etc. This will help you understand where contamination could enter your system and help you develop an effective cleaning and sanitation program. Cleaning contact surfaces should be the first line of your sanitation program. Remove dirt and debris from food contact surfaces with an appropriate detergent. Follow that with a sanitizer, which will not work properly if there is too much soil and debris.
9. Keep postharvest water clean. Use only potable water. If you are using a sink or tub of water to wash a batch of produce, add a sanitizer. Monitor sanitizer levels to prevent cross-contamination from the water or from one piece of produce to another.
10. Train your employees. This is the easiest and most financially effective food safety practice. Train your workers to be aware of food safety risks and how to follow proper on-farm procedures. Worker training includes hand washing and other hygiene practices; illness and accident procedures; and other standard food safety procedures for your farm.
Adapted from Rosemary Gordon's interview with Betsy Bihn, “How to Manage Food Safety Risks”. http://www.growingproduce.com/vegetables/how-to-manage-food-safety-risks/
CDFA California Small Farm Food Safety Guidelines: https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/is/i_&_c/pdfs/SFFSGbooklet-English.pdf
FSMA final rule on food safety: https://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma/ucm334114.htm
Mandarins are considered the signature crop of the foothills. Foothill growers are challenged by poor soils, limited water, increasing pest pressure, and production costs. Many of us are employing non-traditional techniques to counter these challenges. Two of these practices, pruning and mulching, are currently being studied by UCCE Placer/Nevada in collaboration with five local growers.
In the past, citrus growers were warned not to prune. We were told that pruning would harm the trees, reduce yields, and be detrimental to our bottom lines. We attended UCCE workshops and learned differently. Many of us took the plunge and have been pruning our citrus for years. We have seen improvements in the orchard. Pruning citrus is believed to improve tree health, decrease pest populations, reduce pesticide use, and improve fruit yields and quality.
Mulching has not been a practice in most orchards. Fertilizer and herbicides were not very expensive, water was plentiful. Mulch increases soil water-holding capacity, reduces surface evaporation, and adds organic matter to soil while increasing microbial activity. This study will evaluate the impact that mulching has on the soil, trees, and herbicide use. Wood chips, horse manure, and other sources of organic materials are readily available and inexpensive. In our orchard, we started mulching when the drought began. Our water use didn't increase and more importantly our trees didn't suffer from stress. We think that the mulch provided us with some drought resilience. The study will evaluate this.
UCCE is at the beginning of this project. Research trials have been established in five commercial mandarin orchards. All five have mulching trials and three of the orchards have pruning trials. Horse manure and wood chips have been identified as a readily available, inexpensive source of mulching material. Mulching parameters, such as composition, depth, area, and application timing were discussed and determined by the participants. Samples of the mulch being used in each orchard are being analyzed. Pruning guidelines have also been set. Growers were trained to ensure that pruning is performed consistently across the study orchards. Baseline data on soil parameters, such as water holding capacity, texture, nutrients, organic matter and microbial activity, has been completed for the first year and will be performed each year. Soil analysis results were reviewed with the growers and fertilization plans discussed. Soils moisture is being monitored with soil tensiometers. Data loggers capable of tracking temperature and relative humidity are installed at each trial location. Data on physical tree parameters, such as canopy volume and density, tree trunk diameter, and other characteristics is also being gathered. In August each year, leaves from each orchard will be tested for nutrient composition. In October, we will harvest individual trees in the experiment and collect yield, fruit quality and color data.
As the trial progresses, results will be reported at grower meetings and UCCE-hosted workshops. UCCE will also hold workshops to teach producers the pruning and mulching techniques used in the trials. Completion of the research will result in a detailed analysis of the impact of pruning and mulching on commercial mandarin orchards. The desired result is the widespread adoption of pruning and/or mulching practices among citrus and other specialty crop producers.
During this angst, two successful businessmen, whom I knew and respected, explained that I was not understanding the art of the sale. I wasn't clear about who I was, what I was selling, and why they needed my product. I was expecting my product to speak for and sell itself. When I did engage, my sales pitch wasn't clear, direct, and persuasive. I tended to let the prospective buyer dictate terms because I needed to make the sale. As bills piled up, I began to work on a more refined sales pitch or elevator speech. With work, that speech resulted in sales. Profits increased and business stabilized.
Many years later, I have transitioned from manufacturing a product to growing a product. I have learned to tailor my presentation to the audience. Along the way, I developed a few key rules that I follow when delivering an elevator speech.
1) Who are you? – Identify yourself, your position, and your farm or business clearly. Have a business card and attach it to marketing and sales material.
2) What are you offering? – Clearly identify what you are offering for sale. “I have citrus” is a generic statement that I try not to use. A clearer statement would be, “today I am here to talk to you about our mandarin oranges and Meyer lemons”.
3) What makes you and your product unique or better than your competitors? – Prior to the pitch you need to have done your homework so that you can answer this question. Be clear and succinct. State facts.
4) What can you offer besides the product? – Merchandising materials, demo or sampling programs, listings on your website, product education to staff or customers, brand loyalty and recognition, custom or unique packaging. In essence, anything that will help the buyer (reseller) make the sale to their customer.
5) What is your price and what are your terms? – Again research. What are your costs in growing and delivering the product? What is your standard packaging? What are the wholesale and retail prices for your product? Can you deliver the product? What is the delivery cost for you? When and how do you expect to be paid? Know if you have room to negotiate going in, but don't state that you are negotiable up front. Let the buyer ask.
6) Why do they need you and your product? – This is your closing and the impression that you will leave with your buyer. Summarize clearly and concisely rules 2, 3, and 4. Be positive. I like to close with “I know that our products would be a great addition to your line, and I look forward to working with you”.
Developing an elevator speech takes time, research and commitment. You need to know your product and your business. You need to know your competition. Above all you need to know the customer and marketplace. I cannot emphasis enough the research that is needed to deliver a successful and positive pitch. The elevator speech is your commercial!
This is the time of the year to check your irrigation system. Does it need repairs, modifications, or improvements? Are there leaks? Does it need to be set up or cleaned out? Is it turned off when it's raining? Do you have the proper frequency and duration for watering your pastures and crops?
Pastures may not need irrigation yet – check to be sure you are not watering unnecessarily. Look at your soil and don't start watering until your soil needs it. Evaluate soil moisture in your crops.
As the season progresses, keep a close eye on your perennial and tree crops. Both drought stress and excess water can cause root damage.
Below are resources to help you set up, evaluate and improve your irrigation system.
BMPs for Water Quality http://ucanr.edu/sites/placernevadasmallfarms/files/170697.pdf
Center for Irrigation Technology http://www.wateright.org/
California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) http://www.tid.org/water/water-management/california-irrigation-management-information-system-cimis
NRCS Estimating Soil Moisture by Appearance and Feel https://nutrientmanagement.tamu.edu/content/tools/estimatingsoilmoisture.pdf
UC Drought Management http://ucmanagedrought.ucdavis.edu/
ATTRA Irrigation Efficiency https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/farm_energy/irrigation.html
Resources for pasture irrigation:
Drought Tip: Managing Irrigated Pasture during Drought http://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/Details.aspx?itemNo=8537
Establishing and Managing Irrigated Pasture for Horses (and other pastured animals) http://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/Details.aspx?itemNo=8486
Management Options to Reduce Pollutants in Runoff from Irrigated Pastures http://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/Details.aspx?itemNo=6590D
In my first Starting Smarter blog post, I talked about hands-on education, business planning, market research, and crop selection (Starting Smarter Part 1). I could write a book on what I didn't know when I started farming. In Part 2, I will summarize key considerations for a successful start-up and things I would do in the first years.
If I had it all to do over again, what would I do differently in my vegetable operation?
Land: A few things I would check when choosing land:
• Zoning and restrictions
• Flat/sloped and direction/aspect
• Water source and reliability
• Soil quality
• Drainage – how does the land behave during the dry AND rainy seasons?
• Delivery truck accessibility
• Prior use and potential for organic certification
• Surrounding property use – is there anything around you that may require barriers or cause conflict? (e.g. noise or odor restrictions)
• Is there adequate fencing? If not add that expense into your start up budget.
Farmers' Markets: I would stick with one farmers' market until I was consistently making a profit before expanding to more.
Organic Certification: I would have become Certified Organic sooner. It really was not hard, the certifier was very helpful and guided me through the process. It would have helped me keep better records from the beginning.
Labor: I would estimate my annual labor budget and add in employees only when I had enough cash flow. I would calculate the full cost (loaded labor rate, including taxes and workers compensation insurance) of an employee before hiring. I would consider how much time I could afford to spend as a manager rather than a worker on my farm. I would hire people only for the time I was available to manage them.
Financing & Savings: I did know a few things in the beginning because I had managed and owned other businesses in the past and benefited from having a savings account and family backing. I knew that the business would not turn a profit for at least three years and I needed enough savings to live off during that time.
There are some things you just have to learn by doing. For me, I'm better at fielding questions from farmers' market customers now. I remember how to harvest, what temperature, and how long to store various types of produce. In the beginning, I had to constantly check a book or go online for this information. There are many things I am still learning and I'm sure there always will be.
Your unique situation will require your own solutions and methods. I hope these tips help you become a profitable farmer more quickly and efficiently. May you have a bountiful and successful farm!
Check out the New Farmers and Resources tabs on our Foothill Farming website: http://ucanr.edu/sites/placernevadasmallfarms/