- Author: UC Delivers
Reprint of UC Delivers article
What Has ANR Done?
Research at UC Berkeley's College of Natural Resources has shown that frost-sensitive plants are damaged only when ice forms in the plant, not by cold temperatures alone. Further, certain common plant bacteria trigger ice formation by a process called ice nucleation. In the absence of these bacteria, plants do not freeze until faced with relatively cold temperatures. By inoculating crops early in their seasonal development, research has shown that ice-nucleation active bacteria can be prevented from growing. In the field, researchers demonstrated that both the altered bacteria and naturally occurring bacteria successfully competed with the ice-nucleation active bacteria on the potato plant. This represented the first field use of genetically engineered microbes in the world. Both reduced the freezing temperature of crops from 2 to 6 degrees F and reduced plant frost damage during typical frosts of about 28 degrees F by an average of 80 percent.
Frost damage reduced by up to 80%
using bacterial spray derived from research
A naturally occurring bacterial strain from a pear tree in Healdsburg was found to improve control of frost damage when sprayed onto crops. This bacterium also controls fire blight, a devastating disease of pear and apple trees. The bacterium has been commercialized as a freeze-dried preparation of live bacteria that can be sprayed onto crops with standard agricultural spray equipment. This product, Blightban A506, can provide considerable control of frost damage and is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on a wide variety of crop plants, including pear, apple, strawberry, peach and potato. In the western U.S. and other regions, approximately 50 percent of the crop acreage, such as pear and apple, is treated with this antagonistic bacterium for both frost and disease control. The use of this biological control agent provides an environmentally safe and economical means of frost protection, ensuring crop productivity even when cold temperatures strike.
Blightban A506 is registered for use on a variety of crops. It is produced by Nufarm Americas. They may not have much in the way of technical materials. "If any of your growers would like to give this a try I would be glad to answer any questions" Steven Lindow. Contact information below.
The Role of Bacterial Ice Nucleation in Frost Injury to Plants, Steven E. Lindow, Deane C. Arny, and Christen D. Upper, US National Library of Medicine, Plant Physiology.
Interactions of Antibiotics with Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain A506 in the Control of Fire Blight and Frost Injury to Pear, Steven E. Lindow, Glenn McGourty, Rachel Elkins. The American Phytopathological Society.
UCCE Sonoma is committed to building climate resilient communities and ecosystems. Through our educational outreach and workshops on the better land and natural resource management practices. We are working to make sure that homeowners, landowners, farmers, and ranchers across California are better prepared and able to deal with the growing risk of fire, drought, and flood hazards in Sonoma County.
Protecting California's Economy & Natural Resources
UCCE Sonoma is working to return prescribed burning and grazing to land critical in preventing devastating wildfires. Rapid population growth in Sonoma County has led to an increase in housing development in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), urban communities adjacent to wildlands. Prescribed fire helps to protect critical infrastructure and resources like the Lake Sonoma watershed, bay area air quality, soil health and plant habitat by addressing fire fuels before peak fire season conditions occur.
Returning the Legacy of Safe Fire
Abatement of Hazardous Vegetation & Combustible Materials in Sonoma County
This spring, in the interest of having fire safe communities, the Fire Prevention Division of Permit Sonoma is starting an inspection program on parcels 5 acres or LESS in the unincorporated county. Permit Sonoma is working with local fire protection districts to conduct the inspections.
Learn more at Sonoma County Code Ordinance Chapter 13A “Abatement of Hazardous Vegetation and Combustible Materials”
Development in the WUI has halted the important indigenous legacy of facilitated burning that shaped Sonoma County's fire adapted ecosystem leading to a build up fire fuels in the wildlands. UCCE Sonoma has hosted and continues to educate the public through a series of workshops covering best practices for home hardening, prescribed burn, grazing, and other vegetation management tools. TheGood Fire Alliance (GFA) is a Sonoma County community based group that has formed to learn about and receive hands-on training on the best practices for fire fuel reduction, vegetation management, smoke management, home hardening, shaded fuel breaks, prescribed burning and grazing, etc.
For more information visit: Prescribed Burns Fact Sheet
Disaster Recovery Resources
In response to devastating October 2017 wildfires, UCCE Sonoma has compiled a compressive list of online resources for home owners and land across California living in high fire hazard prone areas. Disaster Recovery Resources includes information about how to prepare for a disaster, what to do after a fire, clean-up, food safety, erosion, and restoring and rebuilding homes .
For more information visit: Disaster Recovery Resources.
- Ongoing Master Gardener Firewise Landscaping workshops
- April 27 Post-Fire Food Safety Workshop
- April 27-28 Wildland Firefighter Training for Rx Burn Practitioners hosted by Audubon Canyon Ranch
- May 4 Shaded Fuel Break Workshop with Audobon Canyon Ranch and The Wildlands Conservancy
- May 17-18 Grazing School for Wildfire Vegetation Reduction
“Produce Safety After Urban Wildfire” citizen science project
The Northern California fires of October 2017 created poor air quality and distributed toxic air contaminants over the region. Following the fires and the incredible response from local farmers, UCCE Sonoma County embarked on a “Produce Safety After Urban Wildfire” citizen science project to help answer community concerns about whether the safety of local produce might have been impacted by contaminants carried in the smoke and ash from the fire.
With the support of UCCE Sonoma, community members concerned about the impact of toxic smoke on local produce and UCCE Master Gardeners took over 200 samples of leafy greens from 25 gardens and farms across Sonoma County in the immediate aftermath of the fires; in the summer of 2018 the team took soil samples from five of the original sites sampled. Using funding from University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources Division and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, we had produce and soil samples from five sites most likely to have received deposits of toxic air contaminants from the urban wildfire tested for heavy metals, dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Based on preliminary findings, we hypothesize that produce safety was not significantly affected by the fires and may be mitigated by washing produce. Preliminary analysis was inconclusive but did not indicate a high degree of contamination. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were inconclusive due to high method reporting limits from our laboratories. Heavy metals were of low concern, with no detection of lead, arsenic, or mercury. Nickel was found in 2 of 8 samples at levels exceeding Proposition 65's No Significant Risk Level but which may be mitigated by washing produce. Dioxins were of some concern with concentrations found above background levels from FDA's Dioxin Monitoring Program, but below NSRL.
- It is important to note that over long periods of time, exposure to these chemical groups at very low levels can still contribute to health impacts, including at levels below what our tests are able to detect.
- Numerous health benefits including cancer risk reduction have been attributed to green leafy vegetables. These benefits may outweigh the additional risk from trace contaminants detected in some produce in this study. Quantitative comparisons will be provided in our final report.
- Some individuals have higher risks and may want to be in communication with their healthcare provider to better understand if they should take extra precautions. Individuals at higher risk may also benefit greatly from the high nutrition in green leafy vegetables and fresh produce.
- Best practices for reducing risk include: wearing a respirator mask during poor air quality; washing produce thoroughly in running water; peeling root vegetables, testing soil regularly; containing and amending contaminated soil through sheet mulching, raised beds, and compost.
- Best practices that enhance protective factors and should also be pursued, such as increasing produce consumption to promote healthy nutrition, improve immunity, and support resilience to chemical exposures.
Over the next few months, we will be completing our final report and creating additional tools for communicating these results to concerned community members. In the Spring of 2019, we will be conducting community workshops. Reports, handouts, workshop materials, and the protocols from the study will be made publicly available for use by communities experiencing wildfire in the future./h3>/h3>/h3>
- Author: Lucia G. Varela
Want to know what bug is making holes in the leaves of you shrub or eating your fruit? Or what is the pesky weed you cannot get rid off? The University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources publications have four sets of Pest Identification cards for you. These pocket-size, sturdy, laminated cards can be easily carried with you as a quick reference wherever you need them. The sets are also available as electronic publications formatted for iOS and Kindle compatible devices.
Vineyard Pest Identification and Monitoring
These cards are also available as a separate card set, publication #3538, in Spanish. You can purchase each card set alone or in bundles for a price break. The bundles are perfect for vineyard managers and their crews.
Tree Fruit Pest Identification
The Tree Fruit Pest Identification Card Set is available only as an electronic publication. The set covers major insect and mite pests and several important diseases in California deciduous tree fruits and nuts. Each pest is identified by a description and close-up photographs of important life stages to help you know how and when to look for these pests -- in both growing and dormant seasons. The cards also include descriptions of natural enemies.
Landscape Pest Identification
The Landscape Pest Identification Card Set will help landscape maintenance professionals and home gardeners identify and manage most major common pest problems in the landscape. The 43 cards cover 80 common insect pests and mites and 40 diseases of flowers, shrubs and trees.
Weed Identification and Monitoring
The Weed Identification and Monitoring Card Set is based on the bestselling Weeds of California and Other Western States; this is the perfect pocket-sized companion for anyone working in the field.
Each weed is identified by a description and excellent close-up color photographs of various growth stages with 187 photos in all. On the reverse of each card is a description of growth stages, habitat, distribution and management tips. It also includes handy inch and metric measurement scales. A sturdy rivet keeps the set together so individual cards don't go astray.
Pests of the Garden and Small Farm
A new set Pests of the Garden and Small Farm Card Set is coming out soon. Stay tuned for its release. Currently, there is a beautiful book, publication 3332.
To purchase the card sets or electronic versions, visit the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources publication catalog. Refer to the table below for the publication and click on the version you want:
- Card set - a deck of cards on a spindle
- E-pub - electronic version for iOS
- Kindle - electronic version for Kindle
Landscape Pest ID Cards
Vineyard Pest ID and Monitoring Cards
Tarjetas de identification de plagas de la vid (Spanish)
Weed Pest ID and Monitoring Cards
Tree Fruit ID Cards
Backyard gardeners, if you still cannot identify that weed, bug or problem with your plant, you can always bring a sample to our Master Gardeners desk. There is a drop box available to leave samples after hours./table>/h3>/h3>/h3>/h3>/h3>
- Editor: J. M.
- Author: Mike Jones
I joined UCCE on October 1, 2018 as the Forestry Advisor for Sonoma, Mendocino, and Lake Counties. I specialize in forest entomology with a focus on forest health and integrated pest management of invasive and endemic forest pests.
I completed a Ph.D. in Entomology from State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a B.S. in Environmental Biology and Management from UC Davis.
Prior to joining UCCE, I was a Research Project Assistant (graduate student) at State University of New York. I developed and maintained research projects on delimitation, management, and biological control of the invasive forest pest emerald ash borer in New York. From 2010 to 2013, I was a research associate in the Department of Entomology, UC Davis in collaboration with the US Forest Service, Forest Health Protection in southern California. I participated in a variety of forest pest research projects involving the detection, evaluation, and management of native and invasive forest pests, including goldspotted oak borer. I have been active in leading training activities for land managers and owners in the field identification and management of forest pests, and training and supervising field crews in the collection of forestry data. My journey in forest health started as an undergraduate at UC Davis, where I worked on sudden oak death in the department of Plant Pathology.
I moved to the town of Sonoma in high school and have been fascinated by the area ever since. My family goes back eight generations in California, and I feel very fortunate to be able to move back to the area (Healdsburg) to start my career. I look forward to working with Sonoma County, and helping land owners and managers deal with forestry challenges faced by the county, particularly after the fires of 2017, but also looking into the future.
Please feel free to contact me with any questions. I look forward to working with and meeting members of the Sonoma County community.
Michael I. Jones, PhD| Forest Advisor
UC Cooperative Extension - Mendocino, Lake, and Sonoma
890 North Bush Street | Ukiah, CA 95482
(707) 463-6344 office | (707) 338-7457 cell | firstname.lastname@example.org