Hello Sprout readers, We have a few questions for you…
- Are you tired of your landscape and ready for something new?
- Have you been thinking about replacing all or part of your lawn?
- Are you confused about how to transition from sprinkler to drip irrigation?
- Do you want to attract insect pollinators and birds to your landscape?
If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, this is the workshop for you! Learn how to replace your sprinkler system and convert to drip, hear about some low water use plants, including a list of plants that can provide bloom year-round.
Bring your questions! This is an especially great opportunity to speak with Tim Long, an expert in drip irrigation systems, as well as our other speakers who have experience with growing CA natives and lawn removal.
Workshop cost includes seeds, plants, and presentation materials and helps support our program. If you are unable to afford to pay for this class, not a problem! Just sign up so we know you are coming.
Where: Ag Center, Harvest Hall rooms D&E, 3800 Cornucopia Way, Modesto, 95358.
When: Saturday, October 7, 9:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Questions? (209) 525-6800
Sign Up: https://ucanr.edu/new/front/yard
Instructors: UC Cooperative Extension, Stanislaus County Master Gardeners - Heidi Aufdermaur, Tim Long, Rhonda Allen, Doone Cockrell, and Bobbie Green.
- Author: Morgan P. Doran
- Author: Gabriele Maier
- Author: Roselle Busch
A livestock producer recently contacted UCCE regarding a problem he was having getting livestock dewormers shipped to a California address from out-of-state online retailers. Three different online retailers told him that they don't have a license to ship the products to California. This was a headscratcher since the same retailers have previously shipped the same products to California.
The problem triggered an exploration into the regulation of livestock drugs in California, which is helpful to understand the issue encountered with the online retailers.
Below is a brief description of how livestock drugs are regulated in California, with many references to lists published by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), and a final suggestion on what to do if you encounter the same denial to sell a dewormer or other livestock drug.
Here are the basics of California Livestock Drug Regulations
When you buy livestock drugs from a store or an online retailer you usually don't know or need to know the regulatory process that permits such transactions, unless you are buying an antimicrobial drug that requires a prescription. Drugs that don't require a prescription are classified as either a “livestock drug” or a “restricted livestock drug.” Here are the different livestock drug classifications and their corresponding regulations:
- Livestock Drug – does not have any restrictions to sell or purchase
- Restricted Livestock Drug – the drug retailer is required to have an approved retailer license issued by CDFA to sell the drug in California
- Restricted Livestock Drug, Rx – the retailer has the same requirement as with a Restricted Livestock Drug and the buyer must have a veterinary prescription to purchase the drug
Some restricted livestock drugs are further classified as Type A VFD (Veterinary Feed Directive) or Type A Non-VFD, but most livestock producers don't need to worry about Type A livestock drugs unless they are a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO).
Here you can download a complete list of CDFA Approved Livestock Drug Registrations and their classifications.
More on the Drug Classifications
Most drugs for livestock fall under the “Livestock Drug” classification and include drugs such as antiseptics, topical medications, pain relievers, vitamins, minerals, nutrients, insecticides, and many more.
Drugs in the “Restricted Livestock Drug” category include hormones, dewormers, coccidiostats, medicated feed additives and a handful of other drugs. Here you can find a list of “Restricted Livestock Drugs.” Purchasing “Restricted Livestock Drugs” in California is typically not a problem unless the retailer does not have an approved retailer license with CDFA.
Drugs classified as “Restricted Livestock Drug, Rx” include medically important antimicrobial drugs such as penicillin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine and others. Here is a list of “Restricted Livestock Drugs, Rx” that were available without a prescription prior to 2018 in California.” These are drugs that require a prescription from your veterinarian to be purchased in the state of California, as mandated by the Livestock: Use of Antimicrobial Drugs law (FAC § 14400 – 14408). Other livestock drugs, including antimicrobials such as tulathromycin or gamithromycin have always required a prescription and will continue to do so in the future. If you do not have a veterinarian's prescription, then you must establish a veterinary-client-patient relationship (VCPR) with a veterinarian so that the veterinarian knows you and your livestock operation and has confidence in your animal care practices and ability to properly use and administer the prescription drugs.
Why Did the Retailers Decline Selling the Dewormer Products
While one of the retailers clearly does not have a retailer license to sell restricted livestock drugs in California, the other two retailers do have an approved retailer license. When we contacted the two retailers who do have an approved retailer license, they both indicated that the purchases were denied due to a website error and suggested that the purchaser call their customer service phone number to order the restricted products. Given this response we suspect there may be confusion or glitches among some out-of-state online retailers on selling restricted livestock drugs in California. A contributing factor may be recent changes made across the nation regarding medically important antimicrobials. On June 11, 2023, the US Food and Drug Administration implemented GFI # 263 and all medically important antimicrobials in the nation now require a prescription from a veterinarian. The rest of the country essentially now follows what California has already been practicing since 2018. The drugs that were previously “Restricted Livestock Drugs, Rx” are now Federally labeled as Rx drugs and no longer require a special designation for sale to California residents. It did not, however, change the label status of other “Restricted Livestock Drugs” in California.
If you find yourself in a similar situation in which an online retailer declines the sale of a dewormer product or other restricted livestock drug, you can first check if the retailer has an approved retailer license using this CDFA Restricted Livestock Drug Licensee list. If the retailer is listed as having an approved license then you should call their customer service number to order the product and let them know of the website error so that it can be corrected.
You can find all the referenced lists of restricted livestock drugs, licensed retailers and information about the Livestock Drug Program in California at this CDFA website https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/is/ffldrs/LivestockDrug.html.
California Invasive Species Week is June 3-11. This is the perfect time to raise awareness about the impact of invasive plants on our natural ecosystems and the importance of making informed plant choices. Invasive species can have detrimental effects on local flora and fauna, often outcompeting other plants for resources and disrupting local ecosystems.
By selecting plants that are well-suited to your environment and not invasive, you can make a positive contribution to preserving California's diverse landscapes. Many invasive plants can be aesthetically pleasing and low-maintenance, making them a popular choice for gardeners. However, invasive plants can spread rapidly, taking over natural habitats and causing significant environmental damage. Invasive species often have few natural predators, enabling them to grow uncontrollably and outcompete other plants for resources like water, sunlight, and nutrients. This can lead to the loss of biodiversity, reduced habitat quality for wildlife, and increased risk of erosion and wildfires.
Examples of Invasive Plants in California:
1. Periwinkle (Vinca major)-This evergreen groundcover is a popular species because of its beautiful purple blooms. Periwinkleforms dense mats that can smother native plants and alter soil chemistry. Instead of periwinkle, try planting native groundcovers like California lilac (Ceanothus spp.) or hummingbird sage (Salvia spathacea).
2. Fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum)-This ornamental grass is highly adaptable and has invaded many natural habitats, including grasslands and coastal sage scrub. Instead, opt for native grasses like purple needlegrass (Stipa pulchra) or deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens) or the smaller version (Muhlenbergia dubia).
3. Pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana)-A tall, clumping grass with feathery blooms that can quickly dominate landscapes and outcompete native species. Consider planting native ornamental grasses such as blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) or switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as alternatives to pampas grass.
4. Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima)-This fast-growing tree can release chemicals that inhibit the growth of other plants and can sprout vigorously from root fragments. Plant California native trees like sycamore (Platanus racemosa) or western redbud (Cercis occidentalis) instead of the invasive tree of heaven.
Celebrate Invasive Species Week!
organization dedicated to protecting California's wildlands from invasive plants through
research, restoration, and education.
•California Native Plant Society (CNPS)-https://www.cnps.org/-CNPS is a non-profit
organization that promotes the understanding and appreciation of California's native plants and
preserves them in their natural habitat.
•PlantRight-https://plantright.org/-PlantRight works with California's nursey industry to keep
invasive plants out of our landscapes and promotes the sale of non-invasive alternatives.
- Author: Janet Hartin
University of California UC ANR Green Blog (Climate Change and Other Topics) https://ucanr.edu/blogs/Green/index.cfm?tagname=climate%20change (full index)
- Save Trees First: Tips to Keep Them Alive Under Drought https://ucanr.edu/b/~CdD
- Landscaping with Fire Exposure in Mind: https://ucanr.edu/b/~G4D
- Cities in California Inland Areas Must Make Street Tree Changes to adapt to Future Climate https://ucanr.edu/b/~oF7
Drought, Climate Change and California Water Management Ted Grantham, UC Cooperative Extension specialist (23 minutes) https://youtu.be/dlimj75Wn9Q
Climate Variability and Change: Trends and Impacts on CA Agriculture Tapan Pathak, UC Cooperative Extension specialist (24 minutes) https://youtu.be/bIHI0yqqQJc
California Institute for Water Resources (links to blogs, talks, podcasts, water experts, etc.) https://ciwr.ucanr.edu/California_Drought_Expertise/
UC ANR Wildfire Resources (publications, videos, etc.) https://ucanr.edu/News/For_the_media/Press_kits/Wildfire/ (main website)
-UC ANR Fire Resources and Information https://ucanr.edu/sites/fire/ (main website)
-Preparing Home Landscaping https://ucanr.edu/sites/fire/Prepare/Landscaping/
UC ANR Free Publications https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/ (main website)
- Benefits of Plants to Humans and Urban Ecosystems: https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8726.pdf
-Keeping Plants Alive Under Drought and Water Restrictions (English version) https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8553.pdf
(Spanish version) https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8628.pdf
- Use of Graywater in Urban Landscapes https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8536.pdf
- Sustainable Landscaping in California https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8504.pdf
Other (Non-UC) Climate Change Resources
Urban Forests and Climate Change. Urban forests play an important role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Active stewardship of a community's forestry assets can strengthen local resilience to climate change while creating more sustainable and desirable places to live. https://www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/urban-forests
Examining the Viability of Planting Trees to Mitigate Climate Change (plausible at the forest level) https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2927/examining-the-viability-of-planting-trees-to-help-mitigate-climate-change/
Reports and other information resources coordinated under the auspices of the United Nations and produced through the collaboration of thousands of international scientists to provide a clear and up to date view of the current state of scientific knowledge relevant to climate change. United Nations Climate Action
Scientific reports, programs, action movements and events related to climate change. National Center for Atmospheric Research (National Science Foundation)
Find useful reports, program information and other documents resulting from federally funded research and development into the behavior of the atmosphere and related physical, biological and social systems. Search and find climate data from prehistory through to an hour ago in the world's largest climate data archive. (Formerly the "Climatic Data Center") National Centers for Environmental Information (NOAA)
Think tank providing information, analysis, policy and solution development for addressing climate change and energy issues (formerly known as the: "Pew Center on Global Climate Change"). Center for Climate & Energy Solutions (C2ES)
Mapping Resilience: A Blueprint for Thriving in the Face of Climate Disaster. The Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) was launched in July 2010 and is managed by EcoAdapt, a non-profit with a singular mission: to create a robust future in the face of climate change by bringing together diverse players to reshape planning and management in response to rapid climate change. https://www.cakex.org/documents/mapping-resilience-blueprint-thriving-face-climate-disaster
Cal-Adapt provides a way to explore peer-reviewed data that portrays how climate change might affect California at the state and local level. We make this data available through downloads, visualizations, and the Cal-Adapt API for your research, outreach, and adaptation planning needs. Cal-Adapt is a collaboration between state agency funding programs, university and private sector researchers https://cal-adapt.org/
Find reports, maps, data and other resources produced through a confederation of the research arms of 13 Federal departments and agencies that carry out research and develop and maintain capabilities that support the Nation's response to global change. Global Change (U.S. Global Change Research Program)
The Pacific Institute is a global water think tank that combines science-based thought leadership with active outreach to influence local, national, and international efforts to develop sustainable water policies. https://pacinst.org/our-approach/
Making equity real in climate adaptation and community resilience policies and programs: a guidebook. https://greenlining.org/publications/2019/making-equity-real-in-climate-adaption-and-community-resilience-policies-and-programs-a-guidebook/
Quarterly CA Climate Updates and CA Drought Monitor Maps (updated each Thursday) https://www.drought.gov/documents/quarterly-climate-impacts-and-outlook-western-region-june-2022
- Author: Denise Godbout-Avant
How Did the Western Monarchs Do This Winter in California?
Monarchs in Trouble
The colorful orange-and-black, magnificent monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are the world's most recognized and beloved butterflies. Yet, they are increasingly in danger of becoming extinct. An announcement last summer from International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced the monarch butterfly had been put on its "Red List of Threatened Species as Endangered” due to habitat destruction, climate change, and pesticides, with the primary reason being reduction in milkweed plants that are so vital to their survival.
This Year's Status
According to a recent article by Tara Duggan (https://www.pressreader.com/usa/san-francisco-chronicle-late-edition/20230201/281595244675872) the 2022 annual Thanksgiving count organized by Xerces Society showed relatively high numbers of western monarchs this year with over 330,000 found in overwintering sites throughout California's central coast. This is a significant increase from the winter of 2020-21 when fewer than 2,000 were counted and they were thought to be on the threshold of extinction. The 2021-2022 count the following year was much better, at 250,000.
1990 – 230,000
1995 – 150,000
2000 – 40,000
2005 – 32,000
2010 – 24,000
2015 – 28,000
2017 – 12,300
2019 – 6,000
2020 – 188
2021 – 22,700
2022 – 24,128
11/15/22 – 24,100
11/30/22 – 19,177
12/13/22 – 15,707
1/17/23 – 15,817
2/7/23 – 15,015
2/21/23 – 4,628
How You Can Help
- Plant nectar plants for the adults! While caterpillars feed only on milkweed, the adult monarch feeds on nectar from flowers while migrating. Native plants with tubular or funnel shapes are particularly attractive and nutritious for all butterflies.
- Plant milkweed! This plant is crucial to monarchs' survival since it is the only plant females lay their eggs on and the only source of food for the emerging larvae. When possible, plant from seed. If you purchase plants ask the nursery or garden center if the grower treated the plants with pesticides. The best time to plant is in the fall months when it's cooler, at the start of the rainy season. Local native milkweed varieties include:
o Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf milkweed)
o Asclepias speciosa (Showy milkweed)
o Asclepias syriaca (Common milkweed)
o Asclepias cordifolia (Heartleaf milkweed)
- Use UC Integrated Pest Management as a resource: (https://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/menu.homegarden.html). If you use a pesticide, avoid broad spectrum pesticides, selecting a pesticide for the specific pest/disease, or choose one that is less toxic such as horticultural oils and insecticidal soaps. Be sure to follow instructions and apply in early morning or late evening when pollinators are unlikely to be present.
- Get involved in the annual western monarch Thanksgiving and New Year counts (https://www.westernmonarchcount.org/) and/or tagging monarchs to monitor their migration patterns (https://www.monarchwatch.org/tagging/)
What Will the Future Bring for the Western Monarch?
Only time will tell if their numbers will increase, but scientists say these efforts could help the western monarch population recover. By planting milkweed and native flowering plants in our gardens, we can be a part of this ongoing endeavor and hopefully be able to see more of these magnificent butterflies floating about in our gardens in the future.
To learn more about the life cycle and migration of the western monarch, read my article “Marvelous Monarchs” at https://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=55249
Denise Godbout-Avant has been a UCCE Master Gardener with Stanislaus County since 2020/h3>