- Author: Grace Dean
The Forest Stewardship team has revamped their Forest Stewardship Story Map, first published in summer 2023. The new application hosts a slew of new features which provide a more user-friendly experience and allow users to learn about the forestry education programs offered by UC ANR.
The new application, built using ArcGIS Experience Builder, is live and can be viewed by clicking HERE.
Follow along as we go through the new Forest Stewardship Story Map, highlighting key new features, and giving voice to small forest landowners.
Forest Stewardship Story Map
The ‘Forest Stewardship Story Map' homepage hosts the user-directed story map and directional information. The page offers background on the Forest Stewardship workshop series, and users can click through to view directions on how to use the map. Scrolling down will reveal the map, pictured below.
This new interface allows users to select stories via two methods: the story map which is based on county locations, or the story map list. The new story map list also hosts the ability to filter stories by landowner, professional, and county- making it easier to spotlight each interviewee's distinct relationship with California forestland.
Scroll to the top to click on the brand-new page, ‘Educational Programs'.
The new ‘Educational Programs' page provides additional background and information on both the Forest Stewardship Education Program and the Post-Fire Forest Resilience Program. Both workshop programs target California landowners who are seeking management information for pre- and post-fire forestland. Readers will be able to distinguish the differences between the two programs in both mission and implementation through viewing the impacts of each program.
The Story Map also hosts upcoming event information for both Forest Stewardship and Post-Fire Forest Resilience programs, giving users the opportunity to easily engage with UC ANR. It is important to both Kim Ingram, Forest Stewardship Academic Coordinator, and Katie Reidy, Post-Fire Forest Resilience Academic Coordinator, that Story Map visitors can access information which has aided the landowners who shared their stories with us.
“Forest landowners express to us a huge need for forest management education and outreach,” says Ingram. “However, knowing where to start can often be confusing. Our hope is through the Story Map, landowners can see themselves in the stories of others, and take that all important first step.”
Users can also connect with forestry professionals highlighted on the Story Map by clicking on the tab titled ‘Connect with a Professional'.
Connect with a Professional
Introducing workshop participants to their local natural resource professionals is a hallmark of both the Forest Stewardship Education and Post-Fire Forest Resilience workshops. Each program facilitates knowledge sharing between landowners and professionals, both at weekly online workshop meetings and in-person field days. Now, the Story Map provides another avenue for landowners to connect with their local forestry professionals.
The professionals who provided their stories are available for landowners to contact via email on the ‘Connect with a Professional' page. Users can also visit the website for each professional's organization and utilize the ‘Find Your UCCE Office' tool to locate their county's UC Cooperative Extension Office.
Looking to the Future
As the Forest Stewardship Education Initiative and the Post-Fire Forest Resilience programs expand to new areas in 2024, more stories from community members will be spotlighted. The new Story Map has added stories from Santa Cruz County forest landowners, UC ANR Fire Advisors, and Post-Fire Forest Resilience workshop participants.
Though the application's shell has been altered, the mission of the Story Map remains the same: to showcase stories that will inspire landowners to take management action and connect with a statewide network of forestry resources, including UC ANR's Forest Stewardship Education and Post-Fire Forest Resilience workshop programs. Join us and share your story!
Registration is open for the next Forest Stewardship Education workshop in Fresno and Madera counties. Sign up here: ucanr.edu/forestryworskhopregistration
Registration is open for the next Post-Fire Forest Resilience workshop in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties. Sign up here: https://ucanr.edu/sites/forestry/Post-fire_Forest_Resilience/Post-fire_Forest_Resilience_Workshops/
- Author: Konrad Mathesius
Three years of data indicate that liquid-injected biosolids-based fertilizers (LBF, using 'Lystegro' from Lystek) are a viable alternative to conventional forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on a total N basis in wheat rotations in the southern Sacramento Valley. Lab data comparing LBF, pelletized biosolids-based fertilizers (PBF), and urea provide additional insight into soil phosphorous (P), salinity (EC), soil pH, and N mineralization responses after additions of the treatments.
Above: Application of LysteGro (Liquid-Injected Biosolids-Based Fertilizer, LBF) in Solano County
As more California municipalities begin to prioritize the diversion of waste products from landfills into agricultural systems, it is pressing for growers to understand how to utilize new inputs such as liquid-injected biosolids-based fertilizer (LBF) in their operations.
Biosolids-based fertilizers can generally provide subsidized and therefore cost-effective sources of N for small grains and other agronomic crops. However, while there have been long-term biosolids studies using materials derived from biosolids, near-term performance needs to be understood and documented to improve grower confidence and capacity in the utilization of these products.
Figure 1: Yield and protein data from field trials over three site years in the Southern Sacramento Valley. Conventional N fertilizer treatments are indicated in blue. Shades of green represent biosolids treatments, with higher rates represented by progressively darker shades of green. N equivalents are represented numerically in each of the labels (i.e. LBF_57 is 57 pounds of N per acre as Liquid-Injected Biosolids-Based Fertilizer). Letters above each column indicate whether there is a significant difference between treatments. Columns with the same letter are not significantly different from one another.
Figure 2: Yield and protein data from the trials across 3 years modeled at 60, 90, and 120 pounds of total N applied per acre. Differences in predictions are insignificant, indicating that both materials appear to perform similarly in terms of total N applied per acre.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield and protein performance of LBF as an N source in small grains relative to conventional forms of N fertilizer. Lab incubations were intended to provide information on the response of soil P, N, pH, and EC to different treatments over a period of 12 weeks.
Field trials took place over the course of three planting seasons (Table 1). Wheat was typically planted in late November to early December. LBF and nitrogen (as UAN 32 or anhydrous ammonia) were added to fields pre-plant. LBF and anhydrous ammonia treatments were injected six-inches deep. UAN 32 was added prior to incoming rain. No in-season additions of N were added in these trials because biosolids cannot be injected mid-season and the objective of the trial was to make an apples-to-apples comparison based on the type of material.
Table 1: Information on three growing sites/ years where trials took place.
Laboratory incubations were also carried out to examine the behavior of the LBF relative to a pelletized biosolids-based fertilizer (PBF), and conventional N fertilizers (as urea).
Results and Discussion
Results from the field trials indicate that LBF produces generally equivalent yield and protein results in small grains when compared to conventional forms of fertilizer as an N source (Figure 1) when used in pre-plant applications. Other findings indicate that there may be some ancillary benefits associated with the use of LBF as an N source by way of providing a source of P (Figure 3), carbon, micronutrients, and water.
Lab incubations reflected some of the patterns witnessed in the field: Increases in P, slower N mineralization rates, and otherwise similar soil chemistry outcomes relative to that of conventional fertilizer, particularly after 12 weeks (Figure 3).
Organic matter was not seen to increase significantly in-season, but the fact that the LBF material is 10% solids, and those solids are roughly 30% carbon from organic matter means that additions of carbon, micronutrients, and water could be advantageous to crop growth.
Figure 3: N mineralization, available phosphorous, salinity (as electrical conductivity, EC ), and pH results from 12-week lab incubations at 70 degrees F, comparing LBF, PBF, and pelletized urea mixed into a Yolo loam at 90 lbs N / acre. Significant difference between treatments is indicated within a given week by different letters.
Small grain growers working in the southern Sacramento Valley or in similar climates should feel confident that LBFs will likely perform as well as conventional sources of N when applied at similar rates of total N. LBFs may also provide additional benefits to growers in the form of increased P, micronutrients, or additional soil moisture. Growers should also consider the combined use of biosolids and in-season conventional N additions when needed. As always, good N-management and monitoring can greatly improve grower capacity for success.
- Author: Janet Hartin
Welcome to Fall!
It's my favorite season and likely for many of you, as well. Beyond the holidays and extra time with family and friends, nature radiates its beautiful hues. In addition to lovely foliage, deciduous trees often expose exquisitely shaped and sturdy trunks. And, of course, there is the lovely fall foliage showcased by many species.
Did you ever wonder why trees "turn" color in the fall? The short answer: It's primarily a function of long, cool fall nights and short, sunny days. The longer answer? Chlorophyll is responsible for the basic green color of leaves we see in spring and summer and is a necessary component of photosynthesis, which uses sunlight to manufacture sugar (food) that is stored during the dormant period of the year. Carotenoids produce yellow, orange and even brown pigments in crops such as carrots, squash, bananas and many ornamental plants such as daffodils and poppies. Anthocyanins are red and orange in color and are most linked to lavish displays of brilliant fall foliage. They also give rise to coloring of strawberries, plums and cherries.
Here's the kicker: While chlorophyll and carotenoids are present in leaf cell chloroplasts throughout the entire growing season, during fall chlorophyll begins to break down. Voila! The lovely yellow and orange hues we all look forward to seeing are finally exposed. In addition, red hues (called anthocyanins) are produced in fall. So, in reality foliage doesn't "turn" orange or red at all.
Interestingly, the actual timing of color change varies across species and appears to be genetically inherited. The same species will exhibit a similar color scheme in cool temperatures in higher elevations at nearly the same time as it does in warmer lower elevation climates.
The intensity of color can vary quite a bit however. Where do temperatures enter the picture? Both the amount of color and the overall intensity of fall color is very linked to weather conditions that occur prior to and during the actual time the chlorophyll in leaves winds down. The most brilliant displays occur after several warm, sunny days and cool, crisp (above freezing) nights. This is because although lots of sugars are made in leaves during sunny daytime hours, the corresponding cool nights prevent the sugars from moving out. The amount of soil moisture also helps ensure that from year to year fall colors vary even in the same trees. So, either a late spring or a prolonged drought can both delay the display of fall color by a few days or even a few weeks.
What's the recipe for the most brilliant fall display? Most likely a warm, moist spring followed by a warm summer and sunny fall with cool autumn nights. Although fall color is not nearly as spectacular in lower elevations of Southern California compared to other colder areas of the nation, the liquidambar or American sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) offers some pretty impressive fall color and an impressive 300 to 400-year life span. (Did you know that liquidambar got its name because it at one time was a sought-after chewing gum for Native Americans?)
Two “climate-ready” tree species with lovely fall foliage that grow in both the west portion of the county and the desert are the ‘Keith Davey' Pistache, a large street and park tree sporting crimson to scarlet colored foliage and its relative, the ‘Red Push' Pistache, a hybrid between P. atlántica x P. integerrima) which has lovely red foliage as it emerges in Spring as well as Fall. Others include the Raywood Ash (Fraxinus oxycarpa 'Raywood') sporting a reddish-purple hue in the fall, and the ‘Sunburst' Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis 'Sunburst') which offers a vivid display of fall color. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to the Invasive Shot-Hole Borer. If you have one of these lovely trees already, take good care of it to help it stand up to this aggressive pest!
Happy Fall! Enjoy the cooler weather, family and friends, and lovely trees!
Hello Sprout readers, We have a few questions for you…
- Are you tired of your landscape and ready for something new?
- Have you been thinking about replacing all or part of your lawn?
- Are you confused about how to transition from sprinkler to drip irrigation?
- Do you want to attract insect pollinators and birds to your landscape?
If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, this is the workshop for you! Learn how to replace your sprinkler system and convert to drip, hear about some low water use plants, including a list of plants that can provide bloom year-round.
Bring your questions! This is an especially great opportunity to speak with Tim Long, an expert in drip irrigation systems, as well as our other speakers who have experience with growing CA natives and lawn removal.
Workshop cost includes seeds, plants, and presentation materials and helps support our program. If you are unable to afford to pay for this class, not a problem! Just sign up so we know you are coming.
Where: Ag Center, Harvest Hall rooms D&E, 3800 Cornucopia Way, Modesto, 95358.
When: Saturday, October 7, 9:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Questions? (209) 525-6800
Sign Up: https://ucanr.edu/new/front/yard
Instructors: UC Cooperative Extension, Stanislaus County Master Gardeners - Heidi Aufdermaur, Tim Long, Rhonda Allen, Doone Cockrell, and Bobbie Green.
- Author: Morgan P. Doran
- Author: Gabriele Maier
- Author: Roselle Busch
A livestock producer recently contacted UCCE regarding a problem he was having getting livestock dewormers shipped to a California address from out-of-state online retailers. Three different online retailers told him that they don't have a license to ship the products to California. This was a headscratcher since the same retailers have previously shipped the same products to California.
The problem triggered an exploration into the regulation of livestock drugs in California, which is helpful to understand the issue encountered with the online retailers.
Below is a brief description of how livestock drugs are regulated in California, with many references to lists published by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), and a final suggestion on what to do if you encounter the same denial to sell a dewormer or other livestock drug.
Here are the basics of California Livestock Drug Regulations
When you buy livestock drugs from a store or an online retailer you usually don't know or need to know the regulatory process that permits such transactions, unless you are buying an antimicrobial drug that requires a prescription. Drugs that don't require a prescription are classified as either a “livestock drug” or a “restricted livestock drug.” Here are the different livestock drug classifications and their corresponding regulations:
- Livestock Drug – does not have any restrictions to sell or purchase
- Restricted Livestock Drug – the drug retailer is required to have an approved retailer license issued by CDFA to sell the drug in California
- Restricted Livestock Drug, Rx – the retailer has the same requirement as with a Restricted Livestock Drug and the buyer must have a veterinary prescription to purchase the drug
Some restricted livestock drugs are further classified as Type A VFD (Veterinary Feed Directive) or Type A Non-VFD, but most livestock producers don't need to worry about Type A livestock drugs unless they are a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO).
Here you can download a complete list of CDFA Approved Livestock Drug Registrations and their classifications.
More on the Drug Classifications
Most drugs for livestock fall under the “Livestock Drug” classification and include drugs such as antiseptics, topical medications, pain relievers, vitamins, minerals, nutrients, insecticides, and many more.
Drugs in the “Restricted Livestock Drug” category include hormones, dewormers, coccidiostats, medicated feed additives and a handful of other drugs. Here you can find a list of “Restricted Livestock Drugs.” Purchasing “Restricted Livestock Drugs” in California is typically not a problem unless the retailer does not have an approved retailer license with CDFA.
Drugs classified as “Restricted Livestock Drug, Rx” include medically important antimicrobial drugs such as penicillin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine and others. Here is a list of “Restricted Livestock Drugs, Rx” that were available without a prescription prior to 2018 in California.” These are drugs that require a prescription from your veterinarian to be purchased in the state of California, as mandated by the Livestock: Use of Antimicrobial Drugs law (FAC § 14400 – 14408). Other livestock drugs, including antimicrobials such as tulathromycin or gamithromycin have always required a prescription and will continue to do so in the future. If you do not have a veterinarian's prescription, then you must establish a veterinary-client-patient relationship (VCPR) with a veterinarian so that the veterinarian knows you and your livestock operation and has confidence in your animal care practices and ability to properly use and administer the prescription drugs.
Why Did the Retailers Decline Selling the Dewormer Products
While one of the retailers clearly does not have a retailer license to sell restricted livestock drugs in California, the other two retailers do have an approved retailer license. When we contacted the two retailers who do have an approved retailer license, they both indicated that the purchases were denied due to a website error and suggested that the purchaser call their customer service phone number to order the restricted products. Given this response we suspect there may be confusion or glitches among some out-of-state online retailers on selling restricted livestock drugs in California. A contributing factor may be recent changes made across the nation regarding medically important antimicrobials. On June 11, 2023, the US Food and Drug Administration implemented GFI # 263 and all medically important antimicrobials in the nation now require a prescription from a veterinarian. The rest of the country essentially now follows what California has already been practicing since 2018. The drugs that were previously “Restricted Livestock Drugs, Rx” are now Federally labeled as Rx drugs and no longer require a special designation for sale to California residents. It did not, however, change the label status of other “Restricted Livestock Drugs” in California.
If you find yourself in a similar situation in which an online retailer declines the sale of a dewormer product or other restricted livestock drug, you can first check if the retailer has an approved retailer license using this CDFA Restricted Livestock Drug Licensee list. If the retailer is listed as having an approved license then you should call their customer service number to order the product and let them know of the website error so that it can be corrected.
You can find all the referenced lists of restricted livestock drugs, licensed retailers and information about the Livestock Drug Program in California at this CDFA website https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/is/ffldrs/LivestockDrug.html.