Utilizing the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database
Growers face the daunting challenge of managing several pests that exhibit pesticide resistance. In this battle, selecting appropriate pesticides play a crucial role. We know that pesticide resistance is a phenomenon in which certain pest populations develop the ability to withstand the effects of pesticides that were once effective against them. This resistance can occur due to the natural genetic variability within pest populations and is exacerbated by the overuse or misuse of specific pesticides. To prevent or mitigate pesticide resistance, growers can alternate pesticides with different modes of action. This approach involves periodically switching between pesticides that target pests using different biological mechanisms, making it more challenging for pests to develop resistance to all of them. By diversifying the pesticides they use, growers reduce the selective pressure on a single mode of action, slowing down the development of resistance To make informed decisions, agricultural experts can utilize resources such as UC ANR's pest and pesticide recommendations. Another useful tool I just learned about is the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database, available at https://www.pesticideresistance.org/. This resource serves as a comprehensive repository of information related to arthropod pesticide resistance.
The Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database offers a wealth of data on resistance in various arthropod species, such as insects, mites, and ticks. Users can access information about the resistance mechanisms, geographical distribution, and the latest research findings on pesticide resistance in these pests. To use the database effectively, users can search for specific pests or pesticide. Users can utilize the database to identify regions where resistant pest populations are more prevalent, allowing them to tailor their pest management strategies accordingly. What strikes me as fascinating is the availability of data from around the globe. By understanding which pesticides are still effective and which ones may need to be used sparingly or replaced with alternative methods, farmers can make more sustainable and cost-effective choices to protect their crops. Have you used this resource before to make decisions or learn about a pest and it's control? I'd love to hear from you at firstname.lastname@example.org
- Author: Anne Schellman
Beetles are the most plentiful of all insects on the planet, so it's understandable to get a few of them confused. Let's compare photos and other details about each of these beetles, and also mention the green June beetle, a beetle that is commonly mistaken for the Japanese beetle.
Japanese beetles do not have an established population in California. The California Department of Food and Agriculture* (CDFA) maintains traps for detecting this pest throughout the state. When Japanese beetles are found in California, they are targeted for eradication (complete elimination). Read more about this invasive species on the UC IPM website at https://ipm.ucanr.edu/Invasive-and-Exotic-Pests/Japanese-Beetle/
Green Fruit Beetles
Green fruit beetles are a dull green color and much larger than Japanese beetles. You may notice them in late spring and summer as they zoom around your garden. Fortunately, they are rarely a pest. https://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/GARDEN/FRUIT/PESTS/grfruitbeetle.html
Rose Chafer Beetles
The rose chafer beetle resembles the hoplia beetle, however, this pest is not found in California. You can read more about these beetles on this informational page from University of Minnesota https://extension.umn.edu/yard-and-garden-insects/rose-chafers
Hoplia beetles are small, brown, and their undersides look like they've been dusted in gold. If you hold one in your hand, they will “play dead” and not move, making it easy to examine them.
*it's important that we help prevent invasive pests from taking hold in our communities and threatening agricultural crops. You can help by saying "yes" when asked if the Agricultural Commissioner's Office can place traps in your landscape.
Hibiscus are one of many flowers that are edible. Edible flowers can be used to add color, fragrance, flavor, and texture to foods. They can be added to soups and salads raw, used in entreés or desserts, make tea or flavored water, candied, breaded, or fried. They have the benefit of often being healthy while providing few calories.
Before consuming edible flowers, one should always proceed with caution. As with any new food item, slowly introduce specific flowers to the diet to see if any allergic reactions occur. The flowers should come from your garden or trusted source that has not been sprayed with pesticides. Do not use flowers from plants or bouquets that have been purchased from a floral shop, nursery, or garden center, as they may have been treated with pesticides. Many flowers share common names, so always look for the scientific name (genus and species) to ensure you have the right flower.
Choose flowers that have just fully opened, harvesting in morning right after the dew has dried. Flowers need to be carefully washed out, and in many cases, remove the stamens, styles, pistils, and sepals (the parts that hold the pollen and the green stems that hold petals together). Use as soon as possible for maximum flavor.
So Many Flower Choices!
Nasturtiums: these flowers have a delicious, peppery taste similar to watercress and their colorful blooms look lovely in summer salads.
Pansies: come in a wide range of colors with a mild lettuce-like taste which makes them popular for salads. The entire flower can be used.
Marigolds: some varieties have better flavors than others, so experimenting is a must. French marigolds have a bright, citrus-like flavor and a colorful addition to salads. The petals can be cooked in dishes and are sometimes referred to as “poor man's saffron.” Dried petals of African marigolds can be used to make a tea.
Dianthus or pinks: Their petals can be steeped in wine or sugared for use in cake decorations. The petals are unexpectedly sweet, if the bitter white base of the flowers is cut off.
Honeysuckle blossoms, as the name suggests, have a honey-like flavor. They bring a fragrant sweetness to jams, jellies, cakes, candies, and other sweet treats.
Roses: are often used in Middle Eastern dishes in the form of rose water which can add an intense flavor to a dish. The petals can also be sugared or used as garnishes.
Lavender: not only smells wonderful, but English and French lavenders have a sweet flavor used in a wide range of baked goods, ice creams and other recipes. However, use sparingly, as the flavor can be overpowering.
Denise Godbout-Avant has been a Stanislaus County Master Gardener with UC Cooperative Extension since 2020.
UC IPM's online courses for 2023 are now available!
All of UC IPM's courses can be accessed for free. However, if you need Continuing Education Units (CEUs) and a certificate of completion, most courses require payment. From now through October 31, 2023, we are offering 50% off the regular price when you use code ipm50 at checkout.
Certain course certificates are offered for free this year, such as Urban Pyrethroid and Fipronil Use: Runoff and Surface Water Protection and Providing IPM Services in Schools and Child Care Settings.
All courses must be completed by December 30, 2023 if you need CEUs. Upon course completion, be sure to download the Certificate of Completion (PDF file) to receive your CEU credits. Certificates will not be available for download after December 30th.
Visit the UC IPM website to see all the courses that we offer for CEUs by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR). Many of our courses are also accredited by the California Structural Pest Control Board (SPCB), Certified Crop Adviser (CCA), the Western Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture (WCISA), and the Arizona Department of Agriculture.
2023 Pesticide Instructor Training via Zoom
If you are looking to become a certified trainer, this is the workshop for you. Participants who complete this training will become qualified to provide pesticide safety training to fieldworkers and pesticide handlers, as required by California state regulations and the EPA revised Worker Protection Standard. This training is approved by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR). Each participant will receive a certificate and CE is available. All workshops run from 8am to 4:30pm. 6.5 CEUs (Laws & Regulations) from DPR are pending. Registration is now open.
Please contact email@example.com with any questions.
- Author: Dr. Anthony Fulford
What is subsoil?
There are several layers (also known as “horizons” to soil scientists) that can be found when we dig deeper and deeper down into the soil. We can imagine all the individual layers of a soil stacked one on top of the other like a layer cake, this is called the soil profile. The surface soil is the uppermost layer of the soil profile, and the one we are most familiar with, because this is where most of the action takes place. Soil mixing with tillage, compost and fertilizer application, irrigation, plant root growth, and animal activity (including microbes) are mainly concentrated within the soil's surface layer. Additionally, decomposition of plant and leaf litter occurs most rapidly in the surface soil, this eventually leads to the formation of new soil organic matter. In comparison, the subsurface soil, or subsoil, is composed of one or more soil layers that lie below the influence of surface soil activities. There is not a consistent depth at which every surface soil layer changes into the subsoil layer(s), rather the subsoil occurs at a different depth from place to place depending on numerous factors, including some of the factors mentioned previously. This is the reason why it is difficult to determine where the subsoil layer begins in the soil profile.
What does subsoil contain?
What does subsoil look like?
What is subsoil used for?
In general, the subsoil is a less suitable medium for plant growth compared to surface soil because of some of the factors mentioned previously. There are properties of subsoil however that make it suitable for other uses such as a source of “fill soil” for “cut-and-fill” construction operations, as a source of clay for building materials, and as an absorption layer for on-site wastewater disposal.
What can home gardeners do to keep their subsoil in great shape year after year?
What is the substratum layer of soil? Does that layer affect gardening at all, and if so how?
What is the bedrock layer? Does that layer affect gardening at all, and if so how?
Bedrock is the bottom layer of the soil profile layer cake. The bedrock layer consists of solid rock that has not yet been exposed to the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the surface soil and subsoil. In some places, bedrock is the foundation from which the overlying soil layers developed, while in other places, the bedrock layer may have become “buried” by windblown sand or sediment. Bedrock does not directly influence plant growth, but it can determine the type of clay minerals found in different layers of the soil profile.
Dr. Anthony Fulford is the Area Nutrient Management and Soil Quality Advisor for Stanislaus, Merced, and San Joaquin Counties./h3>/h3>/h3>/h3>/h3>/h3>/h3>