UC Thelma Hansen Fund to host climate webinar series, April 27-29
Members of the public are invited to attend a free webinar series discussing the effects of climate change on Southern California. At the three-day webinar Climate Change: What Does It Mean for Southern California?, UCLA climate scientist Daniel Swain and UC Agriculture and Natural Resources scientists will discuss climate changes anticipated, impacts on agriculture, wildfire risk and how to prepare for it, and ways to communicate about climate and to build resilience in communities.
“We are hearing a lot about climate change, but it can be difficult for the average person to figure out what it means for where they live and to understand the science behind it,” said Annemiek Schilder, director of UC Cooperative Extension in Ventura County and UC ANR Hansen Agricultural Research and Extension Center.
Topics of discussion include drought, adaptation for agriculture, fire management on rangelands and wildland-urban interface areas, and how UC Climate Stewards might improve climate understanding and empower community-level stewardship.
“All of us need to be better informed about this new reality and know how to respond to it,” said Schilder, who is organizing the event. “For Southern California, as a region with intense agricultural production and huge urban populations living in proximity to the coast, climate change could have devastating impacts. One of my favorite Latin sayings applies: Serius est quam cogitas – it is later than you think!”
Although residents may be concerned about climate change, they may not know what to do. The scientists will offer suggestions.
“People may feel powerless in the face of something that is happening on a global scale, but there are indeed things that can be done by individuals to mitigate the effects and to build resilience in the face of small and large disasters,” Schilder said. “In fact, doing nothing has a huge cost associated with it. Think of the economic damage already incurred by climatic extremes in recent years and the costs associated with possible future waves of climate refugees coming to the U.S.”
Registration for the webinar series, which is sponsored by the UC Thelma Hansen Fund, is free. To register and see the agenda and speaker biographies, visit http://ucanr.edu/hansensocalclimate.
Daniel Swain, Ph.D., climate scientist, UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability – Climate Change in California: A Drier or Wetter Future—or…Both?
Sarah-Mae Nelson, M.S., UC Climate Stewards academic coordinator – UC Climate Stewards: Fostering Resilience in California Communities and Ecosystems
Tapan Pathak, Ph.D., UC Cooperative Extension specialist in climate adaptation in agriculture, UC Merced – Climate Change Trends and Impacts on Agriculture in California and Ventura
Ben Faber, Ph.D., UCCE soils, water and subtropical crops advisor, Ventura County – Heat, Wind, Freeze, Wind, Repeat
Nicki Anderson, UCCE community education specialist, Ventura County – Overview of the Healthy Soils Program
Max Moritz, Ph.D., UCCE wildfire specialist, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, UC Santa Barbara – How Can We Address the Growing Wildland-Urban Interface Problem in California?
Matthew Shapero, M.A.,UCCE livestock and range advisor, Ventura and Santa Barbara counties – Fire and Rangelands: Impacts on Ventura County Livestock Agriculture Counties
Sabrina Drill, Ph.D., UCCE natural resources advisor, Ventura and Los Angeles counties – SAFER, Sustainable and Fire-Resistant Homes & Landscapes
On Wednesday, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) granted a Secretary of Energy Achievement Award to a team including two Rausser College researchers, assistant Cooperative Extention specialist Daniel Sanchez and PhD candidate Bodie Cabiyo. The award, with a total of 32 recipients, is one of the highest internal, non-monetary recognitions that DOE employees and contractors can receive.
DOE recognized teams for advancements such as understanding crude oil characteristics, efforts in COVID-19 clinical testing at National Labs, and the development of high-performance computing systems to combat the coronavirus pandemic. Sanchez and Cabiyo's team "Getting to Neutral Carbon Emissions" was selected for their outstanding service and research contributions, both to the agency's mission and the benefit of the nation, in greenhouse gas emissions reduction scholarship.
The team's final report, titled “Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California,” provides a comprehensive study of technologies that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It offers frameworks for developing public policy and legislative action based on scientific data, in order to help California achieve carbon neutrality by 2045 or sooner. Sanchez and Cabiyo contributed research to help estimate the amount of forest biomass that can be used in negative emission pathways, as a result of managing one million acres of forest each year. They used economically-driven models to identify the most cost-efficient forest management strategies for the team's Forest Carbon Plan goals.
In the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Sanchez studies carbon dioxide removal, bioenergy, and climate policy. With a background in engineering and energy systems, he analyzes the commercialization and deployment of carbon removal technologies. In the Energy and Resources Group, Cabiyo uses interdisciplinary approaches to understand land-based solutions to climate change. Currently, he is studying forest carbon systems and how new technologies impact emissions mitigation.
In the aftermath of megafires that devastated forests of the western United States, attention turns to whether forests will regenerate on their own or not. Forest managers can now look to a newly enhanced, predictive mapping tool to learn where forests are likely to regenerate on their own and where replanting efforts may be beneficial.
The tool is described in a study published in the journal Ecological Applications by researchers from the University of California, Davis; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Cal Fire and the U.S. Forest Service.
“Huge fires are converting forested areas to landscapes devoid of living trees,” said lead author Joseph Stewart, a postdoctoral researcher at UC Davis and with USGS. “Managers need timely and accurate information on where reforestation efforts are needed most.”
The tool, also known as the Post-fire Spatial Conifer Regeneration Prediction Tool (POSCRPT), helps forest managers identify within weeks after a fire where sufficient natural tree regeneration is likely and where artificial planting of seedlings may be necessary to restore the most vulnerable areas of the forest.
Fewer conifers expected
Conifers, or plants with cones such as pine trees, dominate many forests in western North America. The study found that conifers are less likely to regenerate after fires when seedlings face drier climate conditions, especially in low-elevation forests that already experience frequent drought stress. Overall, fewer conifers are expected to grow in California's lower elevations following wildfire due to climate and drought conditions.
“We found that when forest fires are followed by drought, tree seedlings have a harder time, and the forest is less likely to come back,” said Stewart.
A UC Davis team collected post-fire recovery data from more than 1,200 study plots in 19 wildfires that burned between 2004 and 2012, as well as 18 years of forest seed production data. Ecologists at USGS collected and identified over 170,000 seeds from hundreds of seed traps. The scientists combined these data with multispectral satellite imagery, forest structure maps, climate and other environmental data to create spatial models of seed availability and regeneration probability for different groups of conifers, including pines and firs.
Forest managers have used a prototype of the tool in recent years to better understand where to focus regeneration efforts. The new upgrade incorporates information on post-fire climate and seed production and includes an easy-to-use web interface expected to increase the tool's accuracy and use.
“This work is a great example of how multiple partners can come together to solve major resource management problems that are arising from California's climate and fire trends,” said co-author Hugh Safford, regional ecologist for the USDA Forest Service's Pacific Southwest Region and a member of the research faculty at UC Davis.
Additional co-authors include Phillip van Mantgem, Adrian Das, Nathan Stephenson, Jon Keeley and Micah Wright of USGS; Derek Young and James Thorne of UC Davis; Kristen Shive of Save the Redwoods League; Haiganoush Preisler of U.S. Forest Service; and Kevin Welch of California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection.
The study was funded by the USGS' Southwest Climate Adaptation Science Center, Ecosystems Mission Area and Land Change Science Program.
After a lengthy and rigorous review by independent auditors, UC Merced can proudly announce it is the first public research university in the country to achieve carbon neutrality, two years ahead of its goal.
“UC Merced has been on the cutting edge of sustainability in higher education since its inception. We are proud of our many achievements in reducing our impact on the environment, and this recognition of our carbon neutrality stands among the most meaningful we have yet received,” Chancellor Juan Sánchez Muñoz said.
The campus actually achieved carbon neutrality in 2018, seven years before former UC President Janet Napolitano's initiative goal to have all 10 campuses carbon neutral by 2025. However, the emissions verification and validation take time. UC Merced retained a third-party verifier to review and audit the campus inventories of greenhouse gas emissions specifically from onsite fossil fuel combustion and purchased electricity.
“This was a voluntary step we took, and usually take, to ensure accuracy and transparency,” said Breeana Sylvas, assistant director of the Office of Sustainability. “We wanted to ensure we reflected the full spectrum of our campus emissions profile.”
The inventory results are reported to The Climate Registry (TCR), which conducts its own review. TCR is a nonprofit organization with a mission of empowering its members to reduce their carbon footprints. It does not certify organizations as carbon neutral, but rather works with member organizations to measure, report and verify their carbon footprints.
“I'm very proud that our university has achieved carbon-neutral campus operations and hope we can be an inspiration for others across the state and nation,” said distinguished professor Roger Bales, a member of the UC Global Climate Leadership Council. “The current carbon neutrality announcement is an important milestone in our long journey to create a just, sustainable future.”
Since its founding, UC Merced has set stringent sustainability goals, including zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. The campus is green from the ground up, with every campus building LEED certified by the U.S. Green Building Council.
In addition to the wealth of sustainability and climate-related research projects across all three schools, carbon neutrality has been a campuswide effort, with faculty, staff and students engaged in climate action planning. Contributing programs include faculty integrating sustainable practices in their labs, students analyzing building operations and energy use, and student research on carbon offsets and carbon sequestration. The campus has integrated engagement programs as an opportunity for students to learn about sustainability measures on campus and to carry the culture of sustainability out into the wider world.
“Supporting the campus carbon neutrality goal has been rewarding,” said Carlin Coleman, a graduating senior studying environmental engineering, who works in the Office of Sustainability. “Often, people don't recognize the small measures that can reduce impacts on the environment. It makes me proud to know that my actions are directly affecting our campus goal.”
Other efforts include prioritizing student-led programs to reduce greenhouse gas impacts in buildings, developing high-performance buildings, installing renewable energy generation onsite, making clean power purchases and using carbon offsets.
“Our priority is to align operational goals with the mission of the university, student learning and research,” Sylvas said. “This includes reducing energy use, identifying and utilizing clean and renewable sources for onsite combustion, and mitigating remaining emissions generated through gas with offsets.”
Even as the Merced 2020 Project doubled the size of campus and added 13 new buildings over the past three years, UC Merced has been able to keep its energy use-intensity relatively level, she said. While the construction of each building meets high standards, the campus has modeled building efficiency within the state.
“Past revisions of the energy code for the state of California were updated because of advancements made by UC Merced,” Director of Sustainability Mark Maxwell said. “Specifically, lighting control methods designed into buildings, which included multiple controlled lighting systems, occupancy sensors, and lighting control management systems.” The campus is looking to eliminate fossil fuel combustion in future capital developments, he said.
Besides its own goals and the UC-wide carbon neutrality initiative, UC Merced is also a signatory of the Second Nature Carbon Commitment, an extension of the Presidents' Climate Leadership Commitments. Second Nature is a non-governmental organization committed to accelerating climate action in, and through, higher education, and recognizes schools that have achieved carbon neutrality.
“Congratulations to UC Merced on this major accomplishment,” Second Nature President Tim Carter said. “Achieving carbon neutrality for higher education institutions is not an easy undertaking. It requires tremendous commitment and continuous work on the campus and within their community to do so. To do so earlier than their goal neutrality date illustrates just how committed UC Merced is.”
“We have a dynamic, robust program that is engaging and utilizing multiple avenues that have achieved and are maintaining our goal, and we thank our incredible campus community members, all of whom are making a difference. We are just getting started,” Sylvas said. “This is just the beginning.”
Do you have an opinion on how California wildlands are managed? UC Cooperative Extension specialists Safeeq Khan, Tapan Pathak and Toby O'Geen are conducting a need assessment survey about land management and ecosystem climate solutions.
Khan, Pathak and O'Geen are part of the Innovation Center for Ecosystem Climate Solutions (CECS), a state-funded collaboration between eight California research institutions, including UC ANR, working to develop innovative solutions to managing California's wildlands to reduce negative impacts of drought and climate change. Their goal is to identify land management practices that simultaneously enhance carbon sequestration, reduce wildfire severity, protect watersheds, and increase ecological and community resilience.
Khan would like your help in identifying problems and issues like wildfire and water supply, multiple benefits and beneficiaries of wildlands management, data and information gaps, and major implementation barriers.