- Author: Chris M. Webb
Did you know that in addition to providing the water on which farmers rely, rain flushes salts from the soil?
Irrigated water in much of Ventura County is pumped out of the ground into which naturally-occurring salts such as sulfates and chlorides as well as molecules of individual elements such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium are dissolved. Without adequate rain, these salts accumulate in the soil; this may cause damage to plants, especially trees.
Rain, on the other hand, is free of salts except for a little dissolved nitrogen. We absolutely rely on it to leach the salts out of the soil that comes with irrigation water, reducing soil salinity.
Current Ventura County UCCE research into irrigation practices to manage salinity and conserve water will be presented at the Strawberry Irrigation Field Day on Feb. 18.
- Author: Chris M. Webb
Crop rotation can improve soil quality and health while helping to manage pests, disease and weeds.
Funded in part by Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE), the Natural Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service (NRAES) has recently published a book, Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. This resource can be downloaded for free. Hardcopies of the book are available for sale at the same site.
In addition to providing instructions for rotation planning, other features of this book include:
- Problems and opportunities for over 500 crop sequences
- Characteristics of more than 60 crops and 70 weeds
- Crop diseases hosted by over 80 weed species
- Modes of transmission for 250 diseases of 24 crops
- Thirteen sample four- and five-year vegetable and grain crop rotations
- Managing Crop Rotation Chart with key tasks & steps
- Sample worksheets and calculations
- Step-by-step procedure for determining crop rotation plans
- Author: Chris M. Webb
The following home garden water conservation tips were written by Ventura County UCCE Farm Advisor Ben Faber. This article and other practical pieces for home gardeners can be found on this section of our website.
When to water? How much to water? These are two very important questions that need to be answered before watering lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens if we want to provide the most beneficial use of this resource. Because of variability in plant size, weather (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, clouds and fog), types of soil and water, and the method of watering, it is difficult to give one recommendation that is true for all situations. Additionally, watering plants on a fixed schedule subjects them to periods of too much water and at other times to drought, because weather and plant size change. A young avocado tree in December may use only one gallon per day while a 20-foot tree in August might use 35 gallons per day.
The following are general principles. As plants increase in size, rooting becomes deeper, and the frequency of waterings can be decreased because more water is stored in the larger root zone. The time to water can be determined by the appearance of the plant, by the soil moisture content, or by estimating the amount of water used since the last irrigation.
. In most cases, plants can wilt slightly at midday before it is necessary to apply water the following day. Alternatively, i if you dig with a trowel or shovel down to 1 ft depth and find the soil is dry, then this might be used as an indicator of the time to water.
Soils and Water
In similar climates, water use by plants generally is the same regardless of the soil from which it is taken; however, soil variability is important in watering. A sandy soil requires more frequent, short watering than a clay soil to prevent water loss beneath the root zone. With heavy soils, it is best to water less frequently because these soils will hold more water. Heavy soils typically do not absorb water rapidly, so to avoid runoff it may be necessary to split the watering times into two or more periods. Adding organic matter to clay and sandy soils will increase the rate of water penetration in day soils and the water-holding capacity of sandy soils.
Other than seedlings, which are shallow-rooted, water should be supplied to a minimum depth of 1 ft in the soil (approximately 1 inch depth of water on the surface of the soil will infiltrate down to 1 ft). An area 10 ft x 10 ft will require about 62 gallons of water to filter down to 1 ft. This would be similar to 1 inch of rain or lawn sprinkling on the same 100 sq. ft. Infrequent but deeper watering will result in a deeper rooting system, and the plant will be better able to sustain periods of high water demand. Less frequent watering will also minimize loss of water by evaporation from the soil surface.
During or after a watering, the depth to which soil moisture has been restored can be determined by probing the soil with a metal rod not more than 3/16 inch in diameter. A big screwdriver is also a good tool for probing. The force needed to push the probe will increase suddenly when it reaches dry soil. The length of time of sprinkler operation or amount of applied water that was used to achieve a certain soil depth can then be used as a standard for future waterings.
Trees and Shrubs
In a winter with adequate rainfall, the whole root zone is filled with water near the end of the rainy season; however, in dry winters, plants need supplemental watering. The amount of water to apply is the amount required to replace the water taken from the soil by roots and lost by evaporation from the soil surface since the last rainfall or watering. Water to a depth of 2 ft (approximately 2 inches of water or 125 gallons per 100 sq. ft) under the drip line (canopy) of the tree or shrub. With deeper-rooted trees, for every third watering, apply twice as much, or four inches (250 gallons per 100 sq. ft). This will ensure that the deeper roots will be maintained and that various salts in the water are leached from around the roots.
Ideally, water applied to trees and shrubs should be ponded at the site by building berms around the plant. This insures that the applied water goes directly to the plant and is not wasted. It also makes it possible to visualize 2 inches of applied water. For trees it is best to build two berms: one 6 inches high, located in a 1 ft radius around the trunk and a second following the drip line of the tree. The interior berm is created to prevent diseases caused by water standing around the trunk of a tree or shrub. For trees located in lawns,
&water bubbler at the base of the tree can be used to deep water the tree, without applying excess to the lawn.
Because roots of trees and shrubs often extend in all directions far beyond their longest branches and comingle, it may not make sense to water them individually. A more practical procedure may be to create dikes around a group of these plants. The total impounded area of each basin should not be greater than 50 sq. ft and the surface within should be as level as possible. The 50-sq. ft area and levelness will encourage an even distribution of water to the various plants.
Depending on the hose diameter and water pressure, many household hoses apply about 5 gallons per minute. So to apply water with a subsoil irrigator to a tree with a 10-ft-diameter canopy, it is necessary to run the water for 25 minutes (2 inches of water on 100 sq. ft = 125 gallons). The bubbler should be moved every five to ten minutes around the tree so that all the root zone is watered. Since the 5-gallon-per-minute rate is an average, one’s own situation can be measured by filling a five-gallon bucket with your hose and timing how long it takes to fill.
Vegetables and Flowers
Vegetables or flowers can be grown in sunken beds or level basins that can be flooded in the same fashion as trees and shrubs. Sunken beds should not be larger than 50 sq. feet so that they can be filled rapidly to achieve uniformity with the depth of water to be applied. Furrows also can be used in growing flowers and vegetables. Spacing of the furrows should be such that water from the furrows wets the whole bed. The spacing of furrows will vary with soil type. Sandy soils need closer spacing to avoid loss of water out of the root zone when trying to wet the whole bed, while clay soils can have wider spacing. The amount of water applied by furrows is the amount needed to move across to the center of the bed. By probing with a stick or trowel in the center of the bed, it is possible to determine the depth of water and the amount of time needed to continue to run the water. Canvas soaker hose or drip tape are also good ways to water beds. The length of time to run them can be determined by using the calculation used for trees or simply by probing the soil to find the depth of water infiltrated.
Studies by the University of California at Riverside have demonstrated that many turf grass species can get by with as little as 60% of optimum watering with little stress. Most lawns have areas that dry sooner than other parts of the lawn. Let these areas be your indicator for watering the rest of the lawn. When the grass in the dry area becomes dull colored and does not spring back when stepped on, water the entire lawn. The amount or length of water application should be enough so that a stiff metal rod or screwdriver can be pushed 1 ft into the soil. This depth for most soil textures represents about 1 inch of rain. Alternatively, cans can be set out in the lawn, the system turned on, and the length of time it takes to collect an average of 1 inch of water can be used in subsequent waterings. This test will also show how evenly water is being applied and can suggest ways to correct sprinkler performance.
Sprinklers should be run so that no runoff occurs. If water has not penetrated to 1 ft and runoff occurs, turn the system off for an hour then turn it back on to apply the needed amount. Spading or aerating lawns can help water penetration.
Some Do’s and Don’ts
Select plants that are adapted to warmer, drier climates.
Adjust sprinklers for uniform water distribution.
Fix leaky faucets and lines.
Water early in the day to reduce evaporative loss.
Mulch beds to reduce evaporation from the soil surface..
Shelter container plants from winds.
Don’t sprinkle during windy or hot periods of the day.
Don’t put the water on the street and sidewalk; put it on the plants.
Don’t use softened water (sodium treated), if it can be avoided; it will harm most plants.
Don’t put sprinklers on a timer that is not adjusted with the weather; failure to adjust your timer assures you of wasting water.
- Author: Chris M. Webb
Ventura County UCCE Farm Advisor, Ben Faber shares his knowledge of avocados. Today’s topic:
The most important thing you can do before planting is assess the pH of the soil before planting. Avocados are very sensitive to soil pH greater than 7. Their uptake of iron and zinc can be terribly compromised and they will suffer. Correcting the soil pH prior to planting is the easiest way to approach the problem, rather than trying to correct it later when the tree is in the ground. Otherwise, it becomes expensive and takes a long time to correct the problem without killing the tree. Elemental sulfur (not popcorn sulfur) in pellets is the easiest way to accomplish this. Watering and waiting for the sulfur to make the change and then checking to make sure the pH is really down takes about 6 months.
As for nutrients, though, the most commonly required ones are nitrogen and potassium. These can be applied as either organic (fish, soybean, manure, etc.) or synthetic forms (urea, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, etc.) or a combination. The thing to remember is that the tree likes small, frequent amounts of nutrients because of its shallow root system. And because it is a subtropical plant, it goes quiescent in the winter and when the soil is cold. So nutrient applications like nitrogen are best applied when soils are warm, from spring though fall.
Newly-planted trees do not need supplemental nutrients, they are loaded up from the nursery and the young root system can easily burn until it gets established. In the first year, use the equivalent of 1 ounce per tree of nitrogen in 4- 5 applications over the spring/fall. The following year double that amount and do so for each succeeding year for the next 5 years. The more small applications you make the less total nitrogen fertilizer you will use. Use the equivalent amount of nitrogen whether it is a synthetic source or an organic source. Once the tree has started to develop a thick leaf mulch, it is possible to back off on nitrogen applications because now the mulch is contributing some of the nutrients. In many garden situations where mulch is maintained, by year 10 the nutrient status is self-sustaining and nitrogen fertilizer may not be needed at all. Just keep an eye on the leaf color to make sure it stays green, indicating adequate nitrogen.
When the avocado starts bearing fruit about year three, it may need potassium. This is not necessary in all situations throughout the state, but the harvested avocado fruit contains twice as much potassium as nitrogen and when the fruit is removed the tree can start showing potassium deficiency symptoms. This can be analyzed at a lab, but probably the best thing to do is just apply potassium sulfate at an equivalent rate to nitrogen or to use triple 15 fertilizer to meet both the nitrogen and potassium needs. Organic growers can use organic potassium sulfate or kelp. Although phosphorus is used by avocados, there are no documented cases in California where supplemental phosphorus needs to be applied.
- Author: Chris M. Webb
The University of California Communication Services Division has created a new website. The website is designed to help people easily and quickly find hundreds of free, online publications written by UC ANR (Agricultural and Natural Resources) authors.
The site has much to offer for everyone. The most popular publications are located in the center of the homepage. On the left hand side, the site is easily browsed using the following subjects:
- Agricultural Production
- Agronomy and Range
- Animal Science
- En español
- Food Safety
- Home Gardening/Landscape
- Natural Resources
- Nutrition and Health
- Organic Production
- Pest Advice
- Soil, Water and Irrigation
- Vegetable Crop Production
- Youth, Family/Community
This growing collection of free information can be found at https://ucanr.org/freepubs/./span>