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Title Fumigant emission reductions with TIF warrant regulatory changes
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Abstract With methyl bromide's phase-out, most growers have turned to alternative fumigants, particularly 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin. These alternatives are tightly regulated because they are classified as toxic air contaminants and volatile organic compounds; the latter combine with other substances to produce ground-level ozone (smog). Two ambient air monitoring studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of totally impermeable film (TIF) to reduce emissions from shank applications of chloropicrin and 1,3-D. In 2009, a study demonstrated that TIF reduced chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 45% and 38%, respectively, but TIF did not reduce total emissions when it was cut after 6 days. In 2011, increasing the tarp period from 5 to 10 days decreased chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 88% and 78%, and their total emissions by 64% and 43%, respectively. Concurrent dynamic flux chamber results corroborated the ambient air monitoring data. These studies provide regulatory agencies with mitigation measures that should allow continued fumigant use at efficacious application rates.

Authors
Ajwa, Husein
CE Specialist
Soil and Water Management. Methyl bromide alternatives. Cool-season vegetables.
Stanghellini, Michael
Plant Pathologist & Professor
Ecology, epidemiology, and control of root-infecting soil-borne fungal plant pathogens
Gao, Suduan
Research Soil Scientist
Sullivan, David A. : D.A. Sullivan is Certified Consulting Meteorologist, Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc.
Khan, Afiqur : A. Khan is Postdoctoral Scholar, UC Davis
Ntow, William : W. Ntow is Postdoctoral Scholar, UC Davis
Qin, Ruijun : R. Qin is Assistant Project Scientist, UC Davis.
Publication Date Jul 1, 2013
Date Added Aug 29, 2013
Copyright © The Regents of the University of California
Copyright Year 2013
Description

Increasing the standard tarping period from 5 days to 10 days reduced peak and total emissions significantly in a 2011 trial.

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