Fumigation is necessary in order to produce healthy seedlings for the forest nursery industry. Seedling yield and quality decreases substantially in the absence of fumigation, thereby negatively affecting profits. In the short term, reduced rates of alternative fumigant chemistries appear to have similar efficacy to the traditional treatment of methyl bromide + chloropicrin (350 lbs/acre 67:33). Low permeability plastic films allow the rates to be reduced without negatively affecting pathogen and weed control efficacy, and also result in smaller buffer zone restrictions. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate the effect of reduced-rate alternative fumigants on long-term disease control. At this time, biological control agents do not appear to offer the disease control that is needed for sustainable seedling production.