Posts Tagged: citrus
UC Ag Expert talks about Fuller rose beetle
Date: January 23, 2019
Time: 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM
Contact: Petr Kosina firstname.lastname@example.org
Sponsor: UC Ag Experts Talk
Register in advance for webinar at
Participants of this webinar will receive 1 DPR hour of 'Other' CE units and 1 CCA hour of IPM CE units
Note: This webinar has no fee.
Dr. Beth Grafton-Cardwell, citrus IPM specialist and research entomologist, will discuss the lifecycle, damage to citrus, monitoring, methods of control and export issues associated with Fuller rose beetle. Participants can use the chat function of the webinar to ask questions.
fuller rose beetle
It is that time of year and we should be alert to threat of freezing weather and damage to trees. Last winter was one of the warmest on record, but there was still a sneak cold blast around December 25 that caused some problems in some areas. Wet winters tend to have lower frost threats, and even though wet is forecast for this winter, the forecast is erratic, as usual. That still leaves January which historically is when most of our damaging frosts occur. Fox Weather on the CA Avocado Commission is forecasting some cold weather coming up, so growers need to be prepared for the worst.
Here are some links to frost information, preparing for frost and managing frost damage to trees.
A Frost Primer
The forecast is for north winds, which often means cold, dry air and often with winds. Winds mean no inversion and no warm air that can be introduced at ground level to warm trees. If this occurs, running a wind machine can make the damage worse. Wind machines and orchard heaters work on the principle of mixing that warmer air higher up – 20-100 or so feet higher than ground level which has colder air. When temperatures drop, the air is dry (wet-bulb temp below 28 deg F) and there is no inversion, running a wind machine can just stir up cold air and cause worse conditions (freeze-drying). It's better to not run the machine. The only thing left to do is to run the microsprinklers during the day so that the water can absorb the day's heat. Then turn the water off before sunset so that evaporative cooling from the running water isn't accentuated. Then when temperatures drop near 32 at night and the dewpoint is much below that, it's time to start the water again and let it run until sunrise (when risk is less). Running water works even if the water freezes. This is due to the release of heat when water goes from liquid to frozen state. This 1-2 degrees can mean the difference between frost damage and no damage. Also, ice on fruit and leaves can insulate the fruit. As the ice melts at the surface of the plant, it releases heat, protecting the plants. If there is not sufficient water to run the whole orchard, it's best to pick out the irrigation blocks that are the coldest or the ones you definitely want to save and run the water there continuously. Running the water and turning it off during the night to irrigate another block can lead to colder temperatures in both blocks.
Keep warm this winter.
and check out this Wind Machine You Tube:
Wind Machine frost
“Wood chip mulches will decrease soil nitrogen and spread pathogens” A Misunderstanding that is addressed below by:
Chalker-Scott, L. , Extension Specialist And Associate Professor, Washington State University
Downer, A.J., Farm Advisor, University of California
With chronic drought and/or record-breaking summer temperatures making it increasingly important to conserve water, many gardeners and groundkeepers are using landscape mulches. The ideal landscape mulch not only moderates soil temperature and conserves water, but also:
- reduces compaction;
- provides nutrients;
- enhances plant growth;
- provides habitat for beneficial insects;
- helps control weeds, pests and disease; and
- reduces the need for pesticides and fertilizers.
In addition, landscape mulches should be readily available, affordable, and easy to apply and replace. A review of the literature on landscape mulches (Chalker-Scott, 2007) determined that organic mulches are overall the best choice, with deep layers of coarse woody material providing most or all of the above-listed benefits. Arborist wood chips (created from leaves and branches chipped up by tree service companies) are a particularly good option as they are generally inexpensive and easy to obtain anywhere trees are managed.
Fortunately, none of these concerns are validated by research. Here are some brief explanations (Chalker-Scott, 2007) targeted to our audience:
- Wood chips will not draw nitrogen from the soil unless they are incorporated into it. When used as mulch, arborist chips have no effect on underlying soil nitrogen levels, except to increase them over time.
- Wood chip mulches, even those made from diseased trees, will not transmit pathogens to healthy plant roots. If diseased chips are incorporated into the soil they could infect plant roots, but field evidence of this is rare. Arborist chips that are stockpiled even for a few days undergo severe pathogen reduction through microbial attack within the pile (Downer et al., 2008).
- Wood chips, or any other organic mulch, will not change the pH of the soil. The soil volume is vast, and any acidification would occur only at the mulch-soil interface where it would quickly be neutralized.
- Wood chips, even those made from black walnut or cedar, will not kill landscape plants. There is no reliable evidence that chemical inhibition from decaying wood actually occurs in a landscape situation.
- Wood chip mulches do not lend themselves to tunnel building like landscape fabric and other sheet mulches do: they collapse. Termites do not eat wood chips unless they have no choice; they are negatively affected by some of the chemicals wood contains. In fact, arborist chip mulches house a number of beneficial insects and other species that naturally control pests.
For arborist wood chip mulches to be the most effective (Chalker-Scott, 2007), they should be:
- coarse – no less than ½” diameter – so water and air can move freely through them;
- applied as soon as possible after chipping both to maximize the materials available to microbes and to capture the nutrients released by their activity in the soil; and
- maintained at a depth of at least 4” to prevent weed growth.
Tuning up for Pruning Up--Care, Maintenance and Utilization of Hand Pruning Tools
University of California
Fall is passing into winter and the bare sticks in my deciduous fruit orchard are calling me to my annual fruit tree pruning chores. I can prune my entire orchard with very few tools: a good pair of bypass clippers, a similar set of loppers (optional) and a high quality “razor” or “tri edge” saw. Most tools require some maintenance especially the clippers and loppers. Sharpening is the usual need. Clippers are easily sharpened but modern saw blades can not be sharpened by gardeners and should be replaced. Sometimes it is just as easy to buy a new saw, replacing the old one when blade eventually dulls or is bent from over zealous use (illustration 1)
Illustration 1: Tri-edge saw blades are made from stainless steel and are not easily sharpened. When dull or bent they should be replaced
Before using your pruning tools inspect them for signs of damage. Blades should be sharp and unbent. Loppers should have their rubber “bumpers” intact otherwise your knuckles will be smashed after exerting force on a difficult branch. Sharp tools offer less resistance and actually decrease injury to users. One exception here is with the modern “tri-edge” or “razor” saws. These saws can cut so quickly that you may pass through the branch you are cutting and continue on to some part of your anatomy quickly ripping your flesh. I have suffered more cuts (some serious) from these saws than from any other gardening activity. They should be used with careful precision, not with the wild abandon and pruning fervor of the craven academic desperate for real world gardening experience. A thick long sleeved shirt and gloves will also help prevent cuts from hand pruning equipment.
Bypass clippers are so termed because the blade passes by the hook. To sharpen these, find the bevel on the edge of the clippers and align a small file to the same angle of this bevel, and file the bevel until you can feel the sharpness with your finger (Illustration 2). Never sharpen the back side of the bevel—this will create a gap, and every time you cut, a flap of tissue will remain. Back bevel sharpened clippers will require blade replacement or grinding until the back bevel is gone. The hook does not require sharpening, do not attempt to file it. Repeat this process with lopper blades.
Illustration 2: To sharpen bypass clipper blades follow the angle of the bevel. Do not sharpen the flat side of the blade
When you are done pruning for the day, wipe the blades of your clippers and loppers with an oil soaked rag or apply a few drops of oil and rub it into the blade. Most modern saws blades are made from stainless steel and require no oil protection.
As a Cooperative Extension Advisor, one of the most common questions I receive is: “Should I sanitize my clippers between cuts or between uses on various plants?”. Indeed, many publications, extension leaflets, gardening columns, and other sources make broad recommendations to sanitize clippers after every cut. Some articles even compare various products for their killing efficacy. Often blind recommendations are made to sanitize clippers when the pathogen is not even known or specified. It is not necessary to sanitize your clippers when pruning most garden plants and fruit trees. There are a few pathogens that are spread by dirty pruning equipment but published evidence that they are spread by hand pruning equipment (especially clippers) is nil. One exception is palm wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. canariensis which is easily spread by saws. Some of the canker fungi caused by Botryosphaeria can also be spread by pruning equipment. With many of these pathogens, a wound is required for infection so it may not be that the clippers are spreading disease so much as providing an entry point (infection court) so that pathogens have a way to enter.
In my garden, I have never, and will never need to sanitize clippers between cuts. However, conditions vary across the US, and in some places rain, humidity, and temperature are more favorable for disease development. To avoid spreading pathogens, prune during the dormant season, when the likelihood of pathogen activity is lowest. Apply dormant sprays containing copper to limit the onset of new fungal diseases that may enter pruning wounds. If you still feel you need to protect wounds from dirty clippers I like to use the flame from a plumber's torch to sanitize. A few seconds along the cutting edge front and back kills all pathogens (Illustration 3). Similar for a saw but efficacy is increased if the saw gullets are wiped clean with a cloth and then the flame applied. The only time I take these measures is when I know I am working with plants that can be inoculated with pathogens by pruning (which is rare).
Illustration 3: A plumber's torch will rapidly sanitize saws and blades when pathogens are present in plant tissues.
When pruning garden plants, there are a plethora of recommendations on how to make cuts. Rose experts have extolled the virtues of an angled cut so water runs away quickly, flush cuts used to be recommended by arborists as the highest quality cut. These examples are without research foundation. Cuts on woody plants should be angled to produce a circular exposure that is the smallest surface area possible. We abandoned flush cuts many years back because they cut into protective zones that limit decay in trees. Some gardeners feel compelled to cover their cuts with a pruning paint and there is a similar paucity of research to support this practice. Leave pruning wounds unpainted.
WESTMINSTER, Colorado - November 23, 2018 - Herbicides have been instrumental in managing Italian ryegrass, a weed that frequently competes with perennial crops in California. Herbicide-resistant populations have become increasingly commonplace, though, including paraquat-resistant Italian ryegrass found recently in a California prune orchard.
A team of scientists set out to determine if the paraquat-resistant population might also be resistant to other postemergence herbicides. Seven other herbicides commonly used in fruit tree and nut tree crops were included in the study, including clethodim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate, glyphosate, pyroxsulam, rimsulfuron and sethoxydim.
Researchers found the paraquat-resistant population was also resistant to both clethodim and glyphosate. Among the remaining herbicides, glufosinate, rimsulfuron and sethoxydim were found to deliver the best postemergence control. Unfortunately, though, other populations of Italian ryegrass have developed resistance to the three herbicides, indicating their effectiveness may be short-lived.
"Overreliance on postemergence herbicides from a variety of chemical classes can result in weed populations that exhibit multiple resistances," says Caio Augusto Brunharo, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of California, Davis. "Effective herbicide-resistance management programs are necessary for sustainable weed control."
The researchers recommended a number of preemergence herbicides as control options for Italian ryegrass in fruit and nut tree crops, including tank mixes containing indaziflam and flumioxazin.
Full text of the article, "Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in California Perennial Crops: Characterization, Mechanism of Resistance and Chemical Management" is now available in Weed Science Volume 66, Issue 6.
About Weed Science
Weed Science is a journal of the Weed Science Society of America, a nonprofit scientific society focused on weeds and their impact on the environment. The publication presents peer-reviewed original research related to all aspects of weed science, including the biology, ecology, physiology, management and control of weeds. To learn more, visit http://www.
italaian ryefrass resistance