Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education
University of California
Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education

Posts Tagged: citrus

Get the Latest on Fuller Rose Beetle/Weevil

UC Ag Expert talks about Fuller rose beetle

Date: January 23, 2019

Time: 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Contact: Petr Kosina

Sponsor: UC Ag Experts Talk

Location: Webinar

Event Details

Register in advance for webinar at

Participants of this webinar will receive 1 DPR hour of 'Other' CE units and 1 CCA hour of IPM CE units

Note: This webinar has no fee. 

Dr. Beth Grafton-Cardwell, citrus IPM specialist and research entomologist, will discuss the lifecycle, damage to citrus, monitoring, methods of control and export issues associated with Fuller rose beetle.  Participants can use the chat function of the webinar to ask questions.

Event Reminder

And a note about why it's called Fuller's and why Rose

Weiss: Fuller







OF NEW JERSEY, 1828 - 1896


By Harry B. Weiss


From a biographical viewpoint some of our early writers on insects

have been neglected in our entomological literature in favor of their

more prolific and outstanding contemporaries. Andrew S. Fuller was

one of such persons. Only a brief mention was made of him in

Entomological News (June, 1896, p. 192) shortly after his death. The

only other biographical reference to him in entomological literature

occurs in L. O. Howard's "History of Applied Entomology”, (Wash-

ington, D. C., 1930), in which his portrait is reproduced on plate 5.


Fuller, an editor, horticulturist, amateur entomologist and writer

was born at Utica, New York, on August 3, 1828, and brought up in

a region devoted to fruit growing. His parents moved to a small farm

near Barre, New York, where he attended a country school and helped

around the farm. After his parents had moved to Milwaukee, Wis-

consin, in 1846 he learned carpentering and with his interest in plants

he started to devote his activities to the construction of greenhouses,

becoming in 1855 the manager of the greenhouses belonging to W. R.

Prince of Flushing, Long Island. This position he held for two years.

He then moved to Brooklyn, New York, and began to cultivate small

fruits, paying particular attention to strawberry improvement. Soon

he began to v/rite articles on horticulture for "Life Illustrated,” the

"New York Tribune” and other papers. The "Tribune” at one time

distributed, as circulation premiums, 300,000 of Fuller's strawberry

plants. And in 1862 his first book "The Illustrated Strawberry Cul-

turist” appeared. In 1851 he married Jennie Clippens and in I860

he moved to Ridgewood, New Jersey, and bought a tract of land

which he improved and then used for experimental purposes.


His articles continued to appear in the agricultural and horticul-

tural press. During 1866 and 1867 he edited Woodward's "Record

of Horticulture.” From 1868 until 1894 he was editor of the "Weekly






New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii



Sun” and while connected with this paper he was responsible for

the distribution of seed white potatoes with subscriptions. In 1871

he became the associate editor of "Moore's Rural New Yorker” later

the "Rural New Yorker”, becoming part owner and editor-in-chief

in 1876. However within a year he severed these connections. He

was a member of various organizations and when the New Jersey State

Horticultural Society was organized for the second time in 1875 he

was one of its founders and its vice-president from Bergen County.

At the January, 1876, meeting of this society, in a paper on entomol-

ogy and its relation to horticulture, he stressed the need for knowledge

about injurious insects and said that future progress depended largely

upon success in controlling insects.


His books include "The Grape Culturist”, 1864; "The Forest Tree

Culturist”, 1867, which was translated into the German language;

"Practical Forestry”, 1884; "The Propagation of Plants”, 1887; and

the "Nut Culturist”, 1896.


In addition to the accumulation of a large horticultural library, he

collected insects and minerals. He specialized in the Coleoptera, for

his collection of which he built a special house. His interests also

embraced the study of prehistoric American pottery. At the time

of his death from a heart attack on May 4, 1896 he was a staff writer

for the "Florists' Exchange,” the "American Agriculturist” and the

"American Gardener”.


From 1868 to 1896 he was the author of some 28 papers on a

wide range of economic insects as may be noted by his list of titles

in Henshaw's "Bibliography of American Economic Entomology”

Parts IV and V, 1895 and 1896. He was also the author of a paper

on "Collecting Insects, How to Collect and Transport Them”, 5 pages,

22 V 2 cm., with no place or date of publication.


Fuller frequently sent insect specimens or descriptions of insects to

the editors of the "American Entomologist” for identification. In

the "Answers to Correspondents” in the columns of that magazine

and its successors, Fuller's questions and the editors' answers may be



Sept., 1954]



Weiss: Fuller






found in Vol. 1, Nos. 3, 4, 10, 11; Vol. 2, Nos. 4, 8, 10. Similar

references may be found in the "Practical Entomologist”, Vol. 2, No.

9, and in "Insect Life” Vol. 1, page 86. Of Fuller's inquiries nearly

all dealt with species injurious to grapes, strawberries, seeds, black-

berries, etc. On July 16, 1888, he wrote to C. V. Riley about insects

confused with the Hessian fly prior to the Revolution and Riley re-

plied in "Insect Life” that there was no evidence of the existence of

that insect in America at that early period. At times, various writers

have confused the work of the Angoumois grain moth with that of

the Hessian fly. [See Journ. Econ. Ent. Vol. 37, page 838]


When the "American Entomologist” began for a second time in

January 1880, after a lapse of ten years, Andrew S. Fuller was

assistant editor, and C. V. Riley was editor. However the October,

1880, issue contained only Riley's name as editor, with the announce-

ment that Fuller had retired from his editorial duties. During the

summer of 1880, Fuller had been in New Mexico where his interests

were likely to call him at any time.


In 1875 Fuller sent specimens of a beetle that he had collected in

Montana to Dr. George H. Horn who described it as Aramigus fulleri

in 1876. Since then it has been known as Fuller's rose beetle. In

his "History of Entomology” Essig gives an interesting account of

the spread of this beetle over the world. It was originally collected

by Crotch on brambles at Fayal on the island of Horta, Azores, in

1866 and described by him in 1867 in the Proceedings of the Zoo-

logical Society of London. It received little attention until it appeared

in many parts of the United States and was described again by Horn.


Andrew S. Fuller died on May 4, 1896. An obituary presumably

written by Frederick Allen Eddy and published in a Bangor, Maine,

newspaper shortly after his death refers to Fuller's home in Ridge-

wood, New Jersey, having been transformed from a barren waste to

one of the finest places in Bergen County all through the efforts of

Mr. Fuller who was an enthusiast in botany and other natural sci-

ences. Upon his Ridgewood home specimens of nearly every nut

tree in the world were growing, as well as other trees and plants.






New York Entomological Society [Vol. lxii



After her husband's death Mrs. Fuller, around December 7, 1897,

sold her husband's collection of Coleoptera to Frederick Allen Eddy

of Bangor, Maine, and it became a part of, or perhaps the basis of

Mr. Eddy's large beetle collection which came to the Museum of

Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts,

after Eddy's death in 1935. Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., Curator of In-

sects, Museum of Comparative Zoology, to whom I am indebted for

the above and the following information advised me that according

to a note left by Eddy the Fuller material was in 112 boxes and

included some 4,500 species and 15,000 or 20,000 specimens. Eddy

paid $1,050 for it. The Fuller collection included much rare material

identified by good specialists. Some of it was material from Prof.

Snow of Kansas. Mr. Eddy combined the Fuller collection with his

own and at the Museum of Comparative Zoology the Eddy specimens

are being incorporated in the general collection of North American

beetles. The Fuller specimens were not labelled as such by Eddy

and as he received specimens from many other sources it is difficult

to identify, exactly, the Fuller beetles. However it is assumed that

most of the specimens in the Eddy collection bearing only state ab-

breviations as localities and not labelled by Eddy, are Fuller's. Such

specimens now bearing the label "Frederick Allen Eddy Collection”

in the general collection are probably those of Fuller.





Crawford, Nelson Antrim. Andrew S. Fuller. Dictionary of Ameri-

can Biography, New York, 1931.


Hexamer, F. M. Andrew S. Fuller sketch in Bailey's Cyclopedia of

American Horticulture, III, p. 6 16. 1906.


Woodward, Carl R. The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey,

1640-1880. 1926, p. 235.


Obituaries in New York Sun, May 5, 1896; New York Tribune, May

5, 1896; American Agriculturist, May 16, 1896.

The beetle that entomologists love:

fuller rose beetle
fuller rose beetle

Posted on Friday, January 11, 2019 at 7:45 AM
Tags: citrus (288), fuller rose beetle (1), talk (1), weevil (4)

Frost and Rain?

It is that time of year and we should be alert to threat of freezing weather and damage to trees. Last winter was one of the warmest on record, but there was still a sneak cold blast around December 25 that caused some problems in some areas. Wet winters tend to have lower frost threats, and even though wet is forecast for this winter, the forecast is erratic, as usual. That still leaves January which historically is when most of our damaging frosts occur. Fox Weather on the CA Avocado Commission is forecasting some cold weather coming up, so growers need to be prepared for the worst.


Here are some links to frost information, preparing for frost and managing frost damage to trees.

A Frost Primer

Methods of Frost Protection

Protecting Avocados from Frost

Rehabilitation of Freeze-Damaged Citrus and Avocado Trees

The forecast is for north winds, which often means cold, dry air and often with winds. Winds mean no inversion and no warm air that can be introduced at ground level to warm trees. If this occurs, running a wind machine can make the damage worse. Wind machines and orchard heaters work on the principle of mixing that warmer air higher up – 20-100 or so feet higher than ground level which has colder air. When temperatures drop, the air is dry (wet-bulb temp below 28 deg F) and there is no inversion, running a wind machine can just stir up cold air and cause worse conditions (freeze-drying). It's better to not run the machine. The only thing left to do is to run the microsprinklers during the day so that the water can absorb the day's heat. Then turn the water off before sunset so that evaporative cooling from the running water isn't accentuated. Then when temperatures drop near 32 at night and the dewpoint is much below that, it's time to start the water again and let it run until sunrise (when risk is less). Running water works even if the water freezes. This is due to the release of heat when water goes from liquid to frozen state. This 1-2 degrees can mean the difference between frost damage and no damage. Also, ice on fruit and leaves can insulate the fruit. As the ice melts at the surface of the plant, it releases heat, protecting the plants. If there is not sufficient water to run the whole orchard, it's best to pick out the irrigation blocks that are the coldest or the ones you definitely want to save and run the water there continuously. Running the water and turning it off during the night to irrigate another block can lead to colder temperatures in both blocks.


Keep warm this winter.

and check out this Wind Machine You Tube:

Wind Machine frost
Wind Machine frost

Posted on Wednesday, January 9, 2019 at 4:46 PM
Tags: avocado (262), citrus (288), frost (16), irrigation (72), water (44), wind (5)

Myths of Mulch

 “Wood chip mulches will decrease soil nitrogen and spread pathogens”  A Misunderstanding that is addressed below by:

Chalker-Scott, L. , Extension Specialist And Associate Professor, Washington State University
Downer, A.J., Farm Advisor, University of California

With chronic drought and/or record-breaking summer temperatures making it increasingly important to conserve water, many gardeners and groundkeepers are using landscape mulches. The ideal landscape mulch not only moderates soil temperature and conserves water, but also:

  • reduces compaction;
  • provides nutrients;
  • enhances plant growth;
  • provides habitat for beneficial insects;
  • helps control weeds, pests and disease; and
  • reduces the need for pesticides and fertilizers.

In addition, landscape mulches should be readily available, affordable, and easy to apply and replace. A review of the literature on landscape mulches (Chalker-Scott, 2007) determined that organic mulches are overall the best choice, with deep layers of coarse woody material providing most or all of the above-listed benefits. Arborist wood chips (created from leaves and branches chipped up by tree service companies) are a particularly good option as they are generally inexpensive and easy to obtain anywhere trees are managed.

Fortunately, none of these concerns are validated by research. Here are some brief explanations (Chalker-Scott, 2007) targeted to our audience:

  • Wood chips will not draw nitrogen from the soil unless they are incorporated into it. When used as mulch, arborist chips have no effect on underlying soil nitrogen levels, except to increase them over time.
  • Wood chip mulches, even those made from diseased trees, will not transmit pathogens to healthy plant roots. If diseased chips are incorporated into the soil they could infect plant roots, but field evidence of this is rare. Arborist chips that are stockpiled even for a few days undergo severe pathogen reduction through microbial attack within the pile (Downer et al., 2008).
  • Wood chips, or any other organic mulch, will not change the pH of the soil. The soil volume is vast, and any acidification would occur only at the mulch-soil interface where it would quickly be neutralized.
  • Wood chips, even those made from black walnut or cedar, will not kill landscape plants. There is no reliable evidence that chemical inhibition from decaying wood actually occurs in a landscape situation.
  • Wood chip mulches do not lend themselves to tunnel building like landscape fabric and other sheet mulches do: they collapse. Termites do not eat wood chips unless they have no choice; they are negatively affected by some of the chemicals wood contains. In fact, arborist chip mulches house a number of beneficial insects and other species that naturally control pests.

For arborist wood chip mulches to be the most effective (Chalker-Scott, 2007), they should be:

  • coarse – no less than ½” diameter – so water and air can move freely through them;
  • applied as soon as possible after chipping both to maximize the materials available to microbes and to capture the nutrients released by their activity in the soil; and
  • maintained at a depth of at least 4” to prevent weed growth.

Read on:



Posted on Monday, January 7, 2019 at 5:49 AM
Tags: avocado (262), citrus (288), mulch (11), nitrogen (10)

Pruning Tips from a Horticulturist

Tuning up for Pruning Up--Care, Maintenance and Utilization of Hand Pruning Tools

J. Downer

University of California


Fall is passing into winter and the bare sticks in my deciduous fruit orchard are calling me to my annual fruit tree pruning chores.  I can prune my entire orchard with very few tools: a good pair of bypass clippers, a similar set of loppers (optional) and a high quality “razor” or “tri edge” saw.  Most tools require some maintenance especially the clippers and loppers.  Sharpening is the usual need.  Clippers are easily sharpened but modern saw blades can not be sharpened by gardeners and should be replaced.  Sometimes it is just as easy to buy a new saw, replacing the old one when blade eventually dulls or is bent from over zealous use (illustration 1)


Illustration 1: Tri-edge saw blades are made from stainless steel and are not easily sharpened.  When dull or bent they should be replaced

Before using your pruning tools inspect them for signs of damage.  Blades should be sharp and unbent.  Loppers should have their rubber “bumpers” intact otherwise your knuckles will be smashed after exerting force on a difficult branch.  Sharp tools offer less resistance and actually decrease injury to users.  One exception here is with the modern “tri-edge” or “razor” saws.  These saws can cut so quickly that you may pass through the branch you are cutting and continue on to some part of your anatomy quickly ripping your flesh.   I have suffered more cuts (some serious) from these saws than from any other gardening activity.  They should be used with careful precision, not with the wild abandon and pruning fervor of the craven academic desperate for real world gardening experience.  A thick long sleeved shirt and gloves will also help prevent cuts from hand pruning equipment. 

Bypass clippers are so termed because the blade passes by the hook.  To sharpen these, find the bevel on the edge of the clippers and align a small file to the same angle of this bevel, and file the bevel until you can feel the sharpness with your finger (Illustration 2).  Never sharpen the back side of the bevel—this will create a gap, and every time you cut, a flap of tissue will remain.  Back bevel sharpened clippers will require blade replacement or grinding until the back bevel is gone.  The hook does not require sharpening, do not attempt to file it.  Repeat this process with lopper blades. 


Illustration 2: To sharpen bypass clipper blades follow the angle of the bevel.  Do not sharpen the flat side of the blade

When you are done pruning for the day, wipe the blades of your clippers and loppers with an oil soaked rag or apply a few drops of oil and rub it into the blade. Most modern saws blades are made from stainless steel and require no oil protection. 

As a Cooperative Extension Advisor, one of the most common questions I receive is: “Should I sanitize my clippers between cuts or between uses on various plants?”.  Indeed, many publications, extension leaflets, gardening columns, and other sources make broad recommendations to sanitize clippers after every cut.  Some articles even compare various products for their killing efficacy.   Often blind recommendations are made to sanitize clippers when the pathogen is not even known or specified.  It is not necessary to sanitize your clippers when pruning most garden plants and fruit trees.  There are a few pathogens that are spread by dirty pruning equipment but published evidence that they are spread by hand pruning equipment (especially clippers) is nil.  One exception is palm wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. canariensis which is easily spread by saws.  Some of the canker fungi caused by Botryosphaeria can also be spread by pruning equipment.  With many of these pathogens, a wound is required for infection so it may not be that the clippers are spreading disease so much as providing an entry point (infection court) so that pathogens have a way to enter. 

In my garden, I have never, and will never need to sanitize clippers between cuts.  However, conditions vary across the US, and in some places rain, humidity, and temperature are more favorable for disease development.  To avoid spreading pathogens, prune during the dormant season, when the likelihood of pathogen activity is lowest.   Apply dormant sprays containing copper to limit the onset of new fungal diseases that may enter pruning wounds.   If you still feel you need to protect wounds from dirty clippers I like to use the flame from a plumber's torch to sanitize.  A few seconds along the cutting edge front and back kills all pathogens (Illustration 3).  Similar for a saw but efficacy is increased if the saw gullets are wiped clean with a cloth and then the flame applied.  The only time I take these measures is when I know I am working with plants that can be inoculated with pathogens by pruning (which is rare).


Illustration 3: A plumber's torch will rapidly sanitize saws and blades when pathogens are present in plant tissues.

When pruning garden plants, there are a plethora of recommendations on how to make cuts.  Rose experts have extolled the virtues of an angled cut so water runs away quickly, flush cuts used to be recommended by arborists as the highest quality cut.  These examples are without research foundation.  Cuts on woody plants should be angled to produce a circular exposure that is the smallest surface area possible.  We abandoned flush cuts many years back because they cut into protective zones that limit decay in trees.  Some gardeners feel compelled to cover their cuts with a pruning paint and there is a similar paucity of research to support this practice.  Leave pruning wounds unpainted.       

Posted on Friday, December 21, 2018 at 6:43 AM
Tags: avocado (262), citrus (288), clippers (1), pruning (15), saws (1)

Italian Ryegrass Resistance to Herbicides

WESTMINSTER, Colorado - November 23, 2018 - Herbicides have been instrumental in managing Italian ryegrass, a weed that frequently competes with perennial crops in California. Herbicide-resistant populations have become increasingly commonplace, though, including paraquat-resistant Italian ryegrass found recently in a California prune orchard.

A team of scientists set out to determine if the paraquat-resistant population might also be resistant to other postemergence herbicides. Seven other herbicides commonly used in fruit tree and nut tree crops were included in the study, including clethodim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate, glyphosate, pyroxsulam, rimsulfuron and sethoxydim.

Researchers found the paraquat-resistant population was also resistant to both clethodim and glyphosate. Among the remaining herbicides, glufosinate, rimsulfuron and sethoxydim were found to deliver the best postemergence control. Unfortunately, though, other populations of Italian ryegrass have developed resistance to the three herbicides, indicating their effectiveness may be short-lived.

"Overreliance on postemergence herbicides from a variety of chemical classes can result in weed populations that exhibit multiple resistances," says Caio Augusto Brunharo, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of California, Davis. "Effective herbicide-resistance management programs are necessary for sustainable weed control."

The researchers recommended a number of preemergence herbicides as control options for Italian ryegrass in fruit and nut tree crops, including tank mixes containing indaziflam and flumioxazin.


Full text of the article, "Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in California Perennial Crops: Characterization, Mechanism of Resistance and Chemical Management" is now available in Weed Science Volume 66, Issue 6.

About Weed Science

Weed Science is a journal of the Weed Science Society of America, a nonprofit scientific society focused on weeds and their impact on the environment. The publication presents peer-reviewed original research related to all aspects of weed science, including the biology, ecology, physiology, management and control of weeds. To learn more, visit

italaian ryefrass resistance
italaian ryefrass resistance

Posted on Friday, December 14, 2018 at 4:54 PM
Tags: avocado (262), citrus (288), glufosinate (1), glyphosate (4), herbicides (14), orchards (7), paraquat (1)

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