Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education
University of California
Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education

Posts Tagged: herbicides

Glyphosate Resistance in Orchards

There has been a good overall discussion of herbicide resistance found in plants and how they can affect orchard management.  Check out this presentation by UC Cooperative Extension Weedologist, Brad Hanson, in the "past Webinars" section:

https://ucanr.edu/sites/ucexpertstalk/

And read more about glyphosate resistance in orchards:

Preventing and Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Orchards and Vineyards
 
Rely too much on any one herbicide and you end up with weeds that will resist its effects—and that's just what is happening now with glyphosate (Roundup®). See how you can increase effectiveness by diversifying your weed-management strategies.
Publication Number:: 8501
 
 
and
 
Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops
 
Glyphosate-resistant crops made farming a lot easier when they first came out, but many weeds have developed resistance. Herbicide-tolerant crops will only work as part of a more comprehensive, Integrated Pest Management plan.
Publication Number:: 8494
 

hairy fleabane 1
hairy fleabane 1

Posted on Monday, May 6, 2019 at 6:22 AM
Tags: glyphosate (6), herbicides (16), resistance (13), roundup (2), weeds (31)

The Round UP on Glyphosate Use in Tree Crops

UC Ag Experts Talk:

Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Orchard Crops

Description: One hour webinar about glyphosate-resistant weed management in orchards, delivered by Dr. Brad Hanson. One CEU (other) from the DPR is approved.

Time: Apr 24, 2019 3:00 PM in Pacific Time (US and Canada)

Recorded version will be published on UC IPM YouTube channel about a week after the webinar.

The link to register is https://ucanr.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_96wd2GBMQl2Ou4i4oSwTTg

More information about the webinar series UC Ag Experts talk: https://ucanr.edu/sites/ucexpertstalk/

Speaker

Dr. Brad Hanson
Cooperative Extension Weed Specialist @UC ANR / UC Davis
Dr. Hanson, an associate Cooperative Extension specialist in the Department of Plant Sciences, specializes in weed management in tree and vine cropping systems. Hanson completed his Ph.D. in plant sciences (with an emphasis in weed science) at the University of Idaho and worked as a research agronomist with the USDA-ARS before joining the UC Davis faculty in 2009. His research interests include weeds, weed control, herbicide resistance, weed biology, invasive plants, pest control in fruit and nut crops and other agricultural production systems.

Webinar logo

horseweed bolting
horseweed bolting

Posted on Tuesday, April 16, 2019 at 8:18 AM
Tags: glyphosate (6), herbicides (16), resistance (13), round up (2), weeds (31)

Italian Ryegrass Resistance to Herbicides

WESTMINSTER, Colorado - November 23, 2018 - Herbicides have been instrumental in managing Italian ryegrass, a weed that frequently competes with perennial crops in California. Herbicide-resistant populations have become increasingly commonplace, though, including paraquat-resistant Italian ryegrass found recently in a California prune orchard.

A team of scientists set out to determine if the paraquat-resistant population might also be resistant to other postemergence herbicides. Seven other herbicides commonly used in fruit tree and nut tree crops were included in the study, including clethodim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate, glyphosate, pyroxsulam, rimsulfuron and sethoxydim.

Researchers found the paraquat-resistant population was also resistant to both clethodim and glyphosate. Among the remaining herbicides, glufosinate, rimsulfuron and sethoxydim were found to deliver the best postemergence control. Unfortunately, though, other populations of Italian ryegrass have developed resistance to the three herbicides, indicating their effectiveness may be short-lived.

"Overreliance on postemergence herbicides from a variety of chemical classes can result in weed populations that exhibit multiple resistances," says Caio Augusto Brunharo, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of California, Davis. "Effective herbicide-resistance management programs are necessary for sustainable weed control."

The researchers recommended a number of preemergence herbicides as control options for Italian ryegrass in fruit and nut tree crops, including tank mixes containing indaziflam and flumioxazin.

###

Full text of the article, "Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in California Perennial Crops: Characterization, Mechanism of Resistance and Chemical Management" is now available in Weed Science Volume 66, Issue 6.

About Weed Science

Weed Science is a journal of the Weed Science Society of America, a nonprofit scientific society focused on weeds and their impact on the environment. The publication presents peer-reviewed original research related to all aspects of weed science, including the biology, ecology, physiology, management and control of weeds. To learn more, visit http://www.wssa.net.

italaian ryefrass resistance
italaian ryefrass resistance

Posted on Friday, December 14, 2018 at 4:54 PM
Tags: avocado (276), citrus (311), glufosinate (1), glyphosate (6), herbicides (16), orchards (7), paraquat (1)

Herbicide Injury in Avocado

Although the main objective of herbicide use in avocado orchards (and all crops) is to manage weed populations, sometimes unintentional injury of the crop itself can occur when herbicides are incorrectly applied. Herbicide injury in avocado can reduce yield, decrease fruit, reduce plant vigor, increase susceptibility to diseases and pests, and sometimes result in plant death. Common situations resulting in injury include spray drift, tank contamination, application of the wrong herbicide or rates, and herbicide carryover from a previous crop. The extent of herbicide damage on avocado can vary widely according to factors such as herbicide mechanism of action (MOA) and application rate, route of exposure, plant size and growth stage, soil properties, and weather.

Herbicide injury can be difficult to diagnose properly and is often confused with disease, insect damage, nutrient deficiencies, and other environmental stresses. It is recommended that trained researchers or Pest Control Advisers, who may utilize plant tissue, make diagnoses or soil samples along with plant symptoms, injury progression, and other plant species affected, orchard herbicide use history, weather conditions, and other factors to confirm or rule out injury from herbicides or other causes.

Where the injury occurs can also be an indication of herbicide injury. For example, if injury is on just one side of a tree or trees near another field, it may be an indication of spray drift. If it occurs only along the edge of the skirts, it may be a hint that an uneven ground spray was applied.

The majority of herbicides for use in avocado orchards in California fall into eight MOAs as defined by the Weed Science Society of America. MOAs describe the specific biological processes that are disrupted by a group of herbicides. These processes control the growth and development of plants and when interfered with, can result in plant injury or death.

Table 1: Common herbicides used in avocado, their mechanism of action, and possible injury symptoms

WSSA Group

Mechanism of Action

MOA description1

Example herbicides

Possible injury symptoms1

1

Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) Inhibitors

Inhibits lipid creation in grasses, preventing production of plant cell membranes

Fluazifop-P-Butyl (Fusilade DX), Sethoxydim (Poast)

Chlorosis, necrotic spots, leaf crinkling, leaf distortion

3

Mitosis Inhibitors

Inhibits cell division in germinating seedlings and lateral roots

Oryzalin (Surflan)

Thickened, shortened lower stems and small, crinkled leaves

5

Photosystem II Inhibitors

Prevents the transfer of energy generated during photosynthesis, causing a buildup of reactive molecules that damage chlorophyll and cell membranes

Simazine (Princep 4L)

Chlorosis, necrosis progressing from leaf margins toward the center of the leaves, foliar applications will appear as leaf burn

9

Enolpyruvyl Shikimate-3-Phosphate (EPSP) Synthase Inhibitors

Inhibits the production of three aromatic amino acids and the enzymes and proteins built from them

Glyphosate (Roundup)

Leaves of trees and vines become chlorotic 3 to 7 days after exposure, and margins of new leaves become necrotic

12

Carotenoid Biosynthesis Inhibitors

Inhibits production of carotenoid pigments, which harvest light and protect chlorophyll from reactive molecules

Norflurazon (Solicam DF)

Plant foliage turns white and appears bleached

 

14

Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

Blocks the production of chlorophyll and causes a buildup of reactive molecules that damage existing chlorophyll, carotenoids, and cell membranes

Oxyfluorfen (Goal 2XL), Carfentrazone (Shark EW), Flumioxazin (Chateau)

Drift injury will appear as speckling on leaf tissue. The necrotic spots are sometimes surrounded by a reddish colored ring. Injury from soil applications or residues appears as a mottled chlorosis and necrosis.

21

Cellulose Inhibitors

Inhibit cell wall synthesis and plant growth

Isoxaben (Gallery 75 DF)

Chlorosis, necrosis, leaf crinkling, leaf distortion, purpling of the leaf, and stunting

22

Photosystem I Inhibitors

Disrupts photosynthesis, forming reactive molecules that destroy cell membranes

Paraquat (Gramoxone SL)

Drift injury will appear as speckling or necrotic spots on leaf tissue

1Not a complete list. Symptoms listed are likely for established orchards. For detailed descriptions of MOAs and injury symptoms, as well as a searchable database of specific injury images (e.g., “chlorosis, necrosis, stem swelling, etc.” visit http://herbicidesymptoms.ipm.ucanr.edu.

References:

Al-Khatib, K. 2015. University of California Integrated Pest Management Herbicide Symptoms. http://herbicidesymptoms.ipm.ucanr.edu (accessed 09/05/18)

Faber, B.A., C.A. Wilen, B.D. Hanson. 2016. Weeds. Pages 107-124 in University of California Integrated Pest Management Guidelines for Avocado. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.avocado.html (accessed 09/05/2018)

Sosnoskie, L.M., B.D. Hanson. 2013. Understanding herbicide mechanisms (modes) of action and how they apply to resistance management in orchards and vineyards. UC Weed Science Blog Post. //ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=9383 (accessed 09/05/2018)

Weed Science Society of America. Summary of Herbicide Mechanism of Action

According to the Weed Science Society of America. https://wssa.net/wp-content/uploads/WSSA-Mechanism-of-Action.pdf (accessed 09/05/2018)

Photo: Sometimes weeds are tasty, like amaranth and purslane

organic herbicide live
organic herbicide live

Posted on Monday, October 15, 2018 at 6:51 AM
  • Author: Travis Bean
Tags: avocado (276), damage (23), herbicides (16), injury (1), weeds (31)

Citrus/Avocado Herbicide Update

With the rains, and in those area where fire took out the competition, weeds are coming back in their glory.  Mustard has painted the hills yellow.  The question comes up, what to do about all that wild growth.  Mechanical control, such as discing or whipping can work great.  Sometimes chemical control is the only answer.  A recent request for an alternative to glyphosate (Round-up) control of marestail (horseweed, Conyza canadensis) which is similar to hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis), came to the office from a lemon grower. Glyphosate just wasn't controlling it.  And it's been a problem for a while, even in tank mixes with paraguat and old-line weed killer.  The alternative might be a newer material, such as saflufenacil (Treevix) which has been recently added to the herbicides that can be used on citrus. 

As always before doing "vegetation management" it's best to identify the plant that is the problem

Identify the problem plant (weed)

http://wric.ucdavis.edu/information/weedid.htm

 

or if you know what the plant is, go directly to a listing of the weeds

Listing of weeds, their biology and control

http://wric.ucdavis.edu/information/info_spec_weed.htm

 

Or you can go in reverse order and look at your tree crop and see what herbicides are listed

Listing of herbicides by tree crops, including avocado and citrus

http://wric.ucdavis.edu/PDFs/T&V_herbicide_registration_chart.pdf

 

 

 

conyza canadensis
conyza canadensis

Posted on Monday, May 21, 2018 at 5:18 AM
Tags: avocado (276), citrus (311), fleabane (2), herbicides (16), horseweed (6), marestail (4)

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