Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education
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Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education

Posts Tagged: water

Measuring Diverted Water

Water Measurement and Reporting Course

 

This training will be held on

Friday June 7th, 2019

           from 1:00 p.m. – 4:30 p.m.

At the Santa Ynez Community Services District,

1070 Faraday St., Santa Ynez, CA 93460

 

Senate Bill 88 requires that all surface water right holders who have previously diverted or intend to divert more than 10acre-feet per year (riparian and pre1914 claims),or who are authorized to divert more than 10acre-feet per year under a permit, license, or registration, to measure and report the water they divert.  Detailed information on the regulatory requirements for measurement and reporting is available on the State Water Resources Control Board “Reporting and Measurement Regulation” webpage. The legislation as written requires that for diversion (or storage) greater than or equal to 100 acre-feet annually that installation and certification of measurement methods be approved by an Engineer/Contractor/Professional. Diverters across CA were concerned about this requirement. 

California Cattlemen's Association heard from their membership and worked with Assemblyman Bigelow on a bill that would result in a self-certification option. Assembly Bill 589 was passed and became law on January 1, 2018. This bill, until January 1, 2023, allows any diverter, as defined, who has completed this instructional course on measurement devices and methods administered by the University of California Cooperative Extension, including passage of a proficiency test, to be considered a qualified individual when installing and maintaining devices or implementing methods of measurement. The bill requires the University of California Cooperative Extension and the Board to jointly develop the curriculum for the course and theproficiency test.

At the workshop you will:

  • Clarify reporting requirements for farms andranches.
  • Understand what meters are appropriate for differentsituations.
  • Learn how to determine measurement equipmentaccuracy.
  • Develop an understanding of measurementweirs.
  • Learn how to calculate and report volume from flowdata.

 

Registration is required; there is a fee of $25.

Registration link here.

(https://ucanr.edu/survey/survey.cfm?surveynumber=27389)

 

For questions, please contact Matthew Shapero at (805) 645-1475 or mwkshapero@ucanr.edu. For other helpful resources regarding water measuring, reporting, and AB 589, please visit: https://ucanr.edu/sites/AB589/

water meter
water meter

water level
water level

Posted on Tuesday, May 21, 2019 at 3:34 PM
Tags: water (49)

When Plants Suffer, People Suffer Too

Reflections on Water – People and Trees

 

Coastal California is a hard environment to decide when to irrigate. Fog and rain vary from season to season and day to day.  Depending on the proximity to the coast and elevation, average rainfall in Ventura is about 18 inches.  That is the average of some years when we get over 40 inches with those when we get 4 inches.  Below average is more the norm than above that figure.  Late rains into June can happen, but the latest significant rains can also happen in January.  So what is average?  And based on rainfall, how do you know when to irrigate?

May grey/June gloom adds to the confusion of what might be an appropriate irrigation cycle. That cool, moist, low wind condition fog reduces water use by plants.  Fog drip also adds soil moisture that the plant can use.   But, as soon as the fog lifts, the wind kicks in and sucks out the soil moisture.

Water moves from the soil, though the roots, up through the plant stem and through the leaves.  It's pulled by the conditions outside the leaf.  The longer the air outside the leaf is dry, windy and warm, the more water is pulled out of the plant.  And then the plant pulls it out of the soil to replace the water lost from the plant.  It's called the cohesion-tension theory of water movement.  Water molecules stick together and pull themselves along, the way a train locomotive pulls a string of freight cars.  This happens whenever the conditions outside of the leaf are “drier” than inside the leaf.  It happens in the winter and summer, when the soils are cold and when they are warm. It's a passive, physical process.

When plants lose water through their leaves, it's called transpiration.  It's mediated by stomata in the leaves.  These openings or pores are similar to the pores in our skin.  People lose water off their skin and it's called evaporation or sweating. Water loss from leaves is similar to water loss from skin. 

Evaporation from the skin and from leaves cools the surface.  This cooling helps prevent heat stress.  The leaf and skin both act as radiators. When this water loss stops, both plants and humans can go into heat stress.  So water loss has an important function in both plants and humans. For plants, the stomata also need to be open in order to take in carbon dioxide to make sugar by way of photosynthesis.

The weather factors that drive water loss – water that needs to be replaced or the bodies begin to into heat stress – are the mount of light (day length, cloud cover), relative humidity (it dries faster when air is dry and it's slower when it's humid – think desert versus Florida), and windy (more wind, more drying).   When water can't be delivered fast enough to the leaf, it wilts, when the human body starts drying out, the skin wrinkles and dries out.  In both cases, water needs to be taken in to reverse the loss.

Temperature is important in water loss, but not as important or as much as the other drivers or humidity, day length and wind. When it's cold, leaves and skin both dry out – think freeze-drying, a very successful process for removing water from fresh food to make a light, backpacking food.  Often humans respond more to temperature than these other driving factors of water loss.  If it's cool, it's not necessary to irrigate the trees.   A common grower refrain is, “it's winter, I don't need to irrigate.”   After five years of drought, we know better about winter irrigation.

However, this “winter and it's cool, so it's not necessary to drink water while working outside” refrain is common, too.  And this can be a real human health problem.  Dehydration is something serious and we should all be aware of the need to drink water during these cool, windy days of spring.

 

Heat stress and irrigation are both more complicated than just being aware of the weather, but below are some helpful guidelines from Cal/OSHA to follow to avoid heat stress in humans. Hey, also might not be too far off for plants, as well.

https://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/heatillnessinfo.html

walking on water
walking on water

Posted on Monday, April 29, 2019 at 7:50 AM
Tags: dehydration (1), heat stress (6), human health (1), water (49)

Citrus? Water? How Do They Go Together?

Advances in Citrus Water Use

                         Workshop & Field Day

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

8 Am - 3 PM

Strathmore, CA

 

Attend the Advances in Citrus Water Use Workshop & Field Day and join UC Davis Irrigation Specialist Daniele Zaccaria as well as other water experts and specialists from the University of California Cooperative Extension, the California Department of Water Resources, and the Citrus Research Board to learn about research advances in water use and irrigation for citrus production. Gain firsthand practical knowledge of the latest developments in the citrus industry and become familiar with methods and tools to measure evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficients (Kc), tree water status, and monitor soil moisture to inform irrigation planning and scheduling decisions for citrus. 

 

What to expect?

Session topics include:

  • Current research
  • Water management and regulation
  • Optional Field Session on irrigation technology

View a tentative agenda here.

 

 

Registration Details

 

$35 registration fee includes admission to the field day, coffee, refreshments, and lunch.

 

 

 

Register online, here. Fee will increase on March 13.

 

 

Limited to the first 150 participants

 

 

Logistics and Registration

ANR Program Support, Julia Kalika, (530) 750-1380 or Shannon Martin, (530) 750-1328

citrus cornucopia
citrus cornucopia

Posted on Friday, March 8, 2019 at 1:44 PM
Tags: citrus (318), irrigation (78), water (49)

Water is Life and Watering Citrus is Critical - Come Learn

Advances in Citrus Water Use

               Workshop & Field Day

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

8:00 AM-3:00 PM

Strathmore, California

Register NOW!!!

 https://ucanr.edu/sites/citrusfieldday/Registration/

About the Field Day

 

Attend the Advances in Citrus Water Use Workshop & Field Day and join UC Davis Irrigation Specialist Daniele Zaccaria as well as other water experts and specialists from the University of California Cooperative Extension, the California Department of Water Resources, and the Citrus Research Board to learn about research advances in water use and irrigation for citrus production. Gain firsthand practical knowledge of the latest developments in the citrus industry and become familiar with methods and tools to measure evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficients (Kc), tree water status, and monitor soil moisture to inform irrigation planning and scheduling decisions for citrus. 

 

What to expect?

Session topics include:

  • Current research
  • Water management and regulation
  • Optional Field Session on irrigation technology

View a tentative agenda here.

Registration Details

$35 registration fee includes admission to the field day, coffee, refreshments, and lunch.

 

Register online, here. Fee will increase on March 13.

 

Limited to the first 150 participants.

Contacts for More Information

 

Logistics and Registration

ANR Program Support, Julia Kalika, (530) 750-1380 or Shannon Martin, (530) 750-1328.

 

Course Content 

Daniele Zaccaria, UC Cooperative Extension Specialist, Agricultural Water Management

 

citrus cornucopia
citrus cornucopia

Posted on Friday, March 8, 2019 at 1:26 PM
Tags: citrus (318), field day (5), irrigation (78), water (49)

What’s Up with my Avocado Tree?

So a question comes in about a problem with a backyard avocado tree.  And it would seem the first question would be about the overgrowth happening at the base of the trunk.  This a ‘Fuerte' avocado that is grafted on a seedling avocado rootstock.  It's not unusual to see an overgrowth, but this is the most extreme example I have ever seen.  So it's basically an incompatibility between the graft and the rootstock.  In many cases this is no big problem and trees can live a long time, as this tree has.

But the homeowner wasn't asking about the unusual growth at the base, but the canker that had appeared in the center of the trunk near the base.

This has the classic white sugar exudate that occurs with a wound of any kind in avocado.  The sugary sap that contains the unusual mannoheptulose 7-carbon sugar characteristic of the laurel family to which avocado belongs will ooze out of the wound and result in a white crust (Read more about this sugar at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629911001372 ).

Anyway, so this backyard tree is in an area that is getting 10 minutes of lawn watering a day.  Lawns and avocados don't get along.  And avocados don't get along with short, shallow irrigation that result in salt accumulating in the root zone. Which is what has happened here.  Salt stress and the result is an infection of bacterial canker (https://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=7920 ).  

It's not fatal in an old tree like this, but it can predispose the tree to root rot. And that's not something that is easy to treat in backyard settings.

Posted on Monday, March 4, 2019 at 5:56 AM
Tags: avocado (278), bacterial canker (2), stress (10), water (49)

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