Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education
University of California
Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education

Posts Tagged: weeds

Into the Weeds


Management of Weeds in Citrus Orchards

A One Hour Webinar

June 19, 2019 from 3-4pm)

Dr. Travis Bean, assistant weed science specialist in UCCE, will discuss the importance of weed management in citrus, tree age and variety considerations, scouting and weed identification, cultural and mechanical practices, and pre- and post-emergence herbicides. One DPR CE unit (other) and one CCA CE unit (IPM) are pending.

Register in advance for the webinar by clicking on the event link above.

And there are more coming:



Posted on Monday, June 3, 2019 at 6:29 AM
Tags: citrus (338), herbicides (18), weed control (8), weeds (32)

Glyphosate Resistance in Orchards

There has been a good overall discussion of herbicide resistance found in plants and how they can affect orchard management.  Check out this presentation by UC Cooperative Extension Weedologist, Brad Hanson, in the "past Webinars" section:

And read more about glyphosate resistance in orchards:

Preventing and Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Orchards and Vineyards
Rely too much on any one herbicide and you end up with weeds that will resist its effects—and that's just what is happening now with glyphosate (Roundup®). See how you can increase effectiveness by diversifying your weed-management strategies.
Publication Number:: 8501
Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops
Glyphosate-resistant crops made farming a lot easier when they first came out, but many weeds have developed resistance. Herbicide-tolerant crops will only work as part of a more comprehensive, Integrated Pest Management plan.
Publication Number:: 8494

hairy fleabane 1
hairy fleabane 1

Posted on Monday, May 6, 2019 at 6:22 AM
Tags: glyphosate (6), herbicides (18), resistance (13), roundup (2), weeds (32)

The Round UP on Glyphosate Use in Tree Crops

UC Ag Experts Talk:

Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds in Orchard Crops

Description: One hour webinar about glyphosate-resistant weed management in orchards, delivered by Dr. Brad Hanson. One CEU (other) from the DPR is approved.

Time: Apr 24, 2019 3:00 PM in Pacific Time (US and Canada)

Recorded version will be published on UC IPM YouTube channel about a week after the webinar.

The link to register is

More information about the webinar series UC Ag Experts talk:


Dr. Brad Hanson
Cooperative Extension Weed Specialist @UC ANR / UC Davis
Dr. Hanson, an associate Cooperative Extension specialist in the Department of Plant Sciences, specializes in weed management in tree and vine cropping systems. Hanson completed his Ph.D. in plant sciences (with an emphasis in weed science) at the University of Idaho and worked as a research agronomist with the USDA-ARS before joining the UC Davis faculty in 2009. His research interests include weeds, weed control, herbicide resistance, weed biology, invasive plants, pest control in fruit and nut crops and other agricultural production systems.

Webinar logo

horseweed bolting
horseweed bolting

Posted on Tuesday, April 16, 2019 at 8:18 AM
Tags: glyphosate (6), herbicides (18), resistance (13), round up (2), weeds (32)

Herbicide Weed Resistance in California?

UCCE Agronomy and Weed Science Advisor, Merced and Madera Counties

Weeds compete with crops for light, water, and nutrients, which can result in yield reductions. Weeds can also interfere with crop production by serving as alternate hosts for pests and pathogens, providing habitat for rodents, and impeding harvest operations, among other impacts. Natural areas can also be impacted by weed species when they reduce aesthetics and disrupt ecosystem services. As a consequence, growers and land managers employ a variety of control strategies, including the application of herbicides, to manage unwanted vegetation.

Although herbicides can be effective tools for controlling undesirable plants, failures can and do occur. Weeds may escape chemical treatments for several reasons including: the selection of an ineffective herbicide or herbicide rate, improperly calibrated or malfunctioning equipment, applications made at a time when the target species is not susceptible to control, the use of herbicides under adverse environmental conditions, and the evolution of herbicide resistance.

As of 3 January 2019, there are 496 confirmed cases (species x site of action) of herbicide resistance, worldwide. Current reports provided by the International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds ( indicate that 255 different species (148 dicots and 107 monocots) have evolved resistance to 163 different herbicides across 23 of 26 known sites of action. With respect to the United States, 161 unique instances of resistance have been documented. Most resistances (52 cases) are to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors followed by the photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors (26 cases), 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) inhibitors (17 cases), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors (15 cases).

Currently, in California, there are 30 confirmed occurrences of herbicide resistance. Twenty-four of those cases are to a single site of action (Table 1). The most frequently encountered resistances have been to the ALS and EPSPS inhibitors (7 each). Five weed species (late watergrass (Echinochloa oryzicola), barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli ssp. crus-galli), hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis), horseweed (Conyza canadensis), and Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum)) have populations with documented resistance to up to four herbicide sites of action (Table 2).

Growers and land managers can take several actions to thwart the evolution and spread of herbicide resistant weeds. First and foremost is scouting fields following herbicide applications and keeping careful records of herbicide performance to quickly identify repeated instances of weed control failure. Pesticide applicators should ensure that their equipment is properly calibrated and that they are applying effective herbicides at appropriate rates to manage the target species. Whenever possible, diversify herbicides to reduce chemical selection pressure. If appropriate, incorporate physical and cultural weed control practices into a vegetation management plan. Be sure to control unwanted plants when they are small and never allow escapes to set seed. Clean equipment to prevent seeds of herbicide-resistant weed species from moving between infested and non-infested sites and don't forget that unmanaged roadsides, canal banks, fence lines, and field margins, etc., can serve as a source of propagules.



Table 1. A summary of herbicide resistance in California to single sites of action.




Table 2. Weed species in California with confirmed resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action



horseweed bolting
horseweed bolting

Posted on Tuesday, January 29, 2019 at 7:42 PM
  • Author: Lynn M. Sosnoskie, PhD
Tags: resistance (13), weeds (32)

Herbicide Injury in Avocado

Although the main objective of herbicide use in avocado orchards (and all crops) is to manage weed populations, sometimes unintentional injury of the crop itself can occur when herbicides are incorrectly applied. Herbicide injury in avocado can reduce yield, decrease fruit, reduce plant vigor, increase susceptibility to diseases and pests, and sometimes result in plant death. Common situations resulting in injury include spray drift, tank contamination, application of the wrong herbicide or rates, and herbicide carryover from a previous crop. The extent of herbicide damage on avocado can vary widely according to factors such as herbicide mechanism of action (MOA) and application rate, route of exposure, plant size and growth stage, soil properties, and weather.

Herbicide injury can be difficult to diagnose properly and is often confused with disease, insect damage, nutrient deficiencies, and other environmental stresses. It is recommended that trained researchers or Pest Control Advisers, who may utilize plant tissue, make diagnoses or soil samples along with plant symptoms, injury progression, and other plant species affected, orchard herbicide use history, weather conditions, and other factors to confirm or rule out injury from herbicides or other causes.

Where the injury occurs can also be an indication of herbicide injury. For example, if injury is on just one side of a tree or trees near another field, it may be an indication of spray drift. If it occurs only along the edge of the skirts, it may be a hint that an uneven ground spray was applied.

The majority of herbicides for use in avocado orchards in California fall into eight MOAs as defined by the Weed Science Society of America. MOAs describe the specific biological processes that are disrupted by a group of herbicides. These processes control the growth and development of plants and when interfered with, can result in plant injury or death.

Table 1: Common herbicides used in avocado, their mechanism of action, and possible injury symptoms

WSSA Group

Mechanism of Action

MOA description1

Example herbicides

Possible injury symptoms1


Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) Inhibitors

Inhibits lipid creation in grasses, preventing production of plant cell membranes

Fluazifop-P-Butyl (Fusilade DX), Sethoxydim (Poast)

Chlorosis, necrotic spots, leaf crinkling, leaf distortion


Mitosis Inhibitors

Inhibits cell division in germinating seedlings and lateral roots

Oryzalin (Surflan)

Thickened, shortened lower stems and small, crinkled leaves


Photosystem II Inhibitors

Prevents the transfer of energy generated during photosynthesis, causing a buildup of reactive molecules that damage chlorophyll and cell membranes

Simazine (Princep 4L)

Chlorosis, necrosis progressing from leaf margins toward the center of the leaves, foliar applications will appear as leaf burn


Enolpyruvyl Shikimate-3-Phosphate (EPSP) Synthase Inhibitors

Inhibits the production of three aromatic amino acids and the enzymes and proteins built from them

Glyphosate (Roundup)

Leaves of trees and vines become chlorotic 3 to 7 days after exposure, and margins of new leaves become necrotic


Carotenoid Biosynthesis Inhibitors

Inhibits production of carotenoid pigments, which harvest light and protect chlorophyll from reactive molecules

Norflurazon (Solicam DF)

Plant foliage turns white and appears bleached



Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (PPO) Inhibitors

Blocks the production of chlorophyll and causes a buildup of reactive molecules that damage existing chlorophyll, carotenoids, and cell membranes

Oxyfluorfen (Goal 2XL), Carfentrazone (Shark EW), Flumioxazin (Chateau)

Drift injury will appear as speckling on leaf tissue. The necrotic spots are sometimes surrounded by a reddish colored ring. Injury from soil applications or residues appears as a mottled chlorosis and necrosis.


Cellulose Inhibitors

Inhibit cell wall synthesis and plant growth

Isoxaben (Gallery 75 DF)

Chlorosis, necrosis, leaf crinkling, leaf distortion, purpling of the leaf, and stunting


Photosystem I Inhibitors

Disrupts photosynthesis, forming reactive molecules that destroy cell membranes

Paraquat (Gramoxone SL)

Drift injury will appear as speckling or necrotic spots on leaf tissue

1Not a complete list. Symptoms listed are likely for established orchards. For detailed descriptions of MOAs and injury symptoms, as well as a searchable database of specific injury images (e.g., “chlorosis, necrosis, stem swelling, etc.” visit


Al-Khatib, K. 2015. University of California Integrated Pest Management Herbicide Symptoms. (accessed 09/05/18)

Faber, B.A., C.A. Wilen, B.D. Hanson. 2016. Weeds. Pages 107-124 in University of California Integrated Pest Management Guidelines for Avocado. (accessed 09/05/2018)

Sosnoskie, L.M., B.D. Hanson. 2013. Understanding herbicide mechanisms (modes) of action and how they apply to resistance management in orchards and vineyards. UC Weed Science Blog Post. // (accessed 09/05/2018)

Weed Science Society of America. Summary of Herbicide Mechanism of Action

According to the Weed Science Society of America. (accessed 09/05/2018)

Photo: Sometimes weeds are tasty, like amaranth and purslane

organic herbicide live
organic herbicide live

Posted on Monday, October 15, 2018 at 6:51 AM
  • Author: Travis Bean
Tags: avocado (289), damage (24), herbicides (18), injury (1), weeds (32)

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