Posts Tagged: gardening
Across the United States, Americans are buying and growing plants as a pick-me-up during the COVID-19 crisis, reported Lisa Irizarry in Newsday. The paper focused its story on Long Island, N.Y., its area of local circulation, but turned to UC Cooperative Extension emeritus advisor Rose Hayden-Smith for commentary about the trend.
Hayden-Smith is the author of "Sowing the Seeds of Victory - American Gardening Programs of World War I" and now serves as the educational technology fellow for eXtension, an organization that helps extension professionals generate a more visible and measurable local impact. Hayden-Smith said plants can have a calming effect in stressful times. Increases in gardening occurred during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic and during World Wars I and II.
"We always turn to gardening during times of crisis in this country. The last big surge of gardening interest was during the last economic crisis," she said.
In the current environment, people are gardening for a family activity, to grow healthy food and acquire new skills, as reflected in the rise of other home arts, such as baking.
"It's earth-friendly and connects people with nature," Hayden-Smith said. "It's restorative and a way to be physically active. It feels as if it's something we take positive action on."
Southern California's mild Mediterranean climate makes it ideal for growing fruit trees in backyards, community gardens and school gardens. The trees provide wholesome fruit along with shade, beauty and enrichment for families and communities.
Citrus trees are favorites for Southern California backyards, but Surls and her team aim to get local gardeners thinking beyond lemons, limes, oranges and other citrus fruit. In the past several years, a deadly plant disease has been spreading among Southern California citrus, prompting quarantines and putting citrus orchards across the state at risk.
Surls and her team are working on an initiative with a corps of volunteer UC Master Gardeners in Los Angeles and surrounding counties to promote selection and planting of appropriate fruit trees. New brochures, a website, workshops and one-on-one consultations will guide Southern Californians in making tree decisions that are scientifically sound and community-focused.
The project addresses serious concerns about the rapid spread of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus greening. The insect that spreads HLB – the Asian citrus psyllid – was introduced into California in 2008. The disease made its first California appearance in a Los Angeles County backyard in 2012. HLB, which eventually kills every tree it infects, is now spreading rapidly in urban areas of Los Angeles and Orange counties, where quarantines have been put in place by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA).
“Citrus trees are so popular in Southern California. They are part of our history and regional identity,” Surls said. “Now we have the unfortunate responsibility of telling residents about this serious problem we are facing. In some cases, residents who live near infected trees should be proactive and remove their lemon, orange, mandarin and lime trees and replace them with different kinds of fruit.”
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources IGIS programmers, in collaboration with UC Cooperative Extension, have created an HLB Monitoring Web App that allows residents to enter an address to determine how close they are to confirmed HLB outbreaks. If they are within 2 miles of a residence where an HLB-infected citrus tree was found, the app recommends replacement of citrus trees with non-citrus fruit trees, such as apples, peaches, avocados or persimmons.
Residents with citrus trees that are 2 to 5 miles from areas with HLB should keep a close eye on their trees, treat for Asian citrus psyllid and begin thinking about planting an alternative to citrus if the disease spreads to their area.
“Huanglongbing poses a serious threat to both backyard and commercial citrus in California if its spread is not halted,” Surls said. “By removing trees in areas where HLB has been found, residents are helping reduce its ability to spread, buying time for scientists to find a cure.”
CDFA is testing trees throughout the state and removing HLB-infected trees. However, the first visible symptoms of HLB – yellow mottled leaves – can appear months to years after infection. Even if they look perfectly healthy, citrus trees can be harboring the disease and allowing it to be spread by the tiny psyllid insect.
Current hotspots shown on the HLB Monitoring Web App include Rosemead, Montebello, Pico Rivera, San Gabriel, Hacienda Heights and Cerritos in Los Angeles County. In Orange County, HLB is spreading in communities around Garden Grove, Westminster and Santa Ana.
“We know removing citrus trees is going to be really hard for people,” Surls said. “But if you live within two miles of an infected tree, your tree is probably already infected, and HLB means your tree is going to die.”
To ease the transition, UC Master Gardeners are informing residents about alternatives that will produce fruit that's nutritious and delicious.
“So many types of fruit trees can be grown in Southern California,” Surls said. “Honestly, we have almost unlimited options. We live in a fruit tree grower's paradise. So we want to encourage local residents to think seriously about selecting non-citrus trees to replace their citrus.”
The information can also inform residents who are planning a new backyard orchard.
“They should consider some of the many wonderful fruit trees we can grow here — plant a pomegranate, plant a peach, plant a persimmon — but resist the temptation to plant more lemons, oranges and other citrus trees,” Surls said.
Making the decision to plant a certain type of tree should not be taken lightly.
“Planting a fruit tree is a big commitment. It will be part of your garden for years. Research the best options for your family and locations,” Surls said. “The UC Master Gardeners are here to help.”
Following are good options to consider for replacing citrus trees in Southern California, although recommendations may vary based on local climate:
Certain apple varieties that do not need to be exposed to cold temperatures grow and produce well in Southern California. Low-chill varieties include Anna, Beverly Hills, Dorset Golden, Fuji and Gala.
Figs grow well in full sun in Southern California. They can reach 10 to 30 feet tall, and are best for spacious areas.
Jujubes are less common in Southern California, but are a valued fruit in Southeast Asian and will grow well under Southern California conditions. They grow about 15 feet tall. Jujubes are a good selection for inland valleys that get hot during the summer. The fruit tastes like small, crispy apples. Dried, they are similar to dates.
A small- to medium-size tree that grows 10 to 20 feet high, loquats are easy to grow and have relatively few pests. Fresh, ripe loquats are sweet and aromatic. They can be used in jams, sauces and garnishes.
Persimmons ripen in autumn after the leaves have fallen, creating a beautiful landscape display. They are easy to grow in full sun and part shade. Persimmons can be eaten fresh or dried for a date-like fruit.
Well-suited to Southern California's Mediterranean climate, pomegranates grow to about 15 feet in height. Pomegranates are pest- and disease-resistant. The fruit's seeds, coated with astringent juicy flesh, are called arils. Use arils to top salads or other dishes, or squeeze for juice or to make jelly.
Other fruit tree options for Southern California include mangos, guavas, pineapple guavas, peaches, nectarines and pears.
For more research-based information about alternative fruit trees, visit the UC Agriculture and Natural Resources website “California Backyard Orchard” at http://homeorchard.ucanr.edu.
Contact your local UC Master Gardener Program for additional advice:
Los Angeles County – http://celosangeles.ucanr.edu/UC_Master_Gardener_Program
Orange County – http://mgorange.ucanr.edu
Riverside County – https://ucanr.edu/sites/RiversideMG
San Bernardino County – http://mgsb.ucanr.edu
Ventura County – https://ucanr.edu/sites/VCMG
Funding for the ‘Alternatives to Citrus Fruit in the Fight against Huanglongbing Disease' project was made possible by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service through grant AM180100XXXXG003. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USDA.
Gardening is fun…and it's an important activity. What we grow in school, home and community gardens can improve our health, and the health of our families and communities. What we grow can increase the resiliency of food systems in our communities. And what we grow, ultimately, can connect us more closely with the earth that sustains us. There are valuable lessons in gardening…too many to list here.
Even if you live in a small apartment, you can grow food. If you have a yard, you can grow quite a lot of food. View the transformation of a front yard in an urban area…from lawn to lush, productive food garden in only 60 days. You'll love the progression photos, and the simple explanation about how the garden came together.
Need more inspiration? Roger Doiron, founder of SeedMoney, talks about his (subversive) garden plot in this remarkable TedX talk. Roger created and led the social media campaign that called for a garden at the White House. This campaign ultimately led First Lady Michelle Obama to plant a vegetable garden at the White House. (And it may have also inspired the People's Garden at the USDA, which broke ground on Abraham Lincoln's birthday 10 years ago. Lincoln referred to the USDA as the “People's Department,” so it makes sense that the USDA would refer to its garden as the “People's Garden.”)
Need practical advice? The UC Master Gardener program has more than 5,000 certified volunteers ready to assist if you live in California. UC has also created a California Garden Web portal that provides a treasure trove of gardening resources for all parts of the state. It's not too early to begin planning your Fall garden, and you'll find information about that, too.
If you're interested in school gardens, read this brief history, written by UC ANR's UC Food Observer.
The UC Master Gardener Program of San Diego County has always been open to innovative ways of expanding its mission and passion for gardening into new parts of its community. The San Diego program has a rich history of successful partnering with other local organizations to reach under-served populations. An exciting new collaboration was unveiled in March 2018 when five UC Master Gardener volunteers took their newest public outreach project Reminiscence Gardening to the Alzheimer's San Diego's (AlzSD) social activities program.
Thirty participants, all community members being served by AlzSD, got their hands dirty and enjoyed a day of sensory stimulation through tabletop gardening activities planned by the UC Master Gardener leaders. The 90-minute program gave participants the opportunity to touch, move, smell, hear and see the joys of manipulating soil and plants to construct a simple potted creation to adorn their spring celebration table.
UC Master Gardener volunteers knew it would be important to develop activities that were fun and, hopefully, something those in attendance had previously enjoyed. With marigolds, chrysanthemums and mint varieties in hand, participants and caregivers, worked side-by-side and guided by UC Master Gardeners, dug into the bins filled with soil, pots and tools. Each set of participants was given three plants to pot up. As this first activity progressed, UC Master Gardeners could see that participants were being drawn out and interactions around the worktable were increasing. The physical, intellectual, emotional and social benefits of gardening were being experienced and shared by all.
Other sensory-heavy opportunities, all planned and guided by UC Master Gardeners, were included in the program. Participants were asked to reach into a bin filled with loose soil and wriggler worms to re-familiarize themselves with that most basic part of backyard gardening – working the soil. A variety of plants in one-gallon containers were passed around. Each container was specially marked with an icon that invited the participants to experience the visual beauty, familiar smell, unique feel and, sometimes, sound and subtle taste of each plant.
Of particular interest was an activity in which everyone was asked to explore a box filled with hand tools, seed packets and other items typically used in backyard gardening. Clearly, old memories were refreshed. A vintage hose nozzle drew the attention of one gentleman. He held it for a while then began making the motions used in hand-watering the yard, moving the nozzle back and forth while mimicking the sound of water rushing forth from the attachment onto a once green and promising flower bed. Tangible signs of success, such as these, were everywhere during the social activity.
Jessica Empeño, MSW, Alzheimer's San Diego's Vice President of Programs and Services was in attendance and praised the work of the UC Master Gardener volunteers.
“Gardening was such a treat for our families. This activity stimulated all the senses – from the gorgeous colors of the flowers, the smell and taste of the herbs and the chatter and laughter that filled the room. Most importantly, those living with dementia and their care partners were able to socialize and have fun in a safe, judgment-free setting. We are so grateful to the UC Master Gardener Program for donating their time and supplies. We hope to have them back soon!”
The UC Master Gardener Program of San Diego was inspired by its growing understanding of the need for more everyday experiences to address the issues facing members of our community being affected by dementia-related diseases. Those numbers are increasing at a staggering rate. The National Alzheimer's Association estimates that currently 5.7 million Americans have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's, with nearly two-thirds of those being women, and that number will almost triple by mid-century. In San Diego County, AlzSD offers social activities for individuals with dementia and their caregivers. The “Reminiscence Gardening” project's goal for those individuals is to boost energy levels, build confidence, prolong maintenance of existing skills and perpetuate a sense of purpose and joy through gardening.
Further collaborations between the UC Master Gardener Program of San Diego County and other memory care communities are in the works. UC Master Gardeners want to share their love of gardening and their advanced training from the university for the benefit of those in our community who need it the most. Many of us know first-hand the responsibility of caring for a family member with a dementia-related disease. We know, too, the joys and benefits of being outdoors and sharing time together with people we love. We want to make a meaningful difference in our community and the Reminiscence Gardening project is a wonderful way to express that.
For a calendar of future events and more information about other programs offered by the UC Master Gardener Program of San Diego and Alzheimer's San Diego, please visit:
The transition of fall is upon us and gardeners are busy tending to late summer harvests, pruning back perennials, prepping for slower plant growth and more. But fall doesn't have to be all about wrapping up the growing season. In fact, life is sprouting and new garden plants are growing with the promise of fall, winter and early spring harvests.
Are you looking to join the cool-season gardening craze? The UC Master Gardener Program has engaging workshops to inform and inspire this fall. Bay Area residents can check out Growing Garlic and Onions in San Jose or Top 10 Vegetables for your Winter Garden in Campbell, both hosted by the UC Master Gardener Program of Santa Clara County. Another great resource is Saving the Harvest, a gardening and preserving guide and 2019 calendar created by the UC Master Gardener and UC Master Food Preserver Programs in Sacramento County. Check out the local offerings in your area at UC Master Gardener Program events.
Wherever you are in your gardening journey, here is a checklist of September activities for your garden:
- Maintain your warm-season garden with regular checks and harvesting. Prune new growth, flowers and any small or very immature fruits from tomatoes, eggplants and peppers. This practice encourages the plants to put energy into ripening fruit that has already set.
- Harvest and store seeds for next year's warm-season garden. To save and use seeds in the future, make sure you have a dry, cool location for seed storage. Don't forget to label and organize seeds to make preparation and planting easier in the spring.
- Remove and compost plants that have reached the natural end of lives or fruitfulness.
- Enjoy regular harvest of late-season-bearing cane berries like raspberries and blackberries. Check vines regularly for ripe fruit and pick before the birds steal away the fruit.
- Check and harvest edible landscape plants as well. Pineapple guava, Acca sellowiana, is a fantastic landscape shrub that has the added bonus of producing a tropical fruit. When pineapple guava fruit fall to the ground they are ripe, collect the fruits and wash, slice and eat the white fruit on the inside (like you would eat a kiwi).
By the end of the month it's time to start planting a cool-season garden. Try radishes and lettuces for harvest in late fall. They mature quickly and pair beautifully with roasted vegetables, cheese and nuts for a harvest-themed dinner salad. Broccoli and cauliflower are a great addition to your garden for winter harvest. Try roasting or making a creamy soup for a warm dinner on a cold night. Finally, onions and shallots are a must for your cool-season garden. They are slower to mature and will be ready for harvest in early spring to brighten your dishes and usher in a change in the seasons.
- Plant radishes, turnips, beets, onions and kale from seed.
- Pick up vegetable starts for broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and lettuces at your local garden center.
- Keep soil moist while young plants send roots out into your garden bed.
- Provide shade to cool-season vegetables if needed to protect them from hot afternoon sun.
Connect with us
The UC Master Gardener volunteers are eager to help with all of your gardening needs. The UC Master Gardener Program can work with teachers and community volunteers to provide gardening information and consultation in the support of school gardens. With local programs based in more than 50 counties across California, there is sure to be a workshop or class near you. Visit our website to find your local UC Master Gardener Program, mg.ucanr.edu.
Missy Gable, Director of the UC Master Gardener Program shares tips for keeping a fall vegetable garden producing.