The first step to managing ISHB is identifying the insect. Unfortunately, many other pests and diseases cause similar symptoms on the same host trees. For example, dark staining is frequently reported on Tipu tree (Tipuana tipu), but it is rarely positive for ISHB because an entry-hole is often absent.
Do these scenarios apply to the symptoms you see? If so, consider these look-alike pests, diseases, and conditions:
Many trees respond to PSHB attacks the same way that they react to other kinds of damage: by producing staining, gumming, or exudate. Be aware of any recent management activity on the suspected tree, and look for entry-holes of the typical PSHB size and shape to avoid a misidentification of tree symptoms.
Sources of injury: pruning cuts, injection sites, staples (often used to hang strings of lights around trunk/branches), nails, other mechanical damage