Invasive Shot Hole Borers
Invasive Shot Hole Borers
Invasive Shot Hole Borers
University of California
Invasive Shot Hole Borers

SHB Reproductive Hosts

About Reproductive Hosts

Reproductive hosts are plant species that are capable of 1) supporting beetle reproduction and 2) growing the fungi that cause Fusarium Dieback. Source: Eskalen, A. et al. 2013-2018 https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1026-RE

ISHB or Fusarium Dieback hosts may be trees identified as showing signs of beetle or beetle and fungal attack in the field, or trees specifically challenged with beetles and/or fungal pathogens in controlled experiments. They are determined to be reproductive hosts when all life stages of the beetle species are found inhabiting them. Many more trees may host beetle attack than those that are confirmed to be reproductive hosts. 

The UC research team does NOT intend this list to be used as a "do not plant" list. In some cases, ongoing research is investigating cases where even highly susceptible host species recover from attack. The choice of where, and under what conditions, to plant any tree species should include factors such as the uses, whether ecosystem or social, of the tree, and the surrounding conditions, including threats a weakened tree could pose, and whether the site under consideration is in or near a known infestation area. 

* indicates California native

See signs of SHB infestation in most of the species listed below. 

Host List

Susceptible to ISHB/FD (may cause tree death)

  1. Acer buergerianum - Trident maple
  2. Acer macrophyllum - Big leaf maple*
  3. Acer negundo - Box elder*
  4. Parkinsonia aculeata - Palo verde
  5. Platanus racemosa – California sycamore*
  6. Platanus x hispanica - London plane
  7. Populus fremontii – Fremont cottonwood*
  8. Populus nigra - Black poplar*
  9. Populus trichocarpa - Black cottonwood*
  10. Quercus lobata - Valley oak*
  11. Quercus robur - English oak
  12. Ricinus communis - Castorbean
  13. Salix gooddingii - Black willow*
  14. Salix laevigata - Red willow*
  15. Salix lasiolepis - Arroyo willow*

Less susceptible to ISHB/FD (causes branch dieback), and/or the beetle commonly colonizes at the margin of canker diseases.

  1. Acacia melanoxylon - Australian blackwood
  2. Acacia - Acacia
  3. Acer paxii -Evergreen maple
  4. Aesculus californica - California buckeye*
  5. Ailanthus altissima - Tree of heaven
  6. Albizia julibrissin - Mimosa
  7. Alectryon excelsus - Titoki
  8. Alnus rhombifolia - White alder*
  9. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana - King palm
  10. Baccharis salicifolia - Mule fat*
  11. Bauhinia variegata - Purple orchid tree
  12. Brachychiton populneus – Kurrajong
  13. Camellia semiserrata - Camellia
  14. Castanospermum australe - Moreton Bay chestnut
  15. Cercidium floridum - Blue palo verde*
  16. Cercidium sonorae - Brea
  17. Cocculus laurifolius - Laurel leaf snail seed tree
  18. Cupaniopsis anacardioides - Carrotwood
  19. Dombeya cacuminum - Strawberry tree
  20. Erythrina caffra - Coast coral tree
  21. Erythrina coralloides - Coral tree
  22. Erythrina falcata - Brazilian coral tree
  23. Eucalyptus ficifolia - Red flowering gum
  24. Fagus crenata - Japanese beech
  25. Ficus altissima - Council tree
  26. Ficus carica - Black mission fig
  27. Gleditsia triacanthos - Honey locust
  28. Harpullia pendula - Tulip wood
  29. Howea forsteriana - Kentia palm
  30. Ilex cornuta - Chinese holly
  31. Jacaranda mimosifolia - Jacaranda
  32. Acer palmatum- Japanese maple
  33. Koelreuteria bipinnata -Chinese flame tree
  34. Liquidambar styriciflua - American sweet gum
  35. Magnolia grandiflora - Southern magnolia
  36. Magnolia virginiana - Sweet bay
  37. Persea americana - Avocado
  38. Platanus mexicana - Mexican sycamore
  39. Prosopis articulata – Mesquite*
  40. Pterocarya stenoptera - Chinese wingnut
  41. Quercus agrifolia - Coast live oak *
  42. Quercus chrysolepis - Canyon live oak*
  43. Quercus engelmannii - Englemann oak*
  44. Quercus suber - Cork oak
  45. Salix babylonica - Weeping willow
  46. Spathodea campanulata - African tulip tree
  47. Tamarix ramosissima - Tamarisk
  48. Wisteria floribunda - Japanese wisteria
  49. Xylosa congestum - Dense logwood / shiny xylosma

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