SHB Reproductive Hosts

About Reproductive Hosts

Reproductive hosts are plant species that are capable of 1) supporting beetle reproduction and 2) growing the fungi that cause Fusarium Dieback. Source: Eskalen, A. et al. 2013-2018 https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1026-RE

ISHB or Fusarium Dieback hosts may be trees identified as showing signs of beetle or beetle and fungal attack in the field, or trees specifically challenged with beetles and/or fungal pathogens in controlled experiments. They are determined to be reproductive hosts when all life stages of the beetle species are found inhabiting them. Many more trees may host beetle attack than those that are confirmed to be reproductive hosts. 

The UC research team does NOT intend this list to be used as a "do not plant" list. In some cases, ongoing research is investigating cases where even highly susceptible host species recover from attack. The choice of where, and under what conditions, to plant any tree species should include factors such as the uses, whether ecosystem or social, of the tree, and the surrounding conditions, including threats a weakened tree could pose, and whether the site under consideration is in or near a known infestation area. 

* indicates California native

See signs of SHB infestation in most of the species listed below. 

Host List

Susceptible to ISHB/FD (may cause tree death)

  1. Acer buergerianum - Trident maple
  2. Acer macrophyllum - Big leaf maple*
  3. Acer negundo - Box elder*
  4. Parkinsonia aculeata - Palo verde
  5. Platanus racemosa – California sycamore*
  6. Platanus x hispanica - London plane
  7. Populus fremontii – Fremont cottonwood*
  8. Populus nigra - Black poplar*
  9. Populus trichocarpa - Black cottonwood*
  10. Quercus lobata - Valley oak*
  11. Quercus robur - English oak
  12. Ricinus communis - Castorbean
  13. Salix gooddingii - Black willow*
  14. Salix laevigata - Red willow*
  15. Salix lasiolepis - Arroyo willow*

Less susceptible to ISHB/FD (causes branch dieback), and/or the beetle commonly colonizes at the margin of canker diseases.

  1. Acacia melanoxylon - Australian blackwood
  2. Acacia - Acacia
  3. Acer paxii -Evergreen maple
  4. Aesculus californica - California buckeye*
  5. Ailanthus altissima - Tree of heaven
  6. Albizia julibrissin - Mimosa
  7. Alectryon excelsus - Titoki
  8. Alnus rhombifolia - White alder*
  9. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana - King palm
  10. Baccharis salicifolia - Mule fat*
  11. Bauhinia variegata - Purple orchid tree
  12. Brachychiton populneus – Kurrajong
  13. Camellia semiserrata - Camellia
  14. Castanospermum australe - Moreton Bay chestnut
  15. Casuarina equisetifolia - Australian pine tree 
  16. Cercidium floridum - Blue palo verde*
  17. Cercidium sonorae - Brea
  18. Cocculus laurifolius - Laurel leaf snail seed tree
  19. Cupaniopsis anacardioides - Carrotwood
  20. Dombeya cacuminum - Strawberry tree
  21. Erythrina caffra - Coast coral tree
  22. Erythrina coralloides - Coral tree
  23. Erythrina falcata - Brazilian coral tree
  24. Eucalyptus ficifolia - Red flowering gum
  25. Fagus crenata - Japanese beech
  26. Ficus altissima - Council tree
  27. Ficus carica - Black mission fig
  28. Gleditsia triacanthos - Honey locust
  29. Harpullia pendula - Tulip wood
  30. Howea forsteriana - Kentia palm
  31. Ilex cornuta - Chinese holly
  32. Jacaranda mimosifolia - Jacaranda
  33. Acer palmatum- Japanese maple
  34. Koelreuteria bipinnata -Chinese flame tree
  35. Liquidambar styriciflua - American sweet gum
  36. Magnolia grandiflora - Southern magnolia
  37. Magnolia virginiana - Sweet bay
  38. Persea americana - Avocado
  39. Platanus mexicana - Mexican sycamore
  40. Prosopis articulata – Mesquite*
  41. Pterocarya stenoptera - Chinese wingnut
  42. Quercus agrifolia - Coast live oak *
  43. Quercus chrysolepis - Canyon live oak*
  44. Quercus engelmannii - Englemann oak*
  45. Quercus suber - Cork oak
  46. Salix babylonica - Weeping willow
  47. Spathodea campanulata - African tulip tree
  48. Tamarix ramosissima - Tamarisk
  49. Wisteria floribunda - Japanese wisteria
  50. Xylosa congestum - Dense logwood / shiny xylosma