- Author: Hannah Meyer
Growing mandarins in the foothills often produces a tantalizing crop of fruit that delights even the pickiest of connoisseurs, however, it is not produced without difficulty. UCCE Placer/Nevada has collaborated with five local citrus growers to research the effects of pruning to thin canopy and mulching to conserve soil moisture and create a healthier root zone. To learn more about this project, read Citrus Grower Bob Bonk's blog post, Mandarin Growers Test New Practices on the Foothill Farming blog. Research began just over a year ago and here are some of the things we have learned so far.
Mulch under citrus trees helps maintain soil moisture, reduces soil temperatures, and can effectively manage weed growth.
Methods: Mulch is best applied when the soil is saturated. Typically mulch is applied in March/April in this region but can be applied later if soil is irrigated to saturation level. Mulching is most effective for weed suppression when either little to no weed emergence has occurred, weed whacking, or herbicide spray is implemented first. Mulch alone reduces weed growth. Mulch applied over builder's paper or 6-8 sheets of newspaper then saturated to conform to the ground is even more effective. Fertilizer is best applied before mulching.
Materials: A 50/50 wood chip and horse manure blend is used in the research trials but either one can be used on its own. Composted manure alone decomposes rapidly, a mix of manure with wood chips will last longer. Wood chips last longer than either the wood chip/manure mix or manure alone but will provide little to no nutrient value to the tree.
We have observed that often irrigation with overhead sprinklers does not penetrate dense tree canopies and may lead to water stress. Tensiometers, which measure soil moisture, were installed in citrus orchards in summer 2017. They showed that overhead irrigation water was not reaching the ground under dense canopies, causing water stress in hot weather. As a result of some of this research, several commercial citrus growers have modified irrigation practices or are changing irrigation systems to mitigate water stress.
Looking to the future:
Soil temperature can affect root activity so beginning this year soil temperature are also being monitored throughout the research project. Citrus growers are attending workshops, field meetings, and learning what the orchard trials are teaching us. Many are implementing new methods and practices in their citrus operations. Citrus trials will continue at least through 2019. Look for more information in future blogs.
Commercial growers are invited to participate in a Composting & Mulching Workshop on Thursday, May 31st, 9 AM to 12 noon, register at this link. http://ucanr.edu/survey/survey.cfm?surveynumber=24853
- Author: Hannah Meyer
It is the time of year when most people with any interest in the outdoors begin thinking about planting something. The last blog post introduced local farmer, Paul Glowaski co-owner of Dinner Bell Farm, as he reflects on the challenges of starting a farm in the foothills.
- Land acquisition – check out some of the resources below to connect with networks to assist in acquiring land or use of land.
- Growth – After acquiring land, consider if the enterprise will have room to grow, or scale up. Will the farm be able to keep up with the product demand on a couple of acres?
- Market development – Although it may be ideal to start selling agriculture products at the largest Saturday farmer's market in the community, new farms often are required to start at small markets until there is available space and demand for their product elsewhere. There are also many other direct marketing options to consider, such as farm stands, restaurants, wholesalers, and co-ops.
- Labor – Minimum wage in California is $10.50 per hour this year. Will skilled labor be available at this wage?
- Quality – Increasing access to agriculture products from throughout the world makes it is extremely important to maintain the highest levels of quality in local markets.
- Ideals – Most beginning farmers need to work off-farm jobs in addition to putting in the long hours required to make a farm thrive. Glowaski stressed, “Don't feel bad about that - it is a reality to starting a farm in the 21st century. I started farming because I wanted to feed poor people…right now we sell to the very affluent to survive.” Again, farming is humbling, be willing to adapt and change.
- Cash flow - Seasons are not just for veggies, what will ensure cash flow during the winter/ off season on the farm?
If you are feeling discouraged, rest assured that you are in a great community and resources are available to help you, like UC Cooperative Extension's Beginning Farming Academy. Glowaski has worked in the Santa Cruz area, where the cut-throat competitive attitude in the agriculture community did not appeal to his value system. “The reality is we all sell to a small fraction of the community up here.” Some of the value, especially in the foothills, is a general sense of a desire among farmers to help each other. If you are interested in getting to know the local farming community and grow your network of roots throughout the farming community, consider the UCCE workshops and dinners, FarmLink, or join a group such as the National Young Farmers Coalition, the Center for Agroecology at UCSC, or the Farm Bureau. Glowaski warns farmers against only connecting with groups that they completely agree with, “If you aren't at the table, we can't talk about it,” he says with a smile. Be humble and open to conversation and gleaning what you can from those in your biosphere! Once you become established, you may want to join with groups that share some of your core values such as California Certified Organic Farmers or Animal Welfare Approved, like Dinner Bell Farm.
Although the challenges of farming may seem insurmountable at times, a true farmers heart has unconditional love for the land, hard work, and a deep appreciation for the success those afford, which are often measured in treasures that can't buy a vacation to the pacific islands! Glowaski's advice, “Go for it!” Be sure to investigate the resources below.
- Training - Keep a lookout on the Foothill Farming Website for upcoming trainings. Like the Wool Handing and Shearing Management Workshop on May 12th! More information and resources here!
- Quiz - Should you Farm? – Do you have what it takes?
- Risk Management – Be prepared ucanr.edu/sites/placernevadasmallfarms/Farm_Business_Planning/FBP_Risk_Management/
- Finding Land to Farm: Six Ways to Secure Farmland - By Kendra Johnson, California FarmLink www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/ﬁnding.pdf
- Farm Loan Information - The Farm Service Agency can be a valuable resource for starting a farm including but not limited to microloans. - https://www.fsa.usda.gov/programs-and-services/farm-loan-programs/microloans/index **Click to find a service center near you.
- Video - See and hear what Bear Creek Organics suggests for new farmers. https://www.youtube.com/embed/ri2vUNABtqE