- Author: Michelle Leinfelder-Miles
- Contributor: Mark Lundy
- Contributor: Nicolas George
Fall has arrived, and for many crops, this means that it is harvest season. For small grains, however, the season starts anew. The UC Davis small grains variety evaluations are conducted across the state, including a site in the Delta. The results of last year's evaluations are now available, and we invite you to take a look as you prepare to plant your new crop.
To understand trends over time, we suggest reviewing the 3-year summaries, which are available from the link “Yield and Protein Summary” for common wheat and triticale. These summaries indicate which varieties performed consistently well over time. For these summaries, the Delta is grouped with other Sacramento Valley locations. The data indicated that the varieties performed similarly between the Sacramento Valley and the Delta, compared to the San Joaquin Valley and the Delta. This is probably due to similar climatic considerations, like rainfall and temperature. The 3-year summaries rank the varieties for both yield and protein. In the future, rather than tables, the research team will develop an online tool to assist with variety selection that will take both yield and protein into account. Stay tuned for more information on this tool.
Keep in mind that disease ratings are important considerations. Disease ratings are found here, where “S” indicates susceptible varieties and “R” indicates resistant ones. Additionally, some of these varieties are in initial stages of testing, so not all of them are commercially available. Look for whether the variety is “released”, which is indicated on the data tables.
Barley and durum wheat were also evaluated at certain locations but not in the Delta. We will continue trialing small grain varieties in the Delta in 2018.
The UC Cooperative Extension Delta Corn and Sorghum Field Meeting will take place on Wednesday, October 11, 2017, from 10:00am to noon, on Tyler Island in Sacramento County. The agenda is pasted below and attached. The attached version includes a map and directions to the field site. We have applied for CCA continuing education credits, and light refreshments will be provided. RSVP is not required. Hope to see you in the field!
10:00am Field corn variety evaluation – preliminary results, Michelle Leinfelder-Miles, UCCE, SJC/Delta
10:15am Variety traits for the Delta, Seed company representatives
10:30am Sorghum seeding rates for optimum productivity – preliminary results, Michelle Leinfelder-Miles, UCCE, SJC/Delta
10:45am Determining food availability for wintering waterfowl in Central Valley agricultural fields, Luke Matthews and John Eadie, UC Davis
11:00am Viewing of field plots
The annual Alfalfa and Forage Field Day at the UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center (9240 S. Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648) will take place on Wednesday, September 20, 2017. Registration begins at 7:30am, and lunch is offered at the end of event. The event is free, and no registration is required.
7:30 AM Registration
8:00 Tram leaves for field tour
- Alfalfa Varieties for Pest and Disease Management – Shannon Mueller, Agronomy Advisor and County Director, UCCE Fresno
- Remote Sensing in Sorghum to Phenotype Drought Stress – Jeffery Dahlberg, Director, Kearney Agriculture Research & Extension Center
- Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation Alfalfa Management – Daniel Putnam, CE Agronomy & Forage Specialist, UC Davis
9:15 Tram Returns
9:20 Managing Weeds in Agronomic Crop Rotations – Kurt Hembree, Weed Management Advisor, UCCE Fresno
9:40 Alfalfa Weevil Management – Rachael Long, Agronomy & Pest Management Advisor, UCCE Sacramento, Solano, & Yolo Counties
10:00 Managing Sugarcane Aphid in Forage Sorghum – Nicholas Clark, Agronomic Cropping Systems & Nutrient Management Advisor, UCCE Kings, Tulare, & Fresno Counties
10:20 Irrigation & Nitrogen Fertility Management in Forage Sorghum & Corn – Robert Hutmacher,CE Specialist, UC Davis, & Director of West Side Research & ExtensionCenter
11:00 Irrigation Systems and Salinity Management in Forage Production– Daniel Munk, Agronomy & Irrigation Advisor, UCCE Fresno
11:20 Low Lignin Alfalfa & GMO vs. Conventional Varieties for Export – Dan Putnam, UC Davis
11:40 Optimizing Surface Irrigation in High Flow Systems – Marsha Campbell-Matthews, Agronomy Advisor Emeritus, UCCE Stanislaus
12:00 PM Lunch
Continuing Education Requested: DPR 1.5 hours of Other
For more information, contact Nicholas Clark at (559) 852-2788 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Here are a few articles, written by UC Cooperative Extension colleagues, that may be of interest to readers of this blog:
From the UC Rice Blog:
Armyworm vs. High Temperature Blanking - by Luis Espino, Farm Advisor, Colusa County
From the UC Dry Bean Blog:
UC Davis Dry Bean Field Day Announcement - by Rachael Long, Farm Advisor, southern Sacramento Valley
From the UC Small Grains Blog:
Start Planning Your Nitrogen Management Strategy for Fall-Planted Wheat Now - by Mark Lundy, Small Grains Specialist, UC Davis and Konrad Mathesius, Farm Advisor, southern Sacramento Valley
Common purslane is a summer, annual weed that thrives under warm, moist soil conditions. It has succulent stems and leaves, grows prostrate, and is a prolific seeder. Under the right conditions, fleshy stems that break away can re-root and increase infestation. Common purslane is edible and does not present any toxicity problems for livestock. There are cultural, biological, and chemical approaches to controlling common purslane. In agricultural systems, cultivation will help manage this weed when the plants are in the seedling stage, and both pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides are effective. More information on the biology and management of common purslane is available from UC IPM.
The moisture content of common purslane stems and leaves presents a problem when it is raked into alfalfa hay and baled. With moisture in the stems, the stems are still respiring. The process of respiration produces heat. If the heat cannot dissipate, there is the potential for the hay to catch fire. Dan Putnam, UC Alfalfa and Forage Specialist, describes this in a blog post. He explains how it is critical to monitor the hay curing process and stem moisture, and he provides some guidelines for bale moisture content. This situation with common purslane is a variation on the same theme. Moisture within the bales from the purslane presents the potential for trapped heat, so it is important to control this weed, monitor bale moisture, and stack bales so that heat can dissipate.
Glyphosate tolerance, or Roundup Ready technology, is available in alfalfa. Weed control in Roundup Ready alfalfa has been reported by UC Cooperative Extension weed scientists. In stand establishment studies, Roundup controlled common purslane in the seedling stage, but efficacy was reduced on mature plants. Additionally, there is the potential for this broad-spectrum herbicide to have reduced efficacy when used repeatedly. Under conditions of repeated use, a shift in weed species populations may occur to favor weeds like common purslane.
So now, let's go back to the present situation and this PCA's consideration to control common purslane with Shark. Shark is a PPO inhibitor, also classified as a contact herbicide. These herbicides will burn leaves and stems and are most effective on broadleaf weeds. Shark was approved for use in California alfalfa in 2014 and can be used in the winter when the alfalfa is dormant or in-season between cuttings. It can also be tank-mixed with other products, like glyphosate. (Note: always consult the label before making applications.) Another herbicide of the same chemistry class, Sharpen (saflufenacil), was approved in 2016 but only for winter-dormant alfalfa. Growers should be aware, however, that contact herbicides will burn alfalfa, and the best weed control will occur on smaller weeds and with thorough coverage of the herbicide. Alfalfa regrowth could potentially be reduced in the next cutting by the equivalent of 1-2 weeks of growth, but the crop should resume regular growth, and yield should recover. See this presentation for information on weed control in established alfalfa fields.