- Author: Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell
Similar to last year, degree days are accumulating rapidly this spring, well in advance of the 30 year average. This has an impact on the development of all insect pests. To see a comparison of current dd and 30 year average dd for California red scale, go to the UC KAC Entomology degree days for California red scale and click on any one of the four San Joaquin Valley regions. Below we show a Tulare County site as an example. You will see that the biofix was earlier than normal (early to mid March) and the current degree days for that insect are >100 dd farther along than the 30 year average. This is the fifth year in a row (2012-2016) we have had this situation of rapid degree day accumulations, which accelerates the development of the insect.
In addition, I have also heard that in the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley, the crawlers were emerging before the 550 degree day mark, which means that, for the second year in a row, we did not have cold enough temperatures to cause California red scale to diapause. This makes timing insecticide treatments extremely difficult because the scales are not developing uniformly and the window of crawler activity is very wide. The extra degree days allows extra generations of California red scale to develop. Most of the available red scale insecticides are not persistent enough to control more than one or two generations. Starting last year, some growers began treating more than once per year for red scale.
Its hard to say if this pattern will continue, but cooler winters and springs would help immensely with California red scale control.
—Cheryl Reynolds, UC Statewide IPM Program
Are you looking for continuing education units (CEUs) to complete your renewal application this year for the Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR)? The UC Statewide IPM Program and the Lindcove Research and Extension Center have several online courses available that can help you get those last few needed credits. All courses can be found on the UC ANR Learning Management System. Be sure to spend at least 1 hour on each unit to receive credit.
DPR license and certificate holders with last names beginning with M – Z renew this year. Renewal packets must be submitted to DPR before November 19th to ensure that licenses are renewed by January 1, 2016. After that, applications may take up to 45 calendar days to process.
The online courses available from UC IPM that offer units for DPR license renewal include:
- Providing Integrated Pest Management Services in Schools and Child Care Settings (1 unit Laws and Regulations and 1 unit Other)
- Pesticide Resistance (2 units Other)
- Pesticide Application Equipment and Calibration (1.5 units Other)
- IPM – A Solution for Reducing Pesticides/Water Quality: Pesticide Properties (1 unit Other)
- The Impact of Pesticides on Water Quality/Mitigating Urban Pesticide Runoff (1 unit Other)
- Water Quality and Mitigation: Bifenthrin and Fipronil (1 unit Other)
- Herbicides and Water Quality (1 unit Other)
Six additional courses on key pests of citrus are also available for DPR units and were developed by Beth-Grafton Cardwell from the Lindcove Research and Extension Center. These include:
- California Red Scale (1 unit Other)
- Citricola Scale (1 unit Other)
- Citrus Red Mite (1 unit Other)
- Cottony Cushion Scale (1 unit Other)
- Forktailed Bush Katydid (1 unit Other)
- Citrus Peelminer (1 unit Other)
For a list of other approved online or in-person courses, visit the DPR website. UC IPM plans to add additional online courses for 2016, including those available for Laws and Regulations units. For more information about the courses UC IPM offers as well as additional training opportunities and pest management information, see the UC IPM web site.
Understanding Pesticide Labels for Making Proper Applications
The UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) put together a 26-page card set in English and Spanish on understanding pesticide labels. Intended for pesticide handlers, applicators, safety trainers, and pest control advisers (PCAs), the cards explain when to read the label, describe what kind of information can be found in each section of a pesticide label, and point out specific instruction areas so that applicators can apply pesticides safely and avoid illegal pesticide residues.
Traces of pesticide residue are normal and even expected after pesticides are applied to food crops, but by the time produce is ready to be sold, purchased, and consumed, residues are usually far below the legal limit.
In its latest report from 2013, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) reported that there was little or no detectable pesticide residue in 97.8% of all California-grown produce. This demonstrates a strong pesticide regulation program and pesticide applicators that apply pesticides safely and legally. However, there have been instances in California where a pesticide not registered for a specific crop has been used unintentionally, resulting in illegal residues and eventually crop loss and destruction.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets tolerances for the maximum amount of pesticide residue that can legally be allowed to remain on or in food.
DPR regularly monitors domestic and imported produce for pesticide residues and is considered the most extensive state residue-monitoring program in the nation.
The primary way pesticide applicators can assure that they make proper applications and avoid illegal pesticide residues is to follow the pesticide label. UC IPM's new card set was developed from information in the upcoming third edition of The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides as well as Lisa Blecker, UC IPM's Pesticide Safety Education Program coordinator. Bound with a spiral coil, this eye-catching instructional card set was designed for both English-speakers and when flipped over, for Spanish-speaking audiences as well. UC IPM also plans to release a new online course on preventing illegal pesticide residues sometime late fall.
To download copies of the card set in English or in Spanish, see the UC IPM web site.
- Author: Cheryl Reynolds
- Contact: Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell
As summer continues to heat up, keep in mind that regulations remain in effect to reduce the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be emitted into the atmosphere by pesticides and other harmful chemicals and contribute to the amount of ozone or smog in the environment.
Calculators from the Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) that determine the VOC emissions from fumigant and non-fumigant pesticides before application are available to help growers, pest control advisers, and pesticide applicators comply with the regulations. The UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program provides a link to these calculators from each of the treatment tables in the UC Pest Management Guidelines. Click on the Air Quality – Calculate emissions button.
Take steps to reduce VOCs. Avoid emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations as they release the highest VOC emissions. Pesticide control advisers and growers can also reduce VOC emissions by employing IPM practices such as using resistant varieties, traps, exclusion, and biological control. When using pesticides, spot-treat and seek low-emission materials. Solid formulations, such as granules or powders, are best.
Check the fact sheet on the DPR web site for the most up-to-date-information on VOC restrictions and regulations.
- Author: Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell
The UC ANR web site Asian Citrus Psyllid Distribution and Management http://ucanr.edu/sites/ACP/Distribution_of_ACP_in_California/ provides a zoomable web map that shows the quarantine boundaries around the HLB-infected trees (found and removed) in southern California.
If you click on the layers drop down arrow, you can turn off the ACP layer and check the box for the newly released Diaphorencyrtus parasitic wasp and see where it has been released to help reduce Asian citrus psyllid in residential areas (you can also view the Tamarixia wasp). http://ucanr.edu/sites/ACP/Distribution_of_ACP_in_California/