European grapevine moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana, considered the most important insect pest of grape in Europe and the Middle East, was first detected in Napa Valley in 2009. The immature stages injure the berry, promoting the development of fungal infections that result in bunch rots. While moth populations were largest in Napa County, by 2011 the moth had also been found in nine other counties as far south as Fresno. If the moth became established it could increase production costs in all grape growing regions, result in economically damaging export restrictions on table grapes, and cause adverse environmental effects if it led to a greater reliance on insecticides. In 2010, the US and California Departments of Agriculture began an eradication program to keep this insect from becoming established.
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