- Author: Hannah Meyer
- Editor: Cindy Fake
Growing mandarins in the foothills often produces a tantalizing crop of fruit that delights even the pickiest of connoisseurs, however, it is not produced without difficulty. UCCE Placer/Nevada has collaborated with five local citrus growers to research the effects of pruning to thin canopy and mulching to conserve soil moisture and create a healthier root zone. To learn more about this project, read Citrus Grower Bob Bonk's blog post, Mandarin Growers Test New Practices on the Foothill Farming blog. Research began just over a year ago and here are some of the things we have learned so far.
Mulch under citrus trees helps maintain soil moisture, reduces soil temperatures, and can effectively manage weed growth.
Methods: Mulch is best applied when the soil is saturated. Typically mulch is applied in March/April in this region but can be applied later if soil is irrigated to saturation level. Mulching is most effective for weed suppression when either little to no weed emergence has occurred, weed whacking, or herbicide spray is implemented first. Mulch alone reduces weed growth. Mulch applied over builder's paper or 6-8 sheets of newspaper then saturated to conform to the ground is even more effective. Fertilizer is best applied before mulching.
Materials: A 50/50 wood chip and horse manure blend is used in the research trials but either one can be used on its own. Composted manure alone decomposes rapidly, a mix of manure with wood chips will last longer. Wood chips last longer than either the wood chip/manure mix or manure alone but will provide little to no nutrient value to the tree.
We have observed that often irrigation with overhead sprinklers does not penetrate dense tree canopies and may lead to water stress. Tensiometers, which measure soil moisture, were installed in citrus orchards in summer 2017. They showed that overhead irrigation water was not reaching the ground under dense canopies, causing water stress in hot weather. As a result of some of this research, several commercial citrus growers have modified irrigation practices or are changing irrigation systems to mitigate water stress.
Looking to the future:
Soil temperature can affect root activity so beginning this year soil temperature are also being monitored throughout the research project. Citrus growers are attending workshops, field meetings, and learning what the orchard trials are teaching us. Many are implementing new methods and practices in their citrus operations. Citrus trials will continue at least through 2019. Look for more information in future blogs.
Commercial growers are invited to participate in a Composting & Mulching Workshop on Thursday, May 31st, 9 AM to 12 noon, register at this link. http://ucanr.edu/survey/survey.cfm?surveynumber=24853
- Author: Hannah Meyer
Local fire agencies have warned that fire season is not over. Cooler temperatures are a relief but not a stop sign for wildfire. As of last week, according to Chief Marc Bashoor at FireChief.com over 50 fires still rage in the Western United States, at varying degrees of containment, California taking the brunt of the damage. It is important that local farmers and ranchers continue to take necessary precautions against wildfires and other disasters. How can you be prepared? The following blog was written by Livestock and Natural Resource Adviser, Dan Macon.
Fire Preparation for Ranchers - Writing Down Your Plan
- Author: Dan Macon Posted: July 11, 2018. Updated Aug 27, 2018.
“In June, I wrote about preparing our ranches for fire (Fire Season is Here: Is Your Ranch Ready?). Since that time, we've seen large fires in ranching country. Each of these fires is a stark reminder that we live and raise livestock in a fire-prone landscape.
In July, a number of ranchers from Placer County met with law enforcement, fire and animal control officials to discuss the emergency preparation and response issues unique to commercial-scale ranching operations. As we talked, I realized that there are several factors that make planning for and responding to wildfire (and other emergencies, like flooding) challenging for these kinds of ranching businesses:
- Many ranches have livestock in multiple locations.
- Many leased pastures are simply pastures; there is no landlord or other resident on site.
- Because of this, the physical address of the pasture may not be readily apparent.
- Often, the number of livestock at a particular site may be more than can be easily evacuated in a single load in a stock trailer.
- Access during a fire may be difficult due to law enforcement road blocks. Since many of us lease pastures, gaining access (as opposed to staying at our home places in the event of an evacuation) can be problematic.
There are several things we can do to help address these issues. First, we should write down the locations where our livestock are grazing at least on a seasonal basis. What's the address? How many animals are at each location, and what classes of animals are there? What are the evacuation routes you'd be likely to use to get animals out of harms way? If you couldn't evacuate the animals, are there safe zones on or nearby the location where animals could be moved? Is there an on-site landlord or resident, or perhaps a neighbor, that you could call in an emergency situation? Finally, are there 2 or 3 nearby ranchers who could help you? Here's a sample of my one-page plan:
Access to leased pastures during a large-scale fire or other emergency may be more problematic. On Monday, we learned from CalFire that there is a liaison officer within the agency's incident command structure who can help facilitate access to livestock during a multi-day fire. Short-term access may be more difficult - we're working with our local emergency responders to find ways to address this while also protecting public and fire fighter safety.
What steps do you take to prepare for the possibility of wildfire? I hope you'll share your ideas and questions in the comment section below!
And finally, I'm working on organizing similar meetings with first responders in Nevada, Yuba and Sutter Counties. If you operate a commercial ranch, or lease land to a rancher in one of these counties, and would like to get involved, please contact me at email@example.com.”
Watch for a follow-up blog that will focus on farmer preparation for wild fire or other emergency threats.