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News and information from UC Cooperative Extension about alfalfa and forage production.
Tractor & Hay bales
by Jose Porta
on January 2, 2014 at 1:23 PM
Dear Sir,  
Do you have more information about the international hay market? Thank you very much. Best regards.
by Daniel H Putnam
on January 2, 2014 at 1:28 PM
I'm not sure what type of information you're looking for. Where are you writing from?  
by Vance Hodgson
on January 19, 2014 at 11:22 PM
Hi Dan,  
I am a alfalfa grower in South Africa, getting 40 metric/tons /Ha under centre pivot and am looking to move production to Sudan as input costs here are making it very difficult to survive, especially electricity and diesel. Do you have any connections with buyers and producers in Sudan so that I can contact.  
Excellent article, thank-you.  
Vance Hodgson
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on January 20, 2014 at 8:53 AM
Thanks for the comment, Vance.  
Let's see, for our Yankee Metric challenged folks - that's about 17.8 tons/acre yield. Wow. Unless the DM% is wrong, in the US that would be considered stellar performance for hay. Average in AZ and CA is less than 9 tons/acre, best in the US, and maximum yields have been close to 17 tons, but not average. Unless your costs are extremely high, or value of the crop very low, not sure why this wouldn't make money.  
I've met several people who are setting up hay production there in Sudan using Nile River water, to market hay to Saudi. A higher risk region to do business, though, I understand.  
by Mustafa
on February 2, 2014 at 1:04 PM
hi Dan  
iam form sudan and iam in the hay export industry . although it is risky still it has its differential advantages.  
as vance said nice article.  
vance ,  
happy to help you with any information.  
by Sean
on February 12, 2014 at 9:43 AM
Hi Dan,  
Do you know of any producers in Arizona or Southern California that export to overseas markets? Prices in the PNW are high and is accompanied by high transportation costs as well. It's obvious to me that I need to start sourcing from the PSW. I talk with a few brokers but am always looking for sources of hay to service my overseas customers. Do you know of anyone that would be interested in talking about having dealings in the PSW?
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on February 14, 2014 at 9:24 AM
There are lots of producers in Arizona and Southern California that currently export. We have at least a dozen presses in the SoCal area. You'll have to do some digging down there - the blog is probably not the place.  
by Nathan
on February 20, 2014 at 10:36 AM
Hi, great article! Does anyone know if any hay from the United Kingdom is shipped over seas?  
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on February 20, 2014 at 11:29 AM
Yes, some is shipped to Europe. There are emerging markets in the Middle East as well. Haymaking may be a challenge.
by Charles Oden
on March 5, 2014 at 2:00 PM
Hey Nathan,  
Do you know of anyone exporting grasses from the southeast. We have quite a few farmers struggling to keep their hay businesses running since the margins are so slim. Wondering if exporting might be an option to assist possibly going through Jacksonville or Savannah.
by Chao Liu
on March 5, 2014 at 8:44 PM
Thanks for the excellent article!  
I have read your interview posted in China's website as well. And I am very interested in this industry now!  
Is here any chance to communicate with you, Dan?  
by Cody
on March 25, 2014 at 7:11 AM
Hello, I am a farmer in the Southern California area. We are looking to find contacts to directly export our hay, preferably over seas. Does anyone know how to go about finding these contacts, seems like many come from the Dubai area.  
by Sherralie Majeski
on March 31, 2014 at 4:57 PM
With California in drought, is there going to be any hay to ship?
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on April 4, 2014 at 12:58 AM
There will still be exports in spite of the drought, I would expect.  
by rob
on April 1, 2014 at 2:07 PM
Hello Daniel i am an alfalfa grower from Chile and in my field we grow 23920 cubes(prismatic) of alfalfa per year and i want to know how can we enter in the international market of alfalfa, also how we can get the international prices because we don´t want to get over the limit of the price of alfalfa with the cost of shipment in containers. we will be grateful if you can anwser this, thanks.  
Also a cube of alfalfa is like between (28 - 32) kg
by Daniel H Putnam
on April 4, 2014 at 1:14 AM
To my knowledge there are no independent sources of international prices for hay. So you can either work with a broker or another exporter or do market research on your own.
by Sergio Alvaado
on April 20, 2014 at 4:40 PM
Dear Dan:  
What is the best way to find final users of hay in overseas markets?
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on April 20, 2014 at 4:59 PM
Hi Sergio;  
Those companies and individuals who are exporting hay have typically invested quite a bit of time and energy to find markets and understand their needs. So I think the best way to find the end-users is either to do the footwork yourself, or to work with an established company.  
Meanwhile, US Exporters have an association which has 29 members, The US Forage Export Council:  
They serve the industry as a whole to assist buyers and sellers, but of course represents different companies who are competing for the same markets. You may want to contact them.  
by Nick Reynolds
on May 1, 2014 at 9:16 PM
Very well written article, both informative and easy to read.  
Yes there is a substantial trade in Hay or Fodder into Asia, although not all fodder is the same. With the increase in demand there should be enough demand to go around, although the water issue in the US could limit their exports.  
I am writing from Western Australia, where our exports are Oaten Hay, which is a good compliment to your alfalfa. While demand is stable in Japan, we expect to see demand increase substantially.  
It certainly is an interesting market and one that will become more international over time. I look forward to your analysis in a year or two's time.
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on May 3, 2014 at 11:21 AM
Yes, the Australian oaten hay is a major factor for importing countries, and affects the demand for the sudangrass, timothy, and other grasses from the US. If you have a bad year, it's good for us, and visa versa. I'm not sure if it affects the demand for alfalfa as much.  
by kk kwok
on May 21, 2014 at 5:19 AM
Dear Hay,  
Some Chinese listed company said that importing alfalfa from US cost 200USD per tone but China grow alfalfa themselves cost 70 USD only. Any way can prove the above statement true or not?  
Moreover, what is the profit margin of alfalfa?  
Thanks a lot for the article, it is very useful.
by Daniel H Putnam
on May 21, 2014 at 11:21 AM
Hi KK Kwok;  
My name isn't Hay (funny!). However, I'll give it a try.  
I don't think your numbers are right. Domestic Chinese alfalfa hay of high quality will bring close to the imported price, I think, delivered. Domestic Chines poor quality hay isn't worth very much to dairies. I'm not 100% sure but currently Chinese dairies are likely paying closer 300-450 or 500/ton for alfalfa. California price this year is 250-$350/ton.  
Profit margin will depend upon location grown and cost of production vs. price. There is no single margin. Price mostly follows market supply-demand rules, since there is no govt. subsidy.  
Contact USFEC (US Forage Export Council) for their take on this issue, or Chinese or American companies in China.  
by Dana Bartlett
on July 8, 2014 at 6:46 PM
I live in the US Virgin Islands where I have horses and donkeys. Im trying to find a consistent source of 110 lb bales of straight timothy. Thanks
by James
on October 23, 2014 at 1:15 AM
Professor Putnam,  
Excellent information! Much appreciated your effort in leading the industry. Could you please elaborate on the general quality variances between the Chinese grown vs. California grown Alfalfa?  
Go Aggies!  
@coby, very interest to talk to you about your alfalfa!  
by Riz Dinani
on March 25, 2015 at 4:40 PM
I have excess to 80,000 tons of Alfalfa hay directly from farmers on a yearly basis from Utah, Idaho and Nevada.  
Looking at customers overseas.  
Thank You
by Sam
on April 27, 2015 at 9:52 AM
Hello and great article for a newbi like me. I a looking for premium alfalfa to export overseas and looking for sources in the western US. I noticed on your blog that farmers listed availability but no contact information is listed.could you please help me contacting these farmers?  
Thank you
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on April 28, 2015 at 3:32 PM
It would be helpful to contact the USEFC (US Export Forage Council) who represent many of the major exporters. Additionally, contact the state hay associations (e.g. California Alfalfa & FOrage Association, Washington State Hay Associations, Idaho Hay Association).
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on April 28, 2015 at 3:38 PM
It would be helpful to contact the USEFC (US Export Forage Council) who represent many of the major exporters. Additionally, contact the state hay associations (e.g. California Alfalfa & FOrage Association, Washington State Hay Associations, Idaho Hay Association).
by Jim
on May 26, 2015 at 5:36 AM
Great article!  
Daniel, what is the best resource for getting up to date pricing both stateside and overseas?  
by Daniel H Putnam
on June 10, 2015 at 11:46 AM
You could contact US Forage Export Council  
Also, Seth Hoyt's newsletter contains price information (The Hoyt Report)for export and domestically. That's a subscription service.  
Public USDA-Market News information about hay prices can be seen at:
by Abdul Samad Ghaznavi
on August 3, 2015 at 2:03 AM
I am from Oregon interested finding customers for Hey in Dubai....can any one help connect to the sources there. Thank you indeed for the lively and informative article... so useful. Thanks Dan, I also saw your correspondence, very much appreciate your knowledge of sector and you being responsive...
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on August 3, 2015 at 7:21 AM
We don't allow fully commercial correspondence on this blog, Abdul.  
However, you may want to contact the US Forage Export Council. They represent 29 export members, 80% of the exporters in the US. John Szezpanski has a lot of contacts, and may be able to guide you. Normally, it takes a lot of footwork to develop those markets.  
See their website:  
by Steve Haupt
on September 18, 2015 at 7:02 AM
Greetings Dan,  
Where can we source current milk and hay prices in China?  
Is dry milk production still going in Nevada?
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on September 19, 2015 at 10:21 AM
I actually don't know immediately how to access reliable information about milk prices in China. A big factor recently has been the strength of the US dollar, which puts a damper on exports - in spite of this exports to China have increased (for hay).  
If I find out, I'll let you know.  
on December 2, 2015 at 1:39 AM
I am an American from Michigan but live in Las Vegas. I am in Shanghai now and have very high volume demands for the right hay from west coast of USA.
by Chantal Ghnaim
on March 28, 2016 at 12:53 PM
What is needed to export hay from South Africa to Amman Jordan? The cost and the quantity? Would like more information on how to go about this.  
by Gary Gosliga
on August 4, 2016 at 7:32 AM
Did you ever research what percentage of the commodities are shipped by air rather than ship?  
Thank you.
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on August 4, 2016 at 10:16 AM
No, haven't done that. Suspect it's so low as to be a fraction of 0.1%. Too bulky.
by Sam
on September 27, 2016 at 9:19 AM
Hello Daniel,  
Do you have any statistics on the amount of hay shipped from Nigeria to other countries, or what countries might be interested in importing hay from Nigeria?
by Thomas Rochon
on January 2, 2017 at 9:42 AM
Excellent information Daniel H Putnam. I fully agree with you..  
Thomas Rochon  
Seo Expert
by Tony
on January 23, 2017 at 2:57 PM
Hello, why does Alfalfa hay from Chile cost more than from USA? Is it the Quality? Who are main buyers from Chile? I seen as much as 320 per MT for Chile Alfalfa Hay,
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on January 23, 2017 at 10:34 PM
I actually don't know the reason - except that hay prices vary pretty significantly from region to region anyway, even within the USA. We'll get 50-100$/ton difference between different areas of the US. Prices tend to be regionally based. I think the main buyers from Chile are Chinese.  
I would find it hard to believe that Chilean hay is all-in-all superior to hay from other regions, since hay quality differs within a country (and even within a farm) pretty significantly.
by Daniel H Putnam
on January 23, 2017 at 10:35 PM
By the way, see more recent blog with more up to date export data at
by Jai Choi
on March 16, 2017 at 3:23 PM
Hay Importer in S Korea want to import a large amount of hay from USA. What is the best way to help them. Please suggest me a few companies names which export Hay in USA
Reply by Daniel H Putnam
on March 25, 2017 at 9:43 AM
Contact the US Forage Export Council.
by Wilson Lara
on April 19, 2017 at 1:34 AM
Thanks For Sharing This Blog Its Very Useful For Me
by Bob Jordan
on June 9, 2017 at 1:43 PM
Excellent article! We are looking to put in a pellet mill, are there any articles written on supply and demand, both domestic and global, for alfalfa pellets?  
by Daniel H Putnam
on June 17, 2017 at 7:15 PM
I don't know of any data like this. Cubes are more common in exports. But double compression has by-and-large dominated the export markets.  
by Yoshi
on May 5, 2021 at 8:09 AM
This analysis is great! Do you have an updated version of this with recent data? Thank you.
by Stefan Robert
on January 8, 2022 at 8:49 AM
Astounding article! We are hoping to place in a pellet process, are there any articles composed on market interest, both homegrown and worldwide, for hay pellets?  
Much obliged  
by Stefan Robert
on January 8, 2022 at 8:55 AM
I am glad to see this important information. Thank you very much to share with us.
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