- Author: Kathy Keatley Garvey
The elm leaf beetles and their larvae don't want to hold your hand--unless perhaps you're holding a elm leaf that they can eat.
A recent walk down the 200 block of Buck Avenue, Vacaville, California, revealed the damage this pest does. The stately canopied elms don't look so stately, what with the dry skeletonized leaves, the browning and the dieback.
And if you look closer, you'll see the leaves--the feeding site--dropping prematurely, and beetles and their larvae falling with them.
Infestations of these beetles can defoliate large elm trees, according to the UC Integrated Statewide Management Program's Pest Note on this pest, Xanthogaleruca (=Pyrrhalta) luteola.
Have you ever seen them? They're about 1/4 inch long, yellow to olive-green with a black stripe on each side and four black spots near the head. They are an invasive species from southern Europe, introduced here in the 1800s, and considered the most serious elm defoliator in the United States.
"Females lay yellowish eggs in double rows of about 5 to 25 on the underside of leaves," according to UC IPM. "Eggs become grayish before hatching. Larvae resemble caterpillars and are black when newly hatched and shortly after molting (shedding the old skin). After feeding, larvae become yellowish to green with rows of tiny dark tubercles (projections). Third-instar larvae grow up to 1/3 inch long and have dense rows of dark tubercles down their sides that resemble two black stripes. Pupae are orange to bright yellow."
We observed some natural enemies on site: lady beetles, aka ladybugs, and their larvae munching on the larvae of the elm leaf beetles. Yes, beetle larvae eating beetle larvae. Lady beetles and their larvae target soft-bodied insects, and not just aphids.
UC IPM says:
"The elm leaf beetle develops through four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Adults commonly overwinter in bark crevices and woodpiles or in buildings. In spring they fly to elm foliage and chew leaves, and females lay eggs. Eggs hatch into larvae that develop through three instars (growth stages) over a period of several weeks while chewing on foliage and then crawl down the tree trunk. Mature larvae become curled and inactive (a stage referred to as prepupae), then pupate, sometimes in large numbers, around the tree base. After about 10 days as pupae, adults emerge and fly to the canopy to feed and, during spring and summer, lay eggs. The elm leaf beetle has at least one generation a year in northern California and two to three generations in central and southern California."
Elm trees with massive defoliation can weaken the tree and pave the way for diseases and damage from other pests.
If you have elm trees, especially European elm species, and you have these little buggers all over them, you might want to access the UC IPM Pest Notes to see how to manage them.
These beetles mean business./span>
- Author: Kathy Keatley Garvey
Especially those oleander aphids that suck the very lifeblood out of our milkweed plants that we're struggling to save for monarch butterflies.
Just call aphids "The Enemy of the Gardener" or "The Enemy of the Milkweed."
The University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) describes aphids as "small, soft-bodied insects with long slender mouthparts that they use to pierce stems, leaves, and other tender plant parts and suck out fluids. Almost every plant has one or more aphid species that occasionally feed on it."
"Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies with long legs and antennae and may be green, yellow, brown, red, or black depending on the species and the plants they feed on," UC IPM tells us. "A few species appear waxy or woolly due to the secretion of a waxy white or gray substance over their body surface. Most species have a pair of tubelike structures called cornicles projecting backward out of the hind end of their body. The presence of cornicles distinguishes aphids from all other insects.
"Generally adult aphids are wingless, but most species also occur in winged forms, especially when populations are high or during spring and fall. The ability to produce winged individuals provides the pest with a way to disperse to other plants when the quality of the food source deteriorates."
Not only do aphids stunt plant growth but they can spread viruses. Plus, they produce that sticky honey dew they that attracts ants and other insects.
Density? We've seen aphids so dense on our milkweed stems that all we see is yellow. (Sometimes we see red!)
We recently saw them magnified on a Leica DVM6 microscope, operated by Lynn Epstein, UC Davis emeritus professor of plant pathology, at a demonstration in Hutchison Hall. (See image below)
In California, most aphids reproduce asexually throughout most of the year, according to UC IPM. Did you know that a single aphid can generate as many as 12 offspring a day--without mating?
Bring on the lady beetles (aka lady bugs), lacewings, and soldier beetles! The larvae of lady beetles and syrphid flies also do their part in gobbling up aphids.
What to do when biological control doesn't work that well? Or when your lady beetles depart? Pinch the aphids; spray them with with water; or spray them with a mixture of 1 tablespoon of dish soap (Castile liquid soap) and one quart of water. Some folks dab aphids with cotton swabs dipped in isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol but that will kill the monarch eggs and larvae as well. We've found that spraying a mixture of sudsy soap and water works best for us.
Lather is the best medicine.