- Author: Chris M. Webb
Many food producers use mulches for weed, insect, and disease management and for water conservation to improve crop production . Depending on specific production goals, growers use reflective plastic or cover crop mulches.
Most plastic mulch materials are made of either high- or low-density polyethylene. They typically range from 0.3 to 0.79 inches thick (7.7 to 20.2 mm), 5 or 6 feet wide (1.5 to 1.8 m), and 555 to 1,138 yards long (60 to 1223 m). The additional benefits of plastic mulches in vegetable production include: crop earliness, increased yields, improved crop quality, and reduced fertilizer leaching in some cases.
Challenges with this type of mulch include: removal and disposal, higher production costs, specialized management and equipment for installation, and increased susceptibility to frost.
Use of cover crops as mulches is currently being refined and evaluated in a wide range of vegetable production systems. Additional benefits of cover crop mulches in vegetable production include: enhanced nitrogen availability, reduced soil erosion, increased soil organic matter, reduced intercrop tillage, increased soil quality, and offset payment incentives possible through U.S. Farm Bill conservation programs.
Challenges with this type of mulch include: cooler temperatures above and below mulch, slower-maturing crops, cover crop mulch re-growth, specialized management and equipment in some cases, limited in-season weed management options, cost, and allelopathy (plant chemical interference) between cover crop and production crop.
UC ANR’s free Mulches in California Vegetable Crop Production publication is full of information on this subject with suggestions for further reading at the end.
- Author: Chris M. Webb
The new issue of Landscape Notes, written by Ventura County Cooperative Extension’s Jim Downer is now available. While written mainly for landscape professionals, home gardeners will also find useful information.
Topics covered in this issue include:
- Upcoming Landscape disease symposium information
- Use of mulches to control weeds in landscapes
- Potting media studies
- It’s conk season so keep an eye on your palms
- Author: Chris M. Webb
Join expert composter Lorraine Walters on Saturday, September 4 and learn about composting, vermicompost and mulch to improve the health of your soil. Healthy soil can increase production, reduce the likelihood of insects and disease, reduce water needs and more.
This class will be held at Community Roots Garden. Scheduled topics include:
- How to make compost from common materials such as food scraps, grass clippings, and leaves.
- Faster composting methods that take more attention as well as the slower, easier methods.
- How to make extra high-grade compost using redworms (called vermicomposting).
- How to use compost to build your soil.
- How to use mulch to build your soil, and the difference between compost and mulch.
Composting expert, Lorraine Walters
- Author: Chris M. Webb
So you’d like to plant a vegetable garden but you don’t have room at home? Or maybe you do have room at home, but would enjoy some camaraderie while you plant and harvest? Community gardens can be a great solution to either of these situations.
Ventura County has lots of opportunities for those who would like to have a plot at a community garden. On the Ventura County UCCE website we offer a guide to local gardening resources, which can be found here.
In addition to available garden plots, this resource also includes contact information for groups such as the Grow Food Party Crew and the Ventura City Corps that assist others in establishing their own gardens. The UCCE Master Gardener Speaker’s Bureau is another great resource and is available for talks to groups on a variety of subjects.
Several local food banks are a great place to take your excess harvest. The food banks in turn can quickly deliver the fresh fruits and vegetables to outlets throughout our community for those in need. Local food bank contacts are also available in this resource.
Lastly there are many places one can find locally produced compost and mulch. David Goldstein, an environmental resource analyst for the County of Ventura explains the difference between compost and mulch in addition to providing details on how the products are produced. He also includes contact information to find locally produced compost and mulch -- some is free, and the costs of the others vary. Some places can even deliver directly to your home or community garden for an additional fee.
- Author: Chris M. Webb
The following home garden water conservation tips were written by Ventura County UCCE Farm Advisor Ben Faber. This article and other practical pieces for home gardeners can be found on this section of our website.
When to water? How much to water? These are two very important questions that need to be answered before watering lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens if we want to provide the most beneficial use of this resource. Because of variability in plant size, weather (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, clouds and fog), types of soil and water, and the method of watering, it is difficult to give one recommendation that is true for all situations. Additionally, watering plants on a fixed schedule subjects them to periods of too much water and at other times to drought, because weather and plant size change. A young avocado tree in December may use only one gallon per day while a 20-foot tree in August might use 35 gallons per day.
The following are general principles. As plants increase in size, rooting becomes deeper, and the frequency of waterings can be decreased because more water is stored in the larger root zone. The time to water can be determined by the appearance of the plant, by the soil moisture content, or by estimating the amount of water used since the last irrigation.
. In most cases, plants can wilt slightly at midday before it is necessary to apply water the following day. Alternatively, i if you dig with a trowel or shovel down to 1 ft depth and find the soil is dry, then this might be used as an indicator of the time to water.
Soils and Water
In similar climates, water use by plants generally is the same regardless of the soil from which it is taken; however, soil variability is important in watering. A sandy soil requires more frequent, short watering than a clay soil to prevent water loss beneath the root zone. With heavy soils, it is best to water less frequently because these soils will hold more water. Heavy soils typically do not absorb water rapidly, so to avoid runoff it may be necessary to split the watering times into two or more periods. Adding organic matter to clay and sandy soils will increase the rate of water penetration in day soils and the water-holding capacity of sandy soils.
Other than seedlings, which are shallow-rooted, water should be supplied to a minimum depth of 1 ft in the soil (approximately 1 inch depth of water on the surface of the soil will infiltrate down to 1 ft). An area 10 ft x 10 ft will require about 62 gallons of water to filter down to 1 ft. This would be similar to 1 inch of rain or lawn sprinkling on the same 100 sq. ft. Infrequent but deeper watering will result in a deeper rooting system, and the plant will be better able to sustain periods of high water demand. Less frequent watering will also minimize loss of water by evaporation from the soil surface.
During or after a watering, the depth to which soil moisture has been restored can be determined by probing the soil with a metal rod not more than 3/16 inch in diameter. A big screwdriver is also a good tool for probing. The force needed to push the probe will increase suddenly when it reaches dry soil. The length of time of sprinkler operation or amount of applied water that was used to achieve a certain soil depth can then be used as a standard for future waterings.
Trees and Shrubs
In a winter with adequate rainfall, the whole root zone is filled with water near the end of the rainy season; however, in dry winters, plants need supplemental watering. The amount of water to apply is the amount required to replace the water taken from the soil by roots and lost by evaporation from the soil surface since the last rainfall or watering. Water to a depth of 2 ft (approximately 2 inches of water or 125 gallons per 100 sq. ft) under the drip line (canopy) of the tree or shrub. With deeper-rooted trees, for every third watering, apply twice as much, or four inches (250 gallons per 100 sq. ft). This will ensure that the deeper roots will be maintained and that various salts in the water are leached from around the roots.
Ideally, water applied to trees and shrubs should be ponded at the site by building berms around the plant. This insures that the applied water goes directly to the plant and is not wasted. It also makes it possible to visualize 2 inches of applied water. For trees it is best to build two berms: one 6 inches high, located in a 1 ft radius around the trunk and a second following the drip line of the tree. The interior berm is created to prevent diseases caused by water standing around the trunk of a tree or shrub. For trees located in lawns,
&water bubbler at the base of the tree can be used to deep water the tree, without applying excess to the lawn.
Because roots of trees and shrubs often extend in all directions far beyond their longest branches and comingle, it may not make sense to water them individually. A more practical procedure may be to create dikes around a group of these plants. The total impounded area of each basin should not be greater than 50 sq. ft and the surface within should be as level as possible. The 50-sq. ft area and levelness will encourage an even distribution of water to the various plants.
Depending on the hose diameter and water pressure, many household hoses apply about 5 gallons per minute. So to apply water with a subsoil irrigator to a tree with a 10-ft-diameter canopy, it is necessary to run the water for 25 minutes (2 inches of water on 100 sq. ft = 125 gallons). The bubbler should be moved every five to ten minutes around the tree so that all the root zone is watered. Since the 5-gallon-per-minute rate is an average, one’s own situation can be measured by filling a five-gallon bucket with your hose and timing how long it takes to fill.
Vegetables and Flowers
Vegetables or flowers can be grown in sunken beds or level basins that can be flooded in the same fashion as trees and shrubs. Sunken beds should not be larger than 50 sq. feet so that they can be filled rapidly to achieve uniformity with the depth of water to be applied. Furrows also can be used in growing flowers and vegetables. Spacing of the furrows should be such that water from the furrows wets the whole bed. The spacing of furrows will vary with soil type. Sandy soils need closer spacing to avoid loss of water out of the root zone when trying to wet the whole bed, while clay soils can have wider spacing. The amount of water applied by furrows is the amount needed to move across to the center of the bed. By probing with a stick or trowel in the center of the bed, it is possible to determine the depth of water and the amount of time needed to continue to run the water. Canvas soaker hose or drip tape are also good ways to water beds. The length of time to run them can be determined by using the calculation used for trees or simply by probing the soil to find the depth of water infiltrated.
Studies by the University of California at Riverside have demonstrated that many turf grass species can get by with as little as 60% of optimum watering with little stress. Most lawns have areas that dry sooner than other parts of the lawn. Let these areas be your indicator for watering the rest of the lawn. When the grass in the dry area becomes dull colored and does not spring back when stepped on, water the entire lawn. The amount or length of water application should be enough so that a stiff metal rod or screwdriver can be pushed 1 ft into the soil. This depth for most soil textures represents about 1 inch of rain. Alternatively, cans can be set out in the lawn, the system turned on, and the length of time it takes to collect an average of 1 inch of water can be used in subsequent waterings. This test will also show how evenly water is being applied and can suggest ways to correct sprinkler performance.
Sprinklers should be run so that no runoff occurs. If water has not penetrated to 1 ft and runoff occurs, turn the system off for an hour then turn it back on to apply the needed amount. Spading or aerating lawns can help water penetration.
Some Do’s and Don’ts
Select plants that are adapted to warmer, drier climates.
Adjust sprinklers for uniform water distribution.
Fix leaky faucets and lines.
Water early in the day to reduce evaporative loss.
Mulch beds to reduce evaporation from the soil surface..
Shelter container plants from winds.
Don’t sprinkle during windy or hot periods of the day.
Don’t put the water on the street and sidewalk; put it on the plants.
Don’t use softened water (sodium treated), if it can be avoided; it will harm most plants.
Don’t put sprinklers on a timer that is not adjusted with the weather; failure to adjust your timer assures you of wasting water.