The existence of urban residents and urban wildlife has long been a battle. In recent years, residents in many southern Californian cities and unincorporated communities have had problem encounters with wildlife adding to conflict situations. With the recent restrictions on second generation anticoagulants, controlling certain vertebrate pests has become increasingly difficult. The lack of control technologies for other urban wildlife also leads to issues with conflict resolution. In southern California, we have long existed with many wildlife related diseases and are now dealing with resurgence and emergence of new ones.
The human-wildlife relationship has evolved over the years. Often, conflict resolution can be contentions and political and conflict is not resolved using evidence-based decision making. Urban wildlife management issues have now evolved from dealing with native and introduced species to also include feral companion animal issues. Tolerance for nuisance wildlife and strong convictions about toxic control are also dynamic and can change with location and personal experience. Successful conflict resolution when dealing with urban wildlife is complicated particularly because it is so challenging to reach a consensus for action among all stakeholders.