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Cover Crop Resources

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Contact Sonja Brodt if you know of additional resources to include below.


Cover Crop Resources

General Resources

Crop-Specific Resources

Economic Resources

Cover Crop-Related Publications


Funding Resources

  • Healthy Soil Program. California Department of Food and Agriculture. The HSP Incentives Program provides financial incentives to California growers and ranchers to implement conservation management practices that sequester carbon, reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), and improve soil health.
  • Environmental Quality Incentives Program. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) is NRCS’ flagship conservation program that helps farmers, ranchers and forest landowners integrate conservation into working lands.
  • Seeds for Bees. Project Apis m. (non-profit organization). Seeds for Bees encourages the use of cover crops to increase the density, diversity, and duration of bee forage in California orchards, farms, and vineyards, while improving soil health.



  1. Aase, J. K., & Siddoway, F. H. (1976). Influence of Tall Wheatgrass Wind Barriers on Soil Drying 1. Agronomy journal68(4), 627-631.
  2. Andrews, S. S., Mitchell, J. P., Mancinelli, R., Karlen, D. L., Hartz, T. K., Horwath, W. R., ... & Munk, D. S. (2002). On-farm assessment of soil quality in California's Central Valley. Agronomy Journal94(1), 12-23.
  3. Attwood, G. T., Wakelin, S. A., Leahy, S. C., Rowe, S., Clarke, S., Chapman, D. F., ... & Jacobs, J. M. (2019). Applications of the soil, plant and rumen microbiomes in pastoral agriculture.Frontiers in Nutrition6, 107.
  4. Baggs, E. M., Stevenson, M., Pihlatie, M., Regar, A., Cook, H., & Cadisch, G. (2003). Nitrous oxide emissions following application of residues and fertiliser under zero and conventional tillage. Plant and Soil254(2), 361-370.
  5. Basche, A. D., Miguez, F. E., Kaspar, T. C., & Castellano, M. J. (2014). Do cover crops increase or decrease nitrous oxide emissions? A meta-analysis. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation69(6), 471-482.
  6. Battany, M. C., & Grismer, M. E. (2000). Rainfall runoff and erosion in Napa Valley vineyards: effects of slope, cover and surface roughness. Hydrological processes14(7), 1289-1304.
  7. Blanco-Canqui, H., Shaver, T. M., Lindquist, J. L., Shapiro, C. A., Elmore, R. W., Francis, C. A., & Hergert, G. W. (2015). Cover crops and ecosystem services: Insights from studies in temperate soils. Agronomy journal107(6), 2449-2474.
  8. Brennan, E. B., & Boyd, N. S. (2012). Winter cover crop seeding rate and variety affects during eight years of organic vegetables: II. Cover crop nitrogen accumulation. Agronomy Journal104(3), 799-806.
  9. Caltagirone, L.E., Meals, D.W., & Shea, K.P. (1968). Almond sticktights contribute to navel orangeworm infestations. California Agriculture, 22(3), 2–3.
  10. Celano, G., Palese, A. M., Ciucci, A., Martorella, E., Vignozzi, N., & Xiloyannis, C. (2011). Evaluation of soil water content in tilled and cover-cropped olive orchards by the geoelectrical technique. Geoderma163(3-4), 163-170.
  11. Çerçioglu, M., Anderson, S. H., Udawatta, R. P., & Alagele, S. (2019). Effect of cover crop management on soil hydraulic properties. Geoderma343, 247-253.
  12. Christopher, S. F., & Lal, R. (2007). Nitrogen management affects carbon sequestration in North American cropland soils. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences26(1), 45-64.
  13. Connell, J., 2011. Almond Notes. University of California Cooperative Extension, Butte County. https://cebutte.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Almond_Notes31284.pdf
  14. Creze, C. M., & Horwath, W. R. (2021). Cover Cropping: A Malleable Solution for Sustainable Agriculture? Meta-Analysis of Ecosystem Service Frameworks in Perennial Systems.Agronomy11(5), 862.
  15. Crézé, C., Mitchell, J., Westphal, A., Lightle, D., Doll, D., Yaghmour, M., Williams, N., Hodson, A., Wilson, H., Daane, K., Hanson, B., Haring, S., Zuber, C., Gaudin, A., 2019. Cover crop research review: How can it help almonds? - The Almond Doctor. https://thealmonddoctor.com/cover-crop-research-almonds/.
  16. CTIC & SARE. Report of the 2013-14 Cover Crop Survey. (2014). Joint publication of the Conservation Technology Information Center and the North Central Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program.
  17. de Albuquerque Nunes, P. A., Laca, E. A., de Faccio Carvalho, P. C., Li, M., de Souza Filho, W., Robinson Kunrath, T., ... & Gaudin, A. (2021). Livestock integration into soybean systems improves long-term system stability and profits without compromising crop yields.Scientific reports11(1), 1-14.
  18. de Faccio Carvalho, P. C., Anghinoni, I., de Moraes, A., de Souza, E. D., Sulc, R. M., Lang, C. R., ... & Bayer, C. (2010). Managing grazing animals to achieve nutrient cycling and soil improvement in no-till integrated systems.Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems88(2), 259-273.
  19. De Gryze, S., Lee, J., Ogle, S., Paustian, K., & Six, J. (2011). Assessing the potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in intensively managed annual cropping systems at the regional scale. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment144(1), 150-158.
  20. DeVincentis, A., Solis, S., Rice, S., Zaccaria, D., Snyder, R., Maskey, M., ... & Mitchell, J. (2022). Impacts of winter cover cropping on soil moisture and evapotranspiration in California's specialty crop fields may be minimal during winter months. California Agriculture76(1), 37-45.
  21. Donaldson, D.R., Snyder, R.L., Elmore, C., Gallagher, S., 1993. Weed Control Influences Vineyard Minimum Temperatures. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 44, 431–434. https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.1993.44.4.431
  22. Drinkwater, L. E., Wagoner, P., & Sarrantonio, M. (1998). Legume-based cropping systems have reduced carbon and nitrogen losses. Nature396(6708), 262-265.
  23. Edwards, S., & Ploeg, A. (2014). Evaluation of 31 potential biofumigant brassicaceous plants as hosts for three meloiodogyne species.Journal of Nematology, 287-295.
  24. Ferris, H., McKenry, M. V., & McKinney, H. E. (1976). Spatial distribution of nematodes in peach orchards.Plant Disease Reporter60, 18-22.
  25. Fourie, H., Ahuja, P., Lammers, J., & Daneel, M. (2016). Brassicacea-based management strategies as an alternative to combat nematode pests: A synopsis.Crop Protection80, 21-41.
  26. Garrett, R. D., Niles, M. T., Gil, J. D., Gaudin, A., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Assmann, A., ... & Valentim, J. (2017a). Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems: Current knowledge and remaining uncertainty.Agricultural Systems155, 136-146.
  27. Garrett, R. D., Niles, M., Gil, J., Dy, P., Reis, J., & Valentim, J. (2017b). Policies for reintegrating crop and livestock systems: a comparative analysis.Sustainability9(3), 473.
  28. Gaudin, A., Mitchell, J., Westphal, A., Yaghmour, M., Zuber, C., Hanson, B., Jarvis-Shean, K., Williams, N., Hodson, A., Wilson, H., Solis, S., Creze, C., Haring, S., DeVincentis, A. (2020) What do cover crops have to offer? Opportunities and Challenges for Almond systems. American Society of Agronomy: California Plant and Soil Conference presentation. https://ucanr.edu/sites/calasa/files/319850.pdf
  29. Giambalvo, D., Amato, G., Stringi, L., 2011. Effects of Stubble Height and Cutting Frequency on Regrowth of Berseem Clover in a Mediterranean Semiarid Environment. Crop Science 51, 1808–1814. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2010.05.0271 
  30. Gruver, L. S., Weil, R. R., Zasada, I. A., Sardanelli, S., & Momen, B. (2010). Brassicaceous and rye cover crops altered free-living soil nematode community composition.Applied soil ecology45(1), 1-12.
  31. Haramoto, E. R., & Gallandt, E. R. (2004). Brassica cover cropping for weed management: A review. Renewable agriculture and food systems19(4), 187-198.
  32. Ingels, C., Horn, M., Bugg, R., & Miller, P. (1994). Selecting the right cover crop gives multiple benefits. California Agriculture48(5), 43-48.
  33. Jackson, L. E. (2000). Fates and losses of nitrogen from a nitrogen-15-labeled cover crop in an intensively managed vegetable system. Soil Science Society of America Journal64(4), 1404-1412.
  34. Jackson, L. E., Ramirez, I., Yokota, R., Fennimore, S. A., Koike, S. T., Henderson, D. M., Chaney, W.E., Calderón, F.J. & Klonsky, K. (2004). On-farm assessment of organic matter and tillage management on vegetable yield, soil, weeds, pests, and economics in California. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment103(3), 443-463.
  35. Jackson, L., Ramirez, I., Yokota, R., Fennimore, S., Koike, S., Henderson, D., Chaney, W. & Klonsky, K. (2003). Scientists, growers assess trade-offs in use of tillage, cover crops and compost. California Agriculture57(2), 48-54.
  36. Joyce, B. A., Wallender, W. W., Mitchell, J. P., Huyck, L. M., Temple, S. R., Brostrom, P. N., & Hsiao, T. C. (2002). Infiltration and soil water storage under winter cover cropping in California’s Sacramento Valley. Transactions of the ASAE45(2), 315.
  37. Kallenbach, C. M., Rolston, D. E., & Horwath, W. R. (2010). Cover cropping affects soil N2O and CO2 emissions differently depending on type of irrigation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment137(3-4), 251-260.
  38. Kruger, D. H. M., Fourie, J. C., & Malan, A. P. (2013). Cover crops with biofumigation properties for the suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes: a review.South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture34(2), 287-295.
  39. Kruidhof, H. M., Bastiaans, L., & Kropff, M. J. (2008). Ecological weed management by cover cropping: effects on weed growth in autumn and weed establishment in spring. Weed research48(6), 492-502.
  40. Li, L., Zhang, J., He, X. Z., & Hou, F. (2021). Sheep trampling modifies soil and plant C: N: P stoichiometry in a typical steppe of the Loess Plateau.Rangeland Ecology & Management76, 100-108.
  41. Light, S., Lloyd, M., Berris, H., Stewart, D., & Goodrich, B. (2022). Estimated Costs for a Winter Cover Crop in an Annual Crop Rotation. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Cooperative Extension and UC Davis Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  42. Meyer, J. R., Zehr, E. I., Meagher Jr, R. L., & Salvo, S. K. (1992). Survival and growth of peach trees and pest populations in orchard plots managed with experimental ground covers.Agriculture, ecosystems & environment41(3-4), 353-363.
  43. Montemurro, F., Fiore, A., Campanelli, G., Tittarelli, F., Ledda, L., & Canali, S. (2013). Organic fertilization, green manure, and vetch mulch to improve organic zucchini yield and quality. HortScience48(8), 1027-1033.
  44. Muramoto, J., Smith, R. F., Shennan, C., Klonsky, K. M., Leap, J., Ruiz, M. S., & Gliessman, S. R. (2011). Nitrogen contribution of legume/cereal mixed cover crops and organic fertilizers to an organic broccoli crop.HortScience46(8), 1154-1162.
  45. Napa RCD, Fibershed, UCCE-Sonoma, and CAFF, director. Sheep & Grapes Workshop, Day 1. Youtube, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dItPMoi7mc&t=3440s
  46. O’Connell, N.V., Snyder, R.L., 1999. Cover Crops, Mulch Lower Night Temperatures in Citrus. California Agriculture 53(5): 37-40. 
  47. Ory, J., & Iles, A. (2021). Fostering Healthy Soils in California: Farmer Motivations and Barriers. In True Cost Accounting for Food(pp. 137-146). Routledge.
  48. Poudel, D. D., Horwath, W. R., Mitchell, J. P., & Temple, S. R. (2001). Impacts of cropping systems on soil nitrogen storage and loss.Agricultural Systems68(3), 253-268.
  49. Prichard, T., Sills, W., Asai, W., Hendricks, L., & Elmore, C. (1989). Orchard water use and soil characteristics.California Agriculture43(4), 23-25.
  50. Ritchie, J. T., & Adams, J. E. (1974). Field measurement of evaporation from soil shrinkage cracks.Soil Science Society of America Journal38(1), 131-134.
  51. Ruiz-Colmenero, M., Bienes, R., & Marques, M. J. (2011). Soil and water conservation dilemmas associated with the use of green cover in steep vineyards.Soil and Tillage Research117, 211-223.
  52. Schuman, G. E., Janzen, H. H., & Herrick, J. E. (2002). Soil carbon dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands.Environmental pollution116(3), 391-396.
  53. Sibbett, G., & Van Steenwyk, R. (1993). Shredding “mummy” walnuts is key to destroying navel orangeworm in winter.California Agriculture47(5), 26-28.
  54. Siegel, J.P., Kuenen, L.P.S., Higbee, B.S., Noble, P., Gill, R., Yokota, G.Y., Krugner, R., & Daane, K.M. (2008). California Agriculture, 62(1), 30-35.
  55. Smukler, S. M., O'Geen, A. T., & Jackson, L. E. (2012). Assessment of best management practices for nutrient cycling: A case study on an organic farm in a Mediterranean-type climate.Journal of Soil and Water Conservation67(1), 16-31.
  56. Snyder, R., Connell, J., 1993. Ground cover height affects pre-dawn orchard floor temperature. California Agriculture 47, 9–12. https://doi.org/10.3733/ca.v047n01p9 
  57. Snyder, R.L., Paulo de Melo-Abrea, J., 2005. Frost Protection: fundamentals, practice and economics. Vol. 1, Environment and Natural Resources Series. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. https://www.fao.org/3/y7223e/y7223e00.htm
  58. Somasundaram, J., Lal, R., Sinha, N. K., Dalal, R., Chitralekha, A., Chaudhary, R. S., & Patra, A. K. (2018). Cracks and potholes in vertisols: characteristics, occurrence, and management.Advances in Agronomy149, 93-159.
  59. Steenwerth, K., & Belina, K. M. (2008a). Cover crops and cultivation: Impacts on soil N dynamics and microbiological function in a Mediterranean vineyard agroecosystem.Applied Soil Ecology40(2), 370-380.
  60. Steenwerth, K., & Belina, K. M. (2008b). Cover crops enhance soil organic matter, carbon dynamics and microbiological function in a vineyard agroecosystem.Applied soil ecology40(2), 359-369.
  61. Teasdale, J. R., Brandsaeter, L. O., Calegari, A. D. E. M. I. R., Neto, F. S., Upadhyaya, M. K., & Blackshaw, R. E. (2007). Cover crops and weed management.Non chemical weed management principles. Concepts and Technology, CABI, Wallingford, UK, 49-64.
  62. Turinek, M., Grobelnik-Mlakar, S., Bavec, M., & Bavec, F. (2009). Biodynamic agriculture research progress and priorities.Renewable agriculture and food systems24(2), 146-154.
  63. UC Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM). Navel Orangeworm, Almond Pest Management Guidelines, https://ipm.ucanr.edu/agriculture/almond/navel-orangeworm/.
  64. Unger, P. W., & Vigil, M. F. (1998). Cover crop effects on soil water relationships.Journal of soil and water conservation53(3), 200-207.
  65. Wade, W.H. (1961). Biology of the navel orangeworm Paramyelois transitella (Walker) on almonds and walnuts in northern California. Hilgardia, 31, 129–171.
  66. Wang, K. H., Sipes, B. S., & Schmitt, D. P. (2002). Crotalaria as a cover crop for nematode management: a review.Nematropica, 35-58.
  67. Wauters, V., Gaudin, A., Williams, N., Jarvis-Shean, K., Hanson, B., Haring, S., Hodson, A., Sandoval Solis, Sam, Synk, Bill, Westphal, Andreas, Wilson, Houston, 2020. Cover Crop Best Management Practices. Almond Board of California, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, and University of California, Davis. https://www.almonds.com/sites/default/files/2021-07/Cover%20Crops%20Best%20Management%20Practices%20BMPs_0.pdf
  68. Wilson, H., Burks, C., Reger, J.E., Wenger, J.A. (2020). Biology and management of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 11(1): 25; https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmaa025
  69. Wilson, H., Daane, K.M., Maccaro, J.J., Scheibner, R.S., Britt, K.E., & Gaudin, A.C.M. (2022). Winter cover crops reduce spring emergence and egg deposition on overwintering navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds. Environmental Entomology, 51(4), 790-797.
  70. Wood, S. A., & Bowman, M. (2021). Large-scale farmer-led experiment demonstrates positive impact of cover crops on multiple soil health indicators.Nature Food2(2), 97-103.
  71. Zablotowicz, R. M., Focht, D. D., & Cannell, G. H. (1981). Nodulation and N Fixation of Field-Grown California Cowpeas as Influenced by Well-Irrigated and Droughted Conditions 1.Agronomy Journal73(1), 9-12.
  72. Zalom, F,G,, Barnett, W,W,, & Weakley, C.V. (1984). Efficacy of winter sanitation for managing the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker) in California almond orchards. Protection Ecology, 7, 37–41.