Posts Tagged: Rachel Surls
Even as Californians shelter in place to contain the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, nutritious food remains vital to the health and well-being of our communities.
“Eating fruits and vegetables is known to benefit our overall health and help our immune system,” said Lorrene Ritchie, director of the UC Nutrition Policy Institute. “At a time when we need to be especially vigilant about staying healthy, eating healthy is essential.”
Farms, farm stands and farmers markets are listed as “essential businesses” in the state shelter-in-place order because they are important parts of the food supply. Urban farms are included in this category. As large produce distributors struggle to switch from selling large quantities to restaurants, schools and institutions to supplying supermarkets, these small businesses may offer a better selection of fresh foods, and may be closer to homes and less crowded.
To help minimize exposure and risk of spreading of the virus, urban farms need to follow some key guidelines from the CDC , said Jennifer Sowerwine, UC Cooperative Extension metropolitan agriculture and food systems specialist in the Department of Environment, Science, Policy and Management at UC Berkeley.
UC Cooperative Extension has compiled a list of resources for farmers, community gardeners and other people working in the food system to ensure that they can continue supplying fresh, healthy and affordable food to Californians.
“Social distancing, heightened health and hygiene practices and cleaning and disinfecting reduce the risk,” said Sowerwine.
Although eating a nutritious diet can boost our immunity, the Los Angeles Times reported produce sales plummeted by 90% or more at Southern California produce markets after the statewide shelter-in-place rules went into effect.
“It's worrisome to see that sales of fruits and vegetables are dropping so sharply, but not surprising,” said Rachel Surls, UC Cooperative Extension sustainable food systems advisor for Los Angeles County. “As people shop during the crisis, they may be prioritizing groceries that can be stored for a longer time in the fridge or pantry. And they may be on a very limited food budget, even more so than usual, so they are likely prioritizing essentials like bread and rice and baby formula.”
To support farmers in California, the UC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program created a directory at http://www.calagtour.org for consumers to find local farms to purchase produce directly.
For families who have lost jobs and income, the risk of food insecurity increases. Some families could supplement their food from gardens and urban agriculture during this crisis.
Consumers must practice safety, too, when visiting farmers markets and farm stands. UC Cooperative Extension small farm advisor Ruth Dahlquist-Willard explained, "Things like keeping the minimum six-foot distance from customers, not touching any produce that you're not planning to buy, leaving as soon as you've made a purchase and washing the produce when you get home would be some good guidelines."
The virus is thought to be spread mainly from person to person, however there is evidence that COVID-19 can last for days on hard surfaces, thus the need to ramp up good health and hygiene practices, social distancing and cleaning and sanitizing of surfaces.
University of California research and extension faculty have compiled a list of helpful fact sheets and resources for farmers, community gardeners and other food system workers to ensure fresh, healthy and affordable food for communities across the state:
- Food-related resources for consumers and members of the food industry for COVID-19
- on the UC Davis Food Safety website.
- Sowerwine's PowerPoint presentation Safe Handling Practices for Fresh Produce in a Time of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) for urban farmers.
- A set of policies and procedures for safe food handling at the farm during COVID-19 provides step-by-step instructions for applying new food and health precautions on the farm including checklists, standard operating procedures and signage posting guidelines for preventing the spread of infection.
- COVID-19 safety guidelines for farm stands.
- Handouts for safe food-handling at home that can be distributed to customers receiving food from the farm.
All of these resources are posted on the UC Urban Agriculture website at https://ucanr.edu/sites/UrbanAg.
“During this challenging time, I am heartened by the quick and thoughtful responses by many extension, grassroots and institutional efforts, including Community Alliance with Family Farm's COVID-19 Responses and Resources for California Family Farms, Mutual Aid organizations where groups of young, healthy and lower-risk people are bringing food and services to vulnerable people who shouldn't be in public at all, and Bayareafood.info that seeks to support local restaurants, farmers, and food systems workers as they weather this latest storm,” said Sowerwine. “Crisis can spawn innovation, and I am hopeful that through this, we will come out the other end with a more compassionate and resilient food system.”
Southern California's mild Mediterranean climate makes it ideal for growing fruit trees in backyards, community gardens and school gardens. The trees provide wholesome fruit along with shade, beauty and enrichment for families and communities.
Citrus trees are favorites for Southern California backyards, but Surls and her team aim to get local gardeners thinking beyond lemons, limes, oranges and other citrus fruit. In the past several years, a deadly plant disease has been spreading among Southern California citrus, prompting quarantines and putting citrus orchards across the state at risk.
Surls and her team are working on an initiative with a corps of volunteer UC Master Gardeners in Los Angeles and surrounding counties to promote selection and planting of appropriate fruit trees. New brochures, a website, workshops and one-on-one consultations will guide Southern Californians in making tree decisions that are scientifically sound and community-focused.
The project addresses serious concerns about the rapid spread of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus greening. The insect that spreads HLB – the Asian citrus psyllid – was introduced into California in 2008. The disease made its first California appearance in a Los Angeles County backyard in 2012. HLB, which eventually kills every tree it infects, is now spreading rapidly in urban areas of Los Angeles and Orange counties, where quarantines have been put in place by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA).
“Citrus trees are so popular in Southern California. They are part of our history and regional identity,” Surls said. “Now we have the unfortunate responsibility of telling residents about this serious problem we are facing. In some cases, residents who live near infected trees should be proactive and remove their lemon, orange, mandarin and lime trees and replace them with different kinds of fruit.”
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources IGIS programmers, in collaboration with UC Cooperative Extension, have created an HLB Monitoring Web App that allows residents to enter an address to determine how close they are to confirmed HLB outbreaks. If they are within 2 miles of a residence where an HLB-infected citrus tree was found, the app recommends replacement of citrus trees with non-citrus fruit trees, such as apples, peaches, avocados or persimmons.
Residents with citrus trees that are 2 to 5 miles from areas with HLB should keep a close eye on their trees, treat for Asian citrus psyllid and begin thinking about planting an alternative to citrus if the disease spreads to their area.
“Huanglongbing poses a serious threat to both backyard and commercial citrus in California if its spread is not halted,” Surls said. “By removing trees in areas where HLB has been found, residents are helping reduce its ability to spread, buying time for scientists to find a cure.”
CDFA is testing trees throughout the state and removing HLB-infected trees. However, the first visible symptoms of HLB – yellow mottled leaves – can appear months to years after infection. Even if they look perfectly healthy, citrus trees can be harboring the disease and allowing it to be spread by the tiny psyllid insect.
Current hotspots shown on the HLB Monitoring Web App include Rosemead, Montebello, Pico Rivera, San Gabriel, Hacienda Heights and Cerritos in Los Angeles County. In Orange County, HLB is spreading in communities around Garden Grove, Westminster and Santa Ana.
“We know removing citrus trees is going to be really hard for people,” Surls said. “But if you live within two miles of an infected tree, your tree is probably already infected, and HLB means your tree is going to die.”
To ease the transition, UC Master Gardeners are informing residents about alternatives that will produce fruit that's nutritious and delicious.
“So many types of fruit trees can be grown in Southern California,” Surls said. “Honestly, we have almost unlimited options. We live in a fruit tree grower's paradise. So we want to encourage local residents to think seriously about selecting non-citrus trees to replace their citrus.”
The information can also inform residents who are planning a new backyard orchard.
“They should consider some of the many wonderful fruit trees we can grow here — plant a pomegranate, plant a peach, plant a persimmon — but resist the temptation to plant more lemons, oranges and other citrus trees,” Surls said.
Making the decision to plant a certain type of tree should not be taken lightly.
“Planting a fruit tree is a big commitment. It will be part of your garden for years. Research the best options for your family and locations,” Surls said. “The UC Master Gardeners are here to help.”
Following are good options to consider for replacing citrus trees in Southern California, although recommendations may vary based on local climate:
Certain apple varieties that do not need to be exposed to cold temperatures grow and produce well in Southern California. Low-chill varieties include Anna, Beverly Hills, Dorset Golden, Fuji and Gala.
Figs grow well in full sun in Southern California. They can reach 10 to 30 feet tall, and are best for spacious areas.
Jujubes are less common in Southern California, but are a valued fruit in Southeast Asian and will grow well under Southern California conditions. They grow about 15 feet tall. Jujubes are a good selection for inland valleys that get hot during the summer. The fruit tastes like small, crispy apples. Dried, they are similar to dates.
A small- to medium-size tree that grows 10 to 20 feet high, loquats are easy to grow and have relatively few pests. Fresh, ripe loquats are sweet and aromatic. They can be used in jams, sauces and garnishes.
Persimmons ripen in autumn after the leaves have fallen, creating a beautiful landscape display. They are easy to grow in full sun and part shade. Persimmons can be eaten fresh or dried for a date-like fruit.
Well-suited to Southern California's Mediterranean climate, pomegranates grow to about 15 feet in height. Pomegranates are pest- and disease-resistant. The fruit's seeds, coated with astringent juicy flesh, are called arils. Use arils to top salads or other dishes, or squeeze for juice or to make jelly.
Other fruit tree options for Southern California include mangos, guavas, pineapple guavas, peaches, nectarines and pears.
For more research-based information about alternative fruit trees, visit the UC Agriculture and Natural Resources website “California Backyard Orchard” at http://homeorchard.ucanr.edu.
Contact your local UC Master Gardener Program for additional advice:
Los Angeles County – http://celosangeles.ucanr.edu/UC_Master_Gardener_Program
Orange County – http://mgorange.ucanr.edu
Riverside County – https://ucanr.edu/sites/RiversideMG
San Bernardino County – http://mgsb.ucanr.edu
Ventura County – https://ucanr.edu/sites/VCMG
Funding for the ‘Alternatives to Citrus Fruit in the Fight against Huanglongbing Disease' project was made possible by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service through grant AM180100XXXXG003. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USDA.
Food Tank is hosting its inaugural summit, titled “Growing the Food Movement,” on Nov. 14 in San Diego at the Illumina Theater. The event is co-sponsored by the Berry Good Food Foundation, the University of California's Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the San Diego Bay Food and Wine Festival.
More than 30 speakers and panelists from the food and agriculture world in the San Diego area and around the globe, including David Bronner, Ryland Engelhart, Jessica Greendeer, ANR's own Rachel Surls, UC Cooperative Extension sustainable food systems advisor in Los Angeles County, and Gabriele Youtsey, chief innovation officer, and many more are participating. Journalists Kirk Siegler from NPR and Mari Payton of NBC 7 will moderate the panel discussions between these diverse and engaging food leaders.
“Food is the ultimate bonding experience,” said Youtsey, “Cook a meal at home with your family and sit down to eat it together.”
“One of the nation's largest concentrations of people are in Southern California, yet it's often left out of critical conversations about the food system,” said Rose Hayden-Smith, who worked behind the scenes to persuade Food Tank to hold a summit in Southern California.
"San Diego County has 6,687 farms, more than any other county in the United State,” said Hayden-Smith, a UC Cooperative Extension advisor for youth, family and community development and editor of UC Food Observer. “Although 68 percent of those farms are 9 acres or less, the county's farmers rank number one in both California and the nation in production value of nursery, floriculture and avocados.”
The varied topography and microclimates allow San Diego farmers to grow more than 200 different agricultural commodities from strawberries along the coast, to apples in the mountain areas, to palm trees in the desert.
After the event, all videos will be immediately archived on Food Tank's YouTube Channel. Some content will also be shared through the podcast “Food Talk with Dani Nierenberg.”
Here is a preview of the all-star speaker line up at the 2018 San Diego Summit to advance the conversation about growing the food movement.
Alina Zolotareva is the Senior Marketing Manager and Product Champion at AeroFarms, the largest indoor vertical farm in the world, growing local, nutrient-dense, responsible leafy greens year-round. A natural communicator, connector, and problem-solver, Alina is passionate about driving transformational change and innovation in the realms of food, nutrition, public health, and urbanization as a registered dietitian nutritionist, marketer, and product developer.
Candice Woo is the founding editor of Eater San Diego, a leading source for news about San Diego's restaurant and bar scene. Keep up with the latest Eater San Diego content via Facebook or Twitter, and sign up for Eater San Diego's newsletter here.
David Bronner is the Cosmic Engagement Officer (CEO) of Dr. Bronner's, the top-selling brand of natural soaps in North America and producer of a range of organic body care and food products. He is the grandson of the company's founder, Emanuel Bronner, and a fifth-generation soapmaker. David is an activist, philanthropist, and ardent supporter of fair trade, animal rights, drug policy reform, and regenerative organic agriculture among other issues.
Evelyn Rangel-Medina is Chief of Staff for Restaurant Opportunities Centers (ROC) United, whose mission is to improve wages and working conditions for the nation's low wage restaurant workforce. An experienced manager, public interest lawyer, public policy advocate, and campaign director, she has worked with a broad range of nonprofit organizations to advance lasting social change. At ROC-United, she manages two worker centers that organize hundreds of immigrant low-wage workers of color to advocate for higher labor standards and dignified working conditions.
Heather Lake of Fox 5 San Diego has covered some of the city's largest events including Comic-Con and opening day at the Del Mar Races. Before heading to the West Coast, Heather was an anchor, reporter, and bureau chief at WCTI in Jacksonville, North Carolina, working closely with the military community at Camp Lejeune. Many of her most memorable assignments include working alongside Hope for The Warriors as the nonprofit granted “warrior wishes” to many of our service men and women.
Jeff “Trip” Tripician joined Niman Ranch in 2006 and has grown the brand to a national industry leader by expanding distribution channels and geographies as General Manager. Under his direction, the company has more than tripled in size while maintaining its core values and mission of raising livestock traditionally, humanely, and sustainably. He is passionate about helping the family farmer thrive in rural communities.
Jennifer Burney is an Associate Professor at the School of Global Policy & Strategy at UC San Diego. As an environmental scientist, her research focuses on simultaneously achieving global food security and mitigating climate change. She designs, implements, and evaluates technologies for poverty alleviation and agricultural adaptation, and studies the links between “energy poverty”—the lack of access to modern energy services—and food or nutrition security, the mechanisms by which energy services can help alleviate poverty, the environmental impacts of food production and consumption, and climate impacts on agriculture.
Jenny Ramirez is the Human Resources Director for California Harvesters Inc., an employee trust farm labor company in Bakersfield, California. Early in her business career she identified that the best way she could support workers was to be directly involved with setting policies and procedures, a role that she is reinventing at California Harvesters. Bringing over a decade of experience in California agriculture, she is passionate about using her position and training to improve working conditions for farm workers.
Jessika Greendeer is the founder of Waxopini Wiiwamasja, which is Ho-Chunk for “nourishing spirits.” She is responsible for stewarding Indigenous seeds, teaching others how to grow and preserve Ancestral foods, protecting her traditional foods and carrying out her vision of feeding her people. Jessika is a US Army veteran, who completed a Veteran-to-Farmer training program in Pennsylvania with Delaware Valley University and the Rodale Institute. She has brought her knowledge of organic farming back to her community by growing out ancestral landrace varieties and market vegetables within the Ho-Chunk Nation community gardens, working to heal and regenerate the earth throughout her ancestral homeland of Southern Wisconsin.
Josh Henretig is a Senior Director for Microsoft and is responsible for leading the Artificial Intelligence for Earth and Corporate Sustainability programs for the company. Over the years, Josh has contributed to all aspects of Microsoft's environmental strategy, from implementing responsible business practices that have led to the company's commitment to become carbon neutral and to be powered by 100% renewable energy through an internal price on carbon, to projects and programs that advance social opportunity and environmental sustainability in the communities.
Karen Archipley owns and operates a USDA certified HydroOrganic farming enterprise, headquartered in Escondido, California.The Archipley's founded Archi's Acres, Inc. in 2006 with two core objectives: to create a viable, sustainable, organic-produce farming business and develop a business that would provide entrepreneur opportunities for veterans in sustainable organic agriculture, bringing to light the many issues that veterans face when they leave the military and choose farming as a career.
Keith Maddox is the Executive Secretary Treasurer at the San Diego and Imperial Counties Labor Council and the 134 unions it brings together. The San Diego and Imperial Counties Labor Council is the local central body affiliate of the AFL-CIO, founded in 1891. The Labor Council offers an avenue for local unions to come together as a unified group, with a membership of more than 250,000 local working families.
Kirk Siegler of National Public Radio (NPR) covers the urban-rural divide in America, exploring the intersection between urban and rural life, culture, and politics. Based at NPR West's studios in Culver City, CA, but frequently roaming the country, Kirk's reporting has also focused on the far-reaching economic impacts of the drought in the West while explaining the broader, national significance to many of the region's complex and bitter disputes around land use. His assignments have brought listeners to the heart of anti-government standoffs in Oregon and Nevada, including a rare interview with recalcitrant rancher Cliven Bundy in 2014.
Lorena Gonzalez Fletcher is Assemblywoman for District 80, California State Assembly, elected in May of 2013 to fight for California's working and middle classes. In 2015, The Atlantic Magazine labeled her “The California Democrat setting the National Agenda” for her practical, progressive legislation aimed at alleviating real issues in people's lives. Lorena is the first Latina in California history to chair the Assembly Appropriations Committee. She is also Chairwoman of the Select Committee on Women in the Workplace and Vice Chair of the Latino Caucus.
Maria Hesse is the Managing Editor for Edible San Diego, a food and lifestyle designer, pug photographer at PugsMutt.com, and co-author of The Intentionalist Cooks! You can find her at MariaHesse.life or get in touch at email@example.com.
Mannah Gbeh owns and runs Bee Valley Farm. He is skilled in horticulture and agriculture, seasoned in public education and tours, and passionate about eradicating hunger in the world. As a young boy growing up in Liberia West Africa, agriculture was the way of life for Mannah. In 2007, he was Honorably Discharged from the United States Navy after serving seven years and doing three tours in the Middle East. In 2010, he started the Nursery Technology program at Cuyamaca College.
Mari Payton of NBC 7 is a senior investigative reporter leading the award-winning NBC 7 I-Team. Mari's stories have prompted local, state, and federal investigations and caused law and policy changes. She's reported breaking news live on the TODAY show, MSNBC, and other NBC stations across the country. She's also received numerous awards from the Society of Professional Journalists and Press Club.
Michael Gardiner is a food writer for San Diego CityBeat and a licensed California attorney. In addition to San Diego CityBeat, he is the monthly food columnist for L'Chaim San Diego Magazine and the primary writer for the San Diego Food & Travel Blog, www.sdfoodtravel.com.
Michael Hamm is Senior Fellow at the Center for Regional Food Systems at Michigan State University. Michael founded the C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Agriculture in 2003 and was founding director of the MSU Center for Regional Food Systems from 2011-2015. Michael is affiliated with the departments of community sustainability; plant, soil and microbial sciences; and food science and human nutrition. Community food security and community, regional, and sustainable food systems are research interest areas.
Michelle Lerach is a lawyer, entrepreneur, activist, and President of the Berry Good Food Foundation. In 2008, she received the Consumer Attorneys of California Women's Law Caucus Outstanding Consumer Advocate Award before leaving the practice to commit herself fully to social activism. An “agvocate” for sustainable food, she founded Berry Good Night and Berry Good Food Foundation to advance a healthy, integrated food system by educating, connecting, and supporting food producers and consumers. An outspoken critic of current GMO labeling policy, she serves on the steering committee of Californians for GE Labeling.
Michelle Parente is the Dining, Wine + Lifestyle reporter for The San Diego Union-Tribune. Her areas of expertise include the Valle de Guadalupe wine region, fashion, television, women's issues, and coverage of aging, such as the impact of Alzheimer's and dementia and family caregiving. A native New Yorker, Michelle received her B.A. in political science and Italian Literature at UC Berkeley. In 1980, she studied at L'Università di Urbino, in Italy. One of her life's goals is to make her way through each of the world's great wine regions.
Nate Looney is an urban farmer, army veteran, entrepreneur, and owner of Westside Urban Gardens. Founded in 2015, Westside Urban Gardens is an urban agricultural startup, using controlled environment techniques to cultivate gourmet leafy greens and microgreens. These crops are Homegrown By Heroes. A graduate of the Veterans to Farmers Controlled Environment Course, Nate also completed a Farmer Veteran Coalition internship, funded by The San Francisco Foundation at Ouroboros Aquaponic Farms in Half Moon Bay, CA.
Neil Nagata is the President of the San Diego County Farm Bureau and Nagata Bros Farms, a third generation Oceanside farmer with over 30 years' experience in fresh fruit, vegetable, and strawberry substrate/hydroponic production and research. He has worked with regulators and legislators to support fruit and vegetable production in the United States and internationally. As the founding president of the non-profit California Strawberry Growers Scholarship Fund, he has helped provide scholarships for children of California strawberry farm workers, raising over US $2 million.
Rachel Surls is the Sustainable Food Systems Advisor for University of California Cooperative Extension Los Angeles County. Involved in a variety of projects related to urban food systems, she has worked with UCLA students to conduct the “Cultivate LA” survey of urban agriculture in Los Angeles. She recently led a UC ANR team that carried out a statewide needs assessment of urban farming. Rachel and a co-author recently published a book on the local history of urban agriculture, titled From Cows to Concrete: The Rise and Fall of Farming in Los Angeles.
Ryland Engelhart is the Mission Fulfillment Officer and co-owner at Cafe Gratitude and Gracias Madre, as well as Co-Founder of Kiss the Ground, educating and advocating about the connection between soil, human, and planetary health. He is also a co-creator of the award-winning, transformational documentary film, “May I Be Frank.” He is an entrepreneur and activist, using his restaurants as a platform to inspire more gratitude in our culture. He speaks on sacred commerce, tools for building community, and regeneration.
Sarah Mesnick is an Ecologist, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, and Adjunct Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego. Focused on social evolution in the ocean and on the role of social behavior in explaining patterns of species diversity, the main goal of her research in recent years is to provide a social framework within which to investigate stock identity, population trends, and fishery interactions in cetaceans. She serves as liaison between CMBC and NOAA SWFSC and leads the Sustainable Local Fisheries project.
Stepheni Norton is the owner of Dickinson Farms, a retired Chief Petty Officer and decorated military Veteran, with over 20 years of entrepreneurial experience. Stepheni's farming journey began after purchasing the Dickinson homestead, subsequently deploying and falling ill. After almost three years of misdiagnosis, she was properly diagnosed with stage 3 Lyme Disease, and promptly started daily IV treatment. Designing a farm layout and business plan from the IV chair, she successfully built the first and only licensed farm in National City—an heirloom fruit, vegetable, and herb farm. Norton contributes her free time to help aspiring and small business owners build and grow their businesses.
Vince Hall is the CEO of Feeding San Diego, with extensive nonprofit and public sector management experience, including serving as Staff Director for Governor Gray Davis. He also served as a lecturer at San Diego State University and his previous community involvement included serving on the San Diego Community College District Trustee Advisory Council, the San Diego Unified School District Citizen Bond Oversight Committee, and the boards of the National Conflict Resolution Center, San Diego Regional Technology Alliance, and the San Diego Diplomacy Council.
“We now have food deserts over what was once abundant farmland,” said Rachel Surls, UC Cooperative Extension sustainable food systems advisor. “Although Los Angeles is not unique in this regard, there's something disconcerting about the speed and scale at which Los Angeles lost its ability to produce food.”
The dramatic conversions of Los Angeles are traced and explained in a new book by Surls and Los Angeles farm and garden authority and UC Master Gardener volunteer Judith Gerber. From Cows to Concrete: The Rise and Fall of Farming in Los Angeles, published by Angel City Press, is available on the publisher's website and from other booksellers.
Though hard to imagine when trapped in a traffic jam on the Santa Ana Freeway, under the pavement, parking lots and buildings are acres of once-productive farmland. Los Angeles County, with more than 10 million residents, now houses a quarter of California's population. But in the first half of the 20th century, Los Angeles was the top farm county in the United States.
In her role with UCCE, Surls works to encourage the newly active school, home, community and urban agricultural community in Los Angeles. She was intrigued to discover that the county now best known for Hollywood, high-rises, and luxurious homes, as well as grinding poverty and homelessness, was once a bucolic farming community. The knowledge sparked research that resulted in her seven-year collaboration with Gerber on the book.
Spanish land grants spawned vast ranchos in colonial Los Angeles that ran thousands of cattle and grew rice, corn, beans, melons and other fruit and vegetables. When Mexico won its independence from Spain, the missions' power declined and the rancheros gained influence. Many communities in Southern California bear the early ranchos' names, such as San Pedro, La Puente and Los Cerritos.
- Successful grape production that was started by the missions to make sacramental wine.
- A casual experiment by a grape farmer to plant orange trees, which exploded into a citrus growing empire.
- The arrival of the Southern Pacific railroad expanded the market for LA's perishable produce.
- The LA Chamber of Commerce led a transition of farming into an organized, sophisticated industry.
- The discovery of local oil provided affordable fuel to expand production of canned fruits and vegetables, and made irrigation with groundwater possible for more farmers.
Growth of marketing cooperatives, ag research by UC Cooperative Extension, and irrigation and market infrastructure would allow Los Angeles to hold its position as the nation's top farm county for four decades. Los Angeles led the nation in production of walnuts, lemons, strawberries, cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, tomatoes, corn and hay.
But agriculture has not disappeared, say the authors of From Cows to Concrete. There are small pockets of agricultural land in the urban landscape, such as Richland Farms in Compton, where many people have large lots and keep horses and livestock. The new farm-to-fork movement is prompting families to cultivate vegetables in their backyards and community groups to find vacant space to produce food. LA allows residents to keep honey bees and some residents are raising backyard chickens.
“In a place where poverty is entrenched, with fruits and vegetables neither affordable nor accessible, why not use backyards, vacant lots, and other open spaces to grow healthy food, right in the neighborhoods that need them,” the authors ask. “The story of agriculture in California and Los Angeles is still unfolding.”
To find out how to help people who want to grow food in their communities in California, Rachel Surls, a UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Cooperative Extension advisor, and several UC ANR colleagues interviewed urban farmers as part of a statewide study of urban agriculture needs.
Surls, who specializes in sustainable food systems in Los Angeles County, and her colleagues identified several common challenges that UC ANR and local governments could address to cultivate a more urban agriculture-friendly environment.
In an op-ed published March 24 in the Sacramento Bee, Surls listed the following six things that local officials could do to encourage urban farming:
- Make zoning and regulatory information accessible
- Develop a transparent process for use of city-owned land
- Create an urban agriculture incentive zone
- Update zoning to make it urban-ag friendly
- Make water accessible while promoting efficient use
- Provide guidance and support for soil testing and remediation.
There seems to be growing interest in cities encouraging urban farming. For example, last year Oakland updated its city codes to allow planting of community gardens in most zones of the city without obtaining a special permit. San Diego has made it easier for residents to keep chickens and bees in their backyards. The Sacramento City Council recently voted to allow residents to farm on urban lots and sell produce they grow at farm stands. And now, Santa Clara County is considering tax breaks for property owners who allow crops to be planted on their unused parcels.
Urban farmers told the researchers that UC ANR could help by providing educational materials on topics such as pest management, water management, design of community urban agriculture projects and soil testing and remediation.
To begin providing the public with information about urban agriculture, UC ANR has created a website at http://ucanr.edu/urbanag. Visitors to the website will find science-based information on raising crops and livestock, selling farm products and links to policies for farming in a backyard, at a school or a community garden.
“Many urban farmers are beginning farmers so the website offers basic information on planting, pests and irrigation, and on navigating local laws and regulations that impact farming,” said Surls. “But the website is also intended to be a resource for policymakers who are making decisions that impact local farming in their cities.”
For the latest information about urban farming, visit http://ucanr.edu/urbanag and follow @UCurbanag on Twitter.
The University of California Global Food Initiative aims to put the world on a path to sustainably and nutritiously feed itself. By building on existing efforts and creating new collaborations among UC's 10 campuses, affiliated national laboratories and the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the initiative will develop and export solutions for food security, health and sustainability throughout California, the United States and the world.