Carlos H. Crisosto
Director of UC Fruit & Nut Research & Information Center
Department of Plant Sciences
University of California, Davis
Throughout my career I have been publishing the Central Valley Postharvest Newsletter (CVPN) maintained at the UC KARE and the UC Davis Postharvest Center web sites:
The CVPN has been published three times per year and contains important summaries of information on the predominant commodity harvested at that time. I compiled twenty years of CVPN issues, and other pre- and postharvest articles relevant to our fresh fruit growers, packers, shippers and handlers, in a searchable pdf file for distribution to our industry. If you would like an electronic copy please send me an e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
I am slowly adding new ways to reach my clientele. For example, I plan to publish the CVPN as a blog with the help of the UC Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center (http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/) and UC KARE. Check the FNRIC home page for regular updates and summaries of ongoing research.
Here is a list of websites that I have found to be an excellent source of postharvest information:
- http://www.ba.ars.usda.gov/hb66/index.html - A draft version of the forthcoming revision to USDA Agricultural Handbook 66 (Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables and Florist and Nursery Stocks)
- http://www.fao.org/inpho/ - Postharvest information site of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
- http://www.avrdc.org/index.php?id=10 - World Vegetable Center Postharvest Information
- http://www.postharvest.org – Postharvest Education Foundation (training in postharvest technology)
- http://www.avocadosource.com - Production and Handling of Avocado Information
- http://postharvest.ifas.ufl.edu - University of Florida Postharvest Group
- http://flcitrus.ifas.ufl.edu - University of Florida Citrus Resources Website
- http://www.citrusresearch.org – California Citrus Research Board – supported research reports
- http://postharvest.tfrec.wsu.edu - Washington State University postharvest information (emphasis on apple, pear, and cherry)
- http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/publicat/postharv/ - North Carolina State University postharvest information
- http://www.postharvest.com.au/ - Sydney Postharvest Laboratory information
- http://www.chainoflifenetwork.org/ - Chain of Life Network® website about requirements for flowers and ornamentals.
The Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center (FNRIC) recently awarded four scholarships to new California tree fruit and nut growers to attend our 2nd annual “Principles of Fruit and Nut Tree Growth, Cropping and Management” extension course. Course instructors and members of the FNRIC advisory board reviewed applications from a long list of California growers to select four recipients.
Zachary Taylor is a new manager of his small family farm in El Dorado County. He and his uncle grow a wide range of tree crops including apples, pears, chestnuts, walnuts, grapes, olives, persimmons, figs and kiwifruits. In addition to helping run his family farm, Zachary and his wife Kara own and operate a second small business, Smokey Ridge Charcuterie. Zachary is enthusiastic to learn more about tree biology and compliment years of practical experience working in agriculture.
Matt Fortson has the opportunity to convert his family livestock business raising cows, pigs and horses into a commercial orchard. Although he has experience growing corn to feed livestock, Matt is looking forward to formal instruction in tree biology. Our course will help him prepare to plant olives, walnuts and almonds on his family farm in Stanislaus County.
Robert Mahoney is enthusiastic about the opportunity to compliment his business degree with a background in tree biology. He has farmed a small walnut orchard with his father for years. Over the past few years he has scoured all available extension literature, gotten practical hands-on experience working with Tehama County Cooperative Extension, and participated in the Almond Board of California’s Leadership Program. The information and experience provided by our course will compliment Robert's hard work and help prepare him to grow walnuts, almonds and prunes in Tehama County.
We look forward to meeting all the course participants on February 24th, 2014 at the second annual "Principles of Fruit and Nut Tree Growth, Cropping and Management" . Scholarship funding was provided by the Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center at UC Davis and a seed grant from the Office of Outreach and International Programs and the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at UC Davis.
Our new collection of pages focused on the basic biology of tree growth and structure is written in a simple and approachable style for students and anyone interested in understanding how trees grow. Professors Ted DeJong and Tom Gradziel (Dept. of Plant Sciences, UC Davis) were instrumental in helping developing these new pages.
In addition to the new text and figures, I collaborated with Bob Burnett (Academic Technology Services, UC Davis) and Professor Tom Gradziel (Dept. of Plant Sciences, UC Davis) to develop a new animation illustrating the basic pattern of branch production and growth in trees. Over the next few months we plan to develop new animations illustrating changes in tree growth and structure as a result of common pruning and training practices.
Our new collection of pages includes simple and concise explanations of the following topics:
- What is a tree?
- Photosynthesis and respiration
- Sources and sinks
- Fruit quality
- Tree structure and light capture
- Bearing habits
- Alternate bearing
Quiz: What two structures are required for transport of water, nutrients and sugar throughout a plant?
a. Chlorophyll and phloem
b. Xylem and phloem
c. Cuticle and mesophyll
d. All of the above
Find the answer in the new Tree Growth and Structure section: http://fruitandnuteducation.ucdavis.edu/generaltopics/Tree_Growth_Structure/
A comprehensive search for pest related publications in 2012 and 2013 revealed a few
papers of broad interest to researchers working with English walnut (Juglans regia) in California.
Over the next few weeks I will post additional lists of 2012 - 2013 publications in fruit and nut tree crop biology.
University of California affiliated research on Armillaria resistance:
Citation - K. Baumgartner, P. Fujiyoshi, G. T. Browne, C. Leslie and D. A. Kluepfel. 2013. Evaluating Paradox Walnut Rootstocks for Resistance to Armillaria Root Disease. Hortscience. 48. 1. 68-72.
Abstract - The most common rootstock for Juglans regia (Persian or "English" walnut) in California is Paradox, typically a hybrid off hindsii (Northern California black walnut) x J. regia. Unfortunately, Paradox is very susceptible to Armillaria root disease. The relative resistance to Armillaria mellea of six clonally propagated Paradox rootstocks (AX1, Px1, RR4 11A, RX1, Vlach, VX211) was evaluated and compared with that of clonally propagated J. hindsii rootstock selection W17, J. regia scion cultivar Chandler, and Pterocarya stenoptera (Chinese wingnut). In a growth-chamber assay, plants were micropropagated and rooted in vitro before inoculating the culture medium with A. mellea. At two months post-inoculation, the most resistant and susceptible Paradox rootstocks were AX1 and VX211, respectively, with 9% vs. 70% mortality, and this finding was consistent across three isolates of A. mellea and three replicate experiments. This broad range of resistance within Paradox is consistent with past field trials that tested other genotypes. Our finding of similarly high susceptibility of 'Chandler' and W17 (61% vs. 69% mortality) is in contrast to two field trials, in which other J. regia genotypes were more susceptible than those off. hindsii. A third trial, however, identified some J. regia genotypes as more resistant than those off. hindsii. Therefore, it is possible that W17, which was not previously tested, is an Armillaria-susceptible genotype of J. hindsii. Based on our findings of repeatable mortality levels across three isolates of A. mellea and three replicate experiments, the growth-chamber assay has promise, albeit with confirmed resistant and susceptible controls, for identifying putative resistant rootstocks (e.g., AX1) in preparation for a field trial with controlled inoculations.
Use for walnut hull extracts in pest control:
Citation - G. Chrzanowski, B. Leszczynski, P. Czerniewicz, H. Sytykiewicz, H. Matok, R. Krzyzanowski and C. Sempruch. 2012. Effect of phenolic acids from black currant, sour cherry and walnut on grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) development. Crop Protection. 35. 71-77.
Abstract - The influence of naturally-occurring phenolic acid mixtures from selected plants was tested against the grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.). Phenolic acids were extracted from the leaves of black currant (Ribes nigrum L), sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) and walnut (Juglans regia L), as well as from the green husks of walnut. The highest content of total phenolic acids and individual compounds such as p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and vanillic acids were determined in J. regia. Ferulic and tannic acids were found only in J. regia. In laboratory bioassays, the phenolic acids extracted from plants prolonged the aphid prereproductive period by 1.5-3.0 days and reduced daily fecundity by 1-1.5 offspring. The strongest effects were observed after application of phenolic acids from the leaves and green husks of J. regia. The grain aphid used glutathione S-transferase (GST), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in response to the application of plant phenolic acids. An increase in aphid GST activity was found in response to treatment with all extracts. Induction of PPO and POD was shown 24 h after the application of phenolic acids mixture from leaves of walnut; inhibition was observed after 48 and 168 h in response to treatment with both extracts of walnut. An inverse relationship between the POD and PPO activity of the aphids was found 24 h after application of the black currant and sour cherry phenolic acids. After 168 h, the activities of these enzymes were higher in treated aphids compared to unsprayed insects. Mixtures of phenolic acids naturally occurring in phenol-rich plants might be used as biopesticides to control the grain aphid as a part of an integrated pest management programme. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
New walnut pest in Europe:
Citation - U. Bernardo, R. Sasso, M. Gebiola and G. Viggiani. 2012. First record of a walnut shield bearer Coptodisca (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae) in Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology. 136. 8. 638-640.
Abstract - A leafminer of the Nearctic genus Coptodisca Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae), a species of potential economic interest, is reported for the first time from Europe, infesting the black (Juglans nigra L.) and the common walnut (Juglans regia L.). Mines were collected since September of 2010 in several sites of two Italian regions (Campania and Lazio). The species is rather similar to Coptodisca juglandella (Chambers), the only Coptodisca known to attack walnuts, but at present, an unambiguous identification cannot be provided because of the unsatisfactory characterization of this leafminer and congeneric species. Three generations were recorded per year and leafminers overwinter as mature larvae. The first adults emerged in MayJune while mature larvae of the last generation started the overwintering in September. During the last generation of the year, infestation levels of leaves were 100% in all sampled localities. Several species of parasitoids were reared from infested mines, with specimens belonging to the genus Chrysocharis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) being the most frequent parasitoids.
Walnut blight resistance:
Citation - A. Solar, J. Jakopic, R. Veberic and E. Stampar. 2012. Correlation between xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis severity and endogenous juglone and phenolic acid in walnut. Journal of Plant Pathology. 94. 1. 229-235.
Abstract - Endogenous phenolic compounds in walnut fruits were correlated with the severity of walnut blight caused by Xantbomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) assessed in the field, to determine the possible role of phenolics in resistance to the disease. Healthy fruits of the cvs Franquette, Cisco, and Sampion with different susceptibilities to infection by Xaj were sampled from diseased trees three times during growth and analysed using HPLC with a PDA detector. An identical phenolic profile, consisting of juglone and six phenolic acids (ellagic, gallic, syringic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and chlorogenic), was detected in the studied cultivars. Juglone was the most abundant,, ranging between 373 mg 100 g(-1) and 5,074 mg 100 g(-1) DW, compared to the least abundant caffeic and p-coumaric acids, which did not exceed 10 mg 100 g(-1) DW. A negative correlation between the total amount of phenolics present in the fruit tissues and blight severity was found in all cultivars, indicating the role of these compounds in the fruit-bacteria interactions. As the major phenolic characterized by the strongest seasonal fluctuations, juglone seemed to have the main and negative relation with disease development during the year. Thus, its involvement into the defence mechanism of walnut against bacterial blight is strongly suspected. The same may apply to gallic acid, considering its seasonal variations with respect to disease incidence. Additional studies including in vitro determination of the anti-bacterial activity of some phenolics, and their response to artificial inoculation with Xaj seem desirable to clarify the role of phenolic compounds in walnut resistance against this bacterium.
Fungal flora associated with walnut in Saudi Arabia:
Citation - A. Bahkali, A. M. A. El-Samawaty, M. A. Yassin, M. A. El-Naggar and M. H. Mahmoud. 2013. Toxigenic Fungal Biota Associated with Walnut in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 7. 2. 1079-1086.
Abstract - Mycoflora associated with 120 walnut samples was examined using agar plate method. Data of isolation frequency were statistically analyzed. Mycotoxin productivity of obtained fungi was assayed using HPLC. Twelve species belonging to six fungal genera were isolated in this work. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were the most predominant, with highest distribution over samples. Significant to highly significant positive correlation was found among some isolated fungi. Most of Aspergillus flavus isolates were capable of producing sterigmatocystin, maltoryzine and aflatrem. Meanwhile, all tested isolates of Aspergillus niger were capable of producing oxalic acids ranged from 300-850 mg/ml in the culture media. Both of Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium sub glutinans were toxigenic and varied in their productivities of ipomeanine, neosolaniol, nivalenol and NT-2 toxin. In respect to citrinin and citreovirdin, Penicillium aurantiogriseum was more productive than Penicillium brevicompactum.
University of California/Nickels Trust
Nickels Soil Lab
Research and/or demonstrations project proposals for in-kind supported field work (no per acre fee) for the 2014 growing season in a commercial tree crop orchard setting less than an hour north of Davis are now requested by the Leslie J. Nickels Trust and the Nickels Soils Lab (NSL). Proposals are due by November 7, 2013.
The NSL is located southwest of Arbuckle, California, just off I-5. Consisting of 200 acres
split between two blocks, NSL has open land and existing orchards available for field projects. Usable orchards available for research include most commercial almond varieties ranging in age from 2 years to 24 years grafted onto a wide range of rootstocks. Drip, sub-surface drip and micro-sprinkler irrigated orchards are available. Walnut plantings consist of mature ‘Chandler’ and ‘Howard’ on both paradox hybrid or Northern California Black rootstocks and 7th leaf ‘Chandler’, ‘Tulare’, ‘Forde’ and ‘Sexton’ on Paradox. The olive planting is currently reserved. New plantings will also be considered upon request.
The research facility provides labor, equipment, automated web accessed weather station, storage buildings and all normal and most experimental horticultural inputs with minimal charge to approved projects. Abbreviated summary project reports are required annually. New project proposals are due on November 7th, 2013.
For projects requiring an outreach component, the annual NSL field day is an established program, held in early to mid-May, features presentations summarizing selected projects and draws an audience of 150-250 growers, pest control advisors and ag industry reps.
For lab history, instructions and downloadable project proposal forms please visit: http://cecolusa.ucdavis.edu
Contact Franz Niederholzer at (530) 458-0570 (office), (530) 218-2359 (cell), or email@example.com for more information.