- Author: Cheryl Reynolds
Protect bees from pesticides by using bee precaution ratings from UC IPM
—UC Statewide IPM Program
Various insects, birds, and other animals pollinate plants. Bees, especially honey bees, are the most vital for pollinating food crops. Many California crops rely on bees to pollinate their flowers and ensure a good yield of seeds, fruit, and nuts. Pesticides, especially insecticides, can harm bees if they are applied or allowed to drift to plants that are flowering.
Our mission at the University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources (UC ANR), Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) is to protect the environment by reducing risks caused by pest management practices. UC IPM developed Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings to help pest managers make an informed decision about how to protect bees when choosing or applying pesticides. You can find and compare ratings for pesticide active ingredients including acaricides (miticides), bactericides, fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides, and select the one posing the least harm to bees.
Ratings fall into three categories. Red, or rated I, pesticides should not be applied or allowed to drift to plants that are flowering. Plants include the crop AND nearby weeds. Yellow, or rated II, pesticides should not be applied or allowed to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations. Finally, green, or rated III, pesticides have no bee precautions, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. Pesticide users must follow the product directions for handling and use and take at least the minimum precautions required by the pesticide label and regulations.
A group of bee experts in California, Oregon, and Washington worked with UC IPM to develop the Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings. They reviewed studies published in scientific journals and summary reports from European and United States pesticide regulatory agencies. While the protection statements on the pesticide labels were taken into account when determining the ratings, it is important to stress that UC IPM's ratings are not the pollinator protection statements on the pesticide labels. In a number of cases, the ratings suggest a more protective action than the pesticide label.
The UC IPM ratings also include active ingredients that may not be registered in your state; please follow local regulations. In California, the suggested use of the bee precaution pesticide ratings is in conjunction with UC Pest Management Guidelines (for commercial agriculture) and Pest Notes (for gardeners). Each crop in the UC Pest Management Guidelines has a link to the Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings database and provides guidance on how to reduce bee poisoning from pesticides.
- Author: Alec C. Gerry
The UC Riverside Veterinary Entomology Extension Laboratory has developed an on-line database of pesticides registered in the State of California for use against arthropod pests of animals. The database can be found at: Website visitors can search by animal commodity for which pest control is needed (e.g. poultry), by type of pest (e.g. poultry mite or house fly), and by application method and formulation. It is expected that animal producers and extension personnel will find this database to be much easier to navigate than the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product search website.
Animal producers may also be interested in other offerings of the Insect Pests of Animals website (). Visitors can find pest management information for some ectoparasite pests of poultry, cattle, and other animals. We are adding information on additional pests every few months so be sure to check back to see what has changed. We also maintain a Blog () that producers and extension personnel may be interested to follow. Information shared through the Blog includes recent findings related to pest management in animal facilities or of general relevance to animal producers, extension personnel, and researchers.
Finally, animal producers may be interested in taking a look at the many web links provided in our “other resources” section. In particular, there are links for producers to submit animal management questions to the national eXtension program through their “Ask and Expert” program. Experts from universities, extension offices, private industry, and other relevant organizations are registered with this national eXtension program to answer submitted questions or to provide question writers with guidance to address their questions.
If you have comments about or suggestions for our Insect Pests of Animalswebsite, please send these to me at:
Alec C. Gerry, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Extension Specialist (Veterinary Entomology)
Department of Entomology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521