- (Public Value) UCANR: Safeguarding abundant and healthy food for all Californians
Chicks are typically sold as “day-old” chicks from either an online or local supplier. During those first 4 weeks, chicks are considered “baby chicks”, requiring supplemental heat within the brooder. When raised by a hen, chicks pile under the hen for warmth and venture out more as they grow. Providing a brooder lamp will simulate this and keep your chicks warm without the assistance of a hen. Follow the chart to adequately provide warmth to your chicks. Be careful of fire danger when setting up heat lights.
Typically, the first egg comes at around 18 weeks of age. Once your layers are churning out eggs, you can expect 5-7 eggs per week per layer, or about 250 eggs per year, depending on breed. Productive breeds include Rhode Island Reds (brown eggs), Plymouth Barred Rocks (brown eggs), White Leghorns (white eggs), and Easter Eggers/Ameraucanas (blue/green eggs). Eggs take 24-26 hours to form, with 20 of those hours devoted to shell formation (See How Chickens Make Eggs infographic below).
The Power of Light
Light is the determinant of the start and end of the laying cycle. When daylight hours reach about 12-14 hours per day, a flock will begin to lay. In the North Bay, you can expect this to occur in early spring. The flip side to this coin occurs when daylight shortens in early fall. Egg production significantly declines when daylight hours fall below 12 hours. Chicks purchased in summer may begin laying in fall, resulting in either a shorter laying cycle or lower production. Adding supplemental light to your coop to produce 14 hours of daylight artificially will help to extend the laying season through the winter and increase egg production.
Feed: standard layer mix is fine. Store feed in containers that will discourage scavengers such as mice and rats (e.g. metal can).
Dusting: Chickens love to dust. Dusting is how they clean and with the right ingredients, can prevent ectoparasites. Recommend a dust bathing box (e.g. cat litter box) of diatomaceous earth (DE). Suggested ratio: 1-part DE and 4-parts play sand. This research was done at UCR.
Predators: Recommend having housing that protects your flock from predators, as some predators will try to dig or grab through fencing. Use hardware cloth fencing as the holes in so-called “chicken wire” are too large.
See Backyard Poultry Resources for information to keep your flock happy.
Biosecurity includes any practice that can reduce the risk of introducing disease to a premises. To be effective, biosecurity must be practiced diligently at all times, without exception, by everyone that comes in contact with the premises.
Diseases can strike poultry and pet birds and can spread quickly, causing significant mortality and economic loss to both backyard and commercial operations. Consequently, all bird owners need to be vigilant.
See Biosecurity for information to keep your flock healthy.
Once hens reach about 18 months, the hen often goes through a molt. This is similarly triggered by shorter daylight hours. The hen will stop laying eggs, as energy is diverted to replacing feathers, and begin to lose her feathers. While the scene isn't pretty, this is an important period for hens to refresh feathers before cooler winter months. For backyard flocks, you can try putting the molters (only) back on chick starter diet to supplement their protein during the molting period.
Finally, all good things come to an end. Egg production decreases about 10-20% every year, and, eventually, hens will stop laying entirely. Old hens can act as great fertilizers while still tending to weed and insect control if your coop has room to keep them in the flock. If this is not an option, old hens can be humanely slaughtered and used as meat birds, particularly chicken stew.
If you have additional questions about your new flock, please contactRandi Black: firstname.lastname@example.org.
A wealth of poultry resources can also be found at UCANR's Poultry page.
- Author: IPM Program
- Contributor: Karen Giovannini
Author: UC Integrated Pest Management Program
Have you had unexpected seeds show up in the mail? Unknown seeds could be invasive plants, contain invasive insects, or have plant disease causing agents. Here's what the United States Department of Agriculture Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS) has to say about it. APHIS Stakeholder Announcement July 28, 2020 (Language from their website)
USDA Investigates Packages of Unsolicited Seeds
USDA is aware that people across the country have received suspicious, unsolicited packages of seed that appear to be coming from China. USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is working closely with the Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection, other federal agencies, and State departments of agriculture to investigate the situation.
At this time, [USDA does not] have any evidence indicating this is something other than a “brushing scam” where people receive unsolicited items from a seller who then posts false customer reviews to boost sales. USDA is currently collecting seed packages from recipients and will test their contents and determine if they contain anything that could be of concern to U.S. agriculture or the environment.
USDA is committed to preventing the unlawful entry of prohibited seeds and protecting U.S. agriculture from invasive pests and noxious weeds. Visit the APHIS' website to learn more about USDA's efforts to stop agricultural smuggling and promote trade compliance.
What to do with the Seeds
Do NOT plant or dispose of these seeds!
Please hold onto the seeds and packaging, including the mailing label.
In Sonoma County
Anyone who receives an unsolicited package of seeds can drop the seeds and packaging off in the Drop Box at the Agriculture Department, 133 Aviation Blvd, Santa Rosa CA 95403 or contact the department:
Contact your County Agriculture Commissioners office.
Best Practices: do not plant seeds from unknown origins/h3>/h3>/h3>/h2>/h2>
- Author: Lisa A Blecker, coordinator for the UC Pesticide Safety Education Program and Office of Pesticide Information and Coordination
- Author: Whitney Brim-DeForest, UC Cooperative Extension rice advisor in Sutter and Yuba counties
- Author: Katrina Hunter, UC Integrated Pest Management Program pesticide safety writer
- Author: Pamela Kan-Rice, UC ANR Assistant Director, News and Information Outreach
While most Californians are staying home to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus, California farmers, farmworkers and other agricultural professionals are out in the fields and packing houses working to produce food.
With increased demand for personal protective equipment, or PPE, to protect against COVID-19, these essential workers are facing shortages. Agricultural commissioners in 28 counties are hearing from farmers who are having trouble getting PPE for their employees and farmers in another 11 counties who are worried about running out of PPE in the next month or twoaccording to a California Department of Pesticide Regulation survey.
To reduce the spread of COVID-19, workers may wear homemade face coverings, but for applying pesticides, they must wear respirators specified on the pesticide product label, said Whitney Brim-DeForest, UC Cooperative Extension rice advisor.
Pesticide applicators may use gear that is more protective than required by the product label and regulations.
“Although this could change in the days ahead, half-mask and full-mask respirators are more available than disposable N95 respirators for now,” said Lisa Blecker, coordinator for the UC Pesticide Safety Education Program.
Before the pandemic, 10% of N95 respirators from 3M went to health care, but that number is now 90%, the company said in a letter to distributors. This has led to significant backorders of PPE supplies for distributors.
Carl Atwell, president of Gempler's, an online distributor of worker supplies, said that before the crisis, normal lead times for PPE was up to 10 days. He estimated disposable respirators will become available in the fall and other PPE supplies in August.
In the meantime, there is alternative PPE that agricultural professionals can use during the shortage.
Atwell suggests looking for lesser known brands of PPE as opposed to the first tier of choice: “It's sort of like searching for Purell hand sanitizer. Purell brand might be out of stock, but can you find a different disinfectant?
On Gempler's website, the more recognizable Tyvek coverall from Dupont is sold out, however disposable protective clothing is available from other brands. Reusable chemical-resistant clothing is also available as opposed to their disposable counterparts. Supplies in high demand are reusable and disposable nitrile gloves, protective clothing, disposable respirators and certain protective eyewear, such as goggles and face shields.
For workers who will be applying pesticides, Blecker and Brim-DeForest offered some guidelines on how to meet PPE requirements as the shortage continues.
General PPE requirements: “Remember, the label is the law,” said Brim-DeForest. “PPE requirements for agriculture are not being loosened.” The UCCE advisor recommends purchasing only what you need for the season and choosing reusable PPE whenever possible. Growers who have excess supplies of PPE can coordinate with their county agricultural commissioner or UCCE advisor to help other producers in their area.
Respirators: If you can't find the respirator required on the label, Blecker said, “Use an alternative, more-protective respirator. For example, if an N95 is required, you can use a half-mask with N95 particulate filters; these can be stand-alone filters or ones that attach to an organic vapor cartridge. You could also use a different pesticide that doesn't require a respirator. Consult with your PCA (pest control adviser) for options.”
Gloves: Chemical-resistant gloves, usually 14 mil or more in thickness are required for most California pesticide applications and should be worn by mixers, handlers and applicators. If nitrile gloves are not available, viton and laminate gloves are universal chemical-resistant materials for most pesticide labels. If the glove material is specified on the label, that instruction must be followed.
“Disposable gloves less than 14 mil can be worn, but not for more than 15 minutes at a time,” Blecker said. “Farmers should also note that thinner gloves cannot be layered on top of one another.”
Coveralls: Coveralls should be worn when required by the pesticide label or when the signal word is “WARNING” or “DANGER,” or when applying by backpack or airblast. “Coveralls can be made out of high-density polyethylene fibers (Tyvek and other brands), which are disposable, or cotton, which are reusable,” Brim-DeForest said. “If reusable coveralls are worn, the employer must ensure employees are provided clean coveralls.”
Goggles/face shields: Face shields are required for mixing and loading pesticides only if it's stated on the label. “If a face shield is unavailable, a full-face respirator can be used,” Blecker said. “Goggles or protective eyewear should always be worn in California when handling pesticides, regardless of what the label says. The face shield, goggles or safety glasses must provide front, side and brow protection and meet the American National Standards Institute Z87.1 standard for impact resistance.
For more information about PPE, contact your county agricultural commissioner or see the California Department of Pesticide Regulation's posters:
A new series about how UCCE Sonoma continues our work for the community.
Tell us about how shelter in place has effected your work:
My ability to do one-on-one technical assistance has been compromised; however, with the use of Zoom conferencing, I have been able to engage with some dairy producers to continue grant writing support. This can be limiting due to poor internet connectivity in rural areas and a steep learning curve, but many dairymen are willing to learn and adapt during these unfamiliar times.
How is shelter in place affecting ag operations that you work with?
They are currently operating as business as usual. Many are worried about their workers getting food and necessary supplies during this crisis and actually stocked up on extra food to be able to feed their whole dairy crew if it's needed. It's nice to see everyone looking out for one another. They're also a bit worried what will happen if someone does get sick and how that will impact their operation. I have not yet heard of this occurring yet, thankfully.
Shoutout to all our farmers and ranchers who don't just produce food in crisis but all year round! They take no days off, even during worldwide pandemics, because what they do is the most important job.
We also have dairymen who have farmstead operations. Luckily, our farmer's markets will remain open; however, it is expected that attendance will be lower. As with many farm to table operations, there will likely be a drop in sales. Some have started taking orders for curbside pickup or delivery or sharing cool recipes to make at home with their tasty cheeses. If you're not already following our fantastic farmstead cheese operations on social media, I encourage you to do so and support them! Also, see link below for more food resources.
Find Local Products: check out Sonoma County Farm Trails
Dairy markets were rising and this crisis has caused some negative impacts. We need to make sure we put milk and cheese in the cart when we make our essentials supply run! I am looking to arrange more Zoom meetings to continue my technical assistance where I can. We were also able to get an extension in application deadlines for California Department of Food and Agriculture dairy grants, which have been very popular for dairymen across the state.
Randi can be reached at: email@example.com/h4>/span>/h4>/h4>
- Author: Pamela Kan-Rice
Vice President Glenda Humiston introduced alumni regent-designate Debby Stegura to UC Cooperative Extension staff and their community partners and clientele in Sonoma County on Nov. 15.
After visiting Beretta Dairy, Bayer Farm Park and Gardens, Sheppard Elementary and Stuhlmuller Vineyards, Regent Stegura tweeted:
“Blown away by @ucanr tour of @UCCESonoma work—Beretta Dairy, @UCMasterGarden, @Stuhlmullerwine, @California4H. Saw #kincaidfire reach, how to prepare better for future fires. @ucanr work benefits all of CA. Thank you!”
The retired business litigator and UC Davis alumna was joined on the tour by Anne Shaw, secretary and chief of staff to the regents, and Michael Bedard, UC state government relations legislative director.
Stephanie Larson, UCCE director for Sonoma County, led the tour, which first visited Beretta Dairy.
“It's so nice to have a dairy advisor,” Sonoma County dairy farmer Doug Beretta said, crediting Randi Black, UC Cooperative Extension dairy advisor, with providing the technical assistance he needed to apply for a grant to reduce methane emissions.
Black, who joined UC ANR in 2017, helped four local dairies obtain grants totaling $2.5 million and said the projects propose to reduce emissions by 9,327 metric tons of CO2 equivalent over the next 5 years, which is comparable to removing 2,028 passenger vehicles from the road for a year.
Beretta talked about the work he has done at the dairy, based on UC research, to improve water quality. David Lewis, UCCE director for Marin and Napa counties, noted that similar manure management and water-quality work is being implemented by UCCE clientele in his counties.
Discussing the hardships created by low milk prices in the dairy industry, Beretta said he appreciated UCCE's agricultural ombudsman Karen Giovannini guiding producers who want to sell value-added products through the permitting process.
From the dairy, Stegura and the group met with Mimi Enright, UC Master Gardener Program manager for Sonoma County, UC Master Gardener volunteers and Julia Van Soelen Kim, North Bay food systems advisor at Bayer Farm Park and Gardens.
Collaborating with Bayer Farm, the Master Gardeners have been expanding outreach to Spanish-speaking members of the community. In addition to all of the traditional Master Gardener outreach, the Master Gardeners in Sonoma County have been actively promoting firewise landscaping to help Sonoma County residents better prepare for wildfires. Using UC ANR materials is critical, Enright said, to assure people the recommendations are based on scientific research.
After the wildfires in 2017, Van Soelen Kim and Enright launched a citizen science project with community partners to assess produce safety. Within days of the fire, volunteers collected 200 samples of leafy greens from school, backyard and community gardens. With funding from UC ANR and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, they expanded testing to soil and partnered with UC Davis researchers to test eggs laid by backyard poultry, and published guidance for produce safety after urban wildfire.
After the Kincade Fire, when growers and gardeners asked if produce grown outdoors was safe to eat, Enright said UCCE Sonoma County could tell them, based on local research, it was safe to eat if consumers removed outer leaves and washed the produce and that the health benefits of eating fresh produce outweigh any trace contamination.
UCCE has been leading a coalition of community partners and government organizations to educate the community on reducing food waste and increasing food recovery. When PG&E announces public safety power shutoffs, they promote composting food that can't be eaten so it doesn't end up in a landfill.
“This kind of service in communities is not as well-known about UC as the campuses,” Humiston commented to the regent.
Across the street from Bayer Farm, Diego Mariscal, 4-H program assistant, has been collaborating with Sheppard Elementary School. It is one of several schools in the county providing 4-H afterschool clubs and other 4-H programs designed to nurture the next generation of Latino leaders. Last spring, Mariscal worked with families to build a 4-H soccer league for elementary school children. Parents, college and high school students were trained by 4-H to teach children teamwork, soccer skills and healthy eating habits. More than 200 new underserved youth participated in 4-H programs in Sonoma County during the 2018-2019 year.
A few of the soccer players, proudly wearing their green 4-H soccer uniforms, told the group what they liked about 4-H. 4-H All Star Corrianna E., who participates in the 4-H teen program, shared her experience in 4-H and expressed gratitude to the program for helping her overcome her shyness to become a strong public speaker. Corrianna's mother, Naomi Edwards, also shared her experience as 4-H Council President for Sonoma County.
When new landowners ask Gorman for advice, he refers them to Steven Swain, UCCE environmental horticulture advisor, who advises small parcel land managers in Sonoma County on managing the land for fire and wildlife. “Without UCCE, where would they turn?” Gorman asked, adding that people from private companies may have recommendations that may not be in best interest of the land.
Larson introduced new UC IPM advisor Cindy Kron, who succeeds recent retiree Lucia Varela. Kron is launching an IR-4 project to study pesticides for olives, which isn't a big enough market to interest private investment in research. She's also monitoring pears for brown marmorated stink bug because early detection is key to controlling the pest. Spotted lanternfly isn't in California yet, but grapes are among its favorite hosts so Kron is working with UC Master Gardener volunteers and other community members to watch for the exotic pest.
The Kincade Fire destroyed fences and scorched the rangeland at Stuhlmuller Vineyards, forcing Gorman to sell the cattle. He showed the group where the fire failed to advance at the fire break created by the lush vineyards. As a result of the Kincade Fire, Gorman wasn't able to sell his petite verdot, chardonnay and cabernet grapes to wineries. To prove to the insurance company that smoke damaged the crop, his crew picked 30 tons of grapes for testing.
During and after the devastating fires in the North Bay, Larson, who is also a UCCE livestock and range management advisor, assisted livestock owners to gain access to their burned properties; this ensured their animals got food and water. She also organized resource meetings for landowners affected by fires, helping them apply for funding from government agencies and insurance companies for animal, forage and facility losses.
Larson also said her new grazing database Match.Graze has been well-received by ranchers and landowners in Sonoma and Marin counties who want to use grazing to reduce fire fuels. Land managers and grazers can sign up at ucanr.edu/matchgraze to hire sheep, goats, cattle and horses to manage fire fuels.
The regent tours in Sonoma Country and Fresno County were coordinated by Anne Megaro, government and community relations director. She is planning future tours for regents at UC South Coast Research and Extension Center and other locations in the spring.