- Author: Rachael Freeman Long
- Contributor: Brad Hanson
- Contributor: Kurt Hembree
With generous donations from seed companies and support from the California Dry Bean Advisory Board, we're working on two research projects in garbanzo beans this year. One is focusing on the herbicide Tough 5EC (pyridate) for broadleaf weed control in established garbanzo stands. Currently there are no herbicides registered for use in garbanzos after crop emergence except hooded sprays or directed sprays (not on the crop). Tough by Belchim Crop Protection, is currently being registered for use in garbanzos in other states. We're conducting two trials with Tough in garbanzos; one at the UC West Side Research and Extension Center and the other at UC Davis. Hopefully this will lead to Tough being registered for use on garbanzos in our state because it's needed by the industry. Broadleaf weed control in garbanzos is particularly challenging because of the long growing season and need to control weeds from winter to summer (planting to harvest) especially if there are late rains bringing up weeds, like last spring.
The second trial is with USDA Risk Management. The purpose of this project is to conduct field trials on garbanzo beans under common production systems across the United States, in garbanzo producing regions (including California, Arizona, Washington, and Idaho). The resulting data will be used to determine whether the loss adjustment procedures by the USDA Risk Management Agency (Crop Insurance) for garbanzos should be continued or modified. Two trials are needed for California, one in the Sacramento Valley (UC Davis) and the other in the San Joaquin Valley (West Side) for looking at production in different growing areas. Annual field tests for garbanzo yield and quality are needed for up to three growing seasons over a three-year period. Six garbanzo varieties are being evaluated, with support by USDA Risk Management.
The California Dry Bean Advisory Board (CDBAB) is requesting applied research proposals for 2020. This commodity-based research request is sponsored by the CA Dry Bean Marketing Order, under the guidance of the CA Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). The Board has supported applied research by University programs for many years.
Please review the list of applied research priorities that were developed by the Dry Bean Advisory Board for 2020, and use the attached grant application template. In particular, the board is looking for projects in food science, developing new products for consumers using California beans.
Please share this call for proposals with colleagues and others who might be interested in dry bean research. Proposals are due by Friday, February 7, 2020. Progress reports for projects funded by the dry bean industry in 2019 will also be due Friday, February 7, 2020.
Please submit proposals and final reports electronically to: Rachael Long, firstname.lastname@example.org. The final report will be uploaded to the UC Dry Bean publication database.
If you have any questions, please contact Rachael Long or Michelle Leinfelder-Miles (email@example.com), UC co-liaisons to the CDBAB.
- Author: Sarah Light
Dry Bean Field Meeting
Friday, August 16, 2019, 10 am- 12:00 pm
UC Davis Agronomy Farm
Directions to the UC Davis Plant Sciences Field Facility:Note: this is a different location from previous years:From Hwy 113 in Davis, exit on Hutchison Drive. Go west, and head straight through the first roundabout, then turn left at Campbell Road. The gate to the bean fields will be on your right about 1,300-ft down Campbell Drive, just before you come to the reservoir on the left side of the road and the intersection with Garrod Drive.
Dry Bean Meeting Location link: Google map
10:00–10:05 Sign in, introductions, updates, Antonia Palkovic, UCD Associate Specialist
10:05-10:15 Dry bean breeding program, pest and disease resistance, Dr. Paul Gepts, UCD
10:15-10:25 Dry Bean Update, Rachael Long, Farm Advisor, Yolo Co.
10:25-10:40 CDFA Healthy Soils program, Sarah Light, Farm Advisor Sutter, Yuba, Colusa Co.
10:40-10:50 Lima RIL strip trial, Antonia Palkovic
10:50–11:20 Heirloom breeding update and continuing to study growth habit in Black Knightfall by Orca population, Travis Parker, UCD PhD student
11:20–11:25 Bush Large Lima breeding plots, Antonia Palkovic
11:25–11:55 Lima Diversity Panel and Diallel F2 selection plots, Kimberly Gibson, UCD PhD student
11:55-12:00 Discussion, questions, and wrap-up
- Author: Michelle Leinfelder-Miles
My observations of the field were that there were patches of several nearby plants with symptoms, but across the three contiguous fields, the patches were widespread. I suspected a vascular disease because of what appeared to be a progression of the disease from yellowing to necrosis to eventually plant death. I submitted samples to the plant pathology lab at UC Davis, and they diagnosed Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, which is the Fusarium wilt pathogen for garbanzos. Fusarium wilt (also called Fusarium yellows) has the external symptoms previously described, but in addition to these symptoms, splitting the stems may reveal reddish-brown streaking in the vascular system at the center of the stem (i.e. xylem). The roots won't show discoloration with Fusarium wilt like they will with Fusarium root rot. Fusarium wilt should not be confused with yellowing caused from virus, which will exhibit discoloration in the phloem. Fusarium wilt can reduce yield by reducing seed quantity and size.
In general, cultural practices are the only ways to manage this disease. Luckily, the Fusarium wilt pathogens are crop-specific, so this pathogen will only infect garbanzos. The pathogen, however, can survive for a long time in the soil (upwards of 6 years or more) because it can survive under wide temperature and pH ranges. Therefore, crop rotation is an important management practice. Crop rotation will help to slow the proliferation of the disease, but it generally won't eliminate it. Growers should plant certified disease-free seed. They should not save seed for planting because Fusarium wilt (and Ascochyta blight) can live externally on the seed. Growers should also consider planting UC-27, which has disease resistance and is adapted to the Central Valley. Disease management may also include cleaning soil from equipment when moving from an infected field to a non-infected field. In some studies, soil solarizaton has been shown to reduce Fusarium wilt in subsequent garbanzo crops, but to my knowledge, there hasn't been any work on soil solarization in California garbanzos.
Garbanzo beans are an important crop worldwide for human and animal nutrition. In California, they are grown during the winter months, like small grains, and provide growers with another crop choice that can be winter rain-fed. Because they are a legume, they can fix atmospheric nitrogen to fulfil some of their nitrogen needs. Garbanzos also are more tolerant of soil salinity than common beans and limas. In California, we annually grow approximately 10,000 acres of garbanzos. California garbanzos are generally a high-quality product grown for the canning industry. More information on garbanzo production in California can be found in the UC production manual.
- Author: Rachael Freeman Long
The Insect and Mite sections of the UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines for Dry Beans have been recently revised and updated and are now available online at: UC IPM Dry Beans Pest Management Guidelines.
Authors include UCCE Farm Advisor Rachael Long and UC IPM Advisor Pete Goodell (emeritus). The guidelines include an updated photo page to help identify pests and the damage they cause to dry beans at: Photo Identification.
These guidelines can help with managing pests in your fields. Interested in Lygus bugs and how to control them? Take a look at the guidelines on lygus and see that the thresholds vary by bean class and type. For example, blackeye beans (cowpeas) have different tolerance levels to lygus than lima beans. Some lima bean varieties are more tolerant to lygus than others. Interested in biocontrol of aphids? See photos of natural enemies that prey on aphids at: Photos to identify natural enemies of aphids.
There is also a newly revised table on the relative toxicities of insecticides and miticides to natural enemies and honey bees in dry bean production, found at: Insecticide Toxicities.
This information and much more is available through the newly revised 2018 UC IPM Dry Bean guidelines! This follows the recent revision of diseases and abiotic disorders in dry beans. The weed management section is currently in review and will be available later this year.