UC Food and Agriculture Blogs
Last Friday afternoon, the sales manager at Produce Express in Sacramento, Jim Mills, drove to Chiam Lee's small farm south of Galt to pick up six cases of the most delicious strawberries you've ever tasted. Mills delivered them to Karen's Bakery in Folsom, a company that needed superb fruit for a charity event.
It used to be, Lee only sold strawberries at his roadside stand, and rarely six cases at a time. But thanks to a connection facilitated by UC, he has a new and much larger market for his produce.
This transaction is just one example of the markets that have been opened in the Sacramento and Fresno areas for farmers of Southeast Asian descent. With funding from the USDA National Research Initiative, the University of California has established partnerships with five Sacramento-area school districts and three fruit distributors to bring local fruit into more local homes, school cafeterias and restaurants.
“One of the goals of the project is to expand local market opportunities for these growers,” said project coordinator Jennifer Sowerwine of UC Berkeley. “This project brings fresh, local, nutritious strawberries into our children's school lunches, restaurants and low income neighborhoods.”
Produce Express works primarily with restaurants and school districts. Two other fruit distributors working with UC, Alchemist Community Development Corporation and Soil Born Farms Urban Agriculture & Education Project, are offering the locally grown strawberries and other fruits and vegetables at neighborhood farm stands.
The Alchemist, for example, is buying produce from small-scale farms and selling it in a working-class west Sacramento neighborhood each Saturday from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.
This urban farm stand concept offers a variety of benefits:
- Fresh, local fruit and vegetables become available within walking or bike-riding distance in low-income neighborhoods.
- A wide variety of fresh fruits and vegetables are available at one stop.
- Small-scale farmers have a new outlet for their produce, but aren't required to staff their own stands, as they would at a traditional farmers market.
- People can pay for the produce using electronic benefits cards.
A map of strawberry stands in Sacramento.
In most California homes there are few commodities more precious, or more taken for granted, than clean tap water. We use it without hesitation for drinking, cooking and washing produce.
However, recent news reminds us that not everyone can take clean water for granted. In rural California, where some households rely on well water, up to 2 million people have been exposed to unhealthy levels of nitrates in their water at some time during the last 15 years.
Synthetic fertilizers used in agriculture are major contributors of nitrates to our water, but a growing number of farmers are taking steps to reduce this problem by adopting micro and drip irrigation technologies, and by cultivating noncrop vegetation (buffer strips and cover crops) and “constructed wetlands.” All these measures reduce not only nitrates but many other pollutants from runoff.
"Nitrate problems start when applied fertilizer moves outside the root zones of plants," says Toby O'Geen, UC Davis soil resource specialist. "If nitrate reaches the root zone of actively growing crops, much of it is taken up by roots. But because of its high mobility, nitrate occurring outside the root zones can be transported by irrigation or rain as surface or subsurface runoff. "
Technologies like drip irrigation deliver water and fertilizer precisely to root zones. From 1991 to 2001, Califiornia growers decreased surface irrigation (furrow and flood) about 28 percent and increased sprinkler and drip/microirrigation about 28 percent (Orang et al 2008).
In addition, growers are using buffer strips, cover crops, vegetated waterways and constructed wetlands to purify water, reduce erosion, and remove hazardous contaminants such as pesticides, metals, pathogens and fertilizers. The Farm Bill funds some of these programs through the Environmental Quality Improvement Program and the Wetland Reserve Program.
"Farmers receive technical advice and funding to take marginal land out of production and put it into noncrop vegetation and creation of habitat, including constructed wetlands," O'Geen said.
The effectiveness of such measures depends on the site and the design, but they are probably the best way to reduce water pollution from runoff. (Taking regulatory action against any particular grower is not practical because the sources of nitrate pollution are widespread and occur regionally. Even isotope "fingerprints" often give mixed results because sources mix in the environment.)Another way that agriculture helps remove pollutants of all kinds, including not only fertilizers and pesticides but pathogens, is through natural filtering by rangelands, including oak woodlands. (See details of how oaks help nitrogen cycling.) More than two-thirds of California's drinking-water supply passes through or is stored in oak woodlands. In fact, rangeland in California (land suitable for grazing livestock) comprises more than half of the state's 101 million acres and typically is not fertilized. It forms our major drainage basins – filtering the drinking water for millions of people. (see California Agriculture).
Border strips, shown on a Central Coast farm,
help improve water quality by filtering.
By assigning a simple, 15-digit identification number to cows, UC researchers can track each one from conception to carcass, garnering valuable data for studies on cattle fertility, genetics, and health, and helping to select breeding animals with desirable beef characteristics such as flavor and tenderness.
In today’s beef market, an individual cow may change ownership many times during its lifetime as it travels from the ranch of its birth, to stocker and feedlot, to slaughterhouse, and finally supermarket or steakhouse. In the process, valuable data is lost along with the ability to “trace back” particular steaks to the original cow.
For several years, UC Davis researchers have been attaching a round, electronic ear tag to each newborn calf in the research herd at the UC Sierra Foothill Research and Extension Center, in the California foothills northeast of Sacramento.
The ear tags contain each cow’s unique radio-frequency-identification number, which is scanned with an electronic wand; the system is similar to that used to keep track of packages being shipped overnight or library books. Cowhands use a handheld device to enter information when the cattle are processed, which is transmitted via remote-access antennae to centrally located computer databases.
California Agriculture journal. “It may also be possible to select animals that are able to grow to given size using less feed, or that are more resistant to certain diseases.
“These technologies also have great potential to enable the production of safer, more nutritious animal products. They may also allow for the selection of animals with a decreased environmental footprint and improved animal welfare due to lower levels of disease.”
Herd manager Dan Myers enters cattle
information into hand-held device.
When food calorie content was posted on menu boards at Kaiser Hospital cafeterias, a significant number of patrons altered their food choices, according to a pilot menu labeling study conducted by UC Berkeley researchers.
The results are compelling because the California menu labeling bill (SB 1420), which requires chain restaurants to put calorie counts on menu boards, goes into full effect next year.
In the Kaiser pilot study, more than 500 patrons completed cafeteria exit surveys. Nearly a third of respondents who noticed the calorie information said they changed their food choices as a result. Nearly all of them agreed that calorie information should be available and 80 percent said they felt Kaiser was helping them look after their health by providing calorie and nutrient information.
The researchers also analyzed the food on patrons' trays - either by observation or by scrutinizing cash register receipts. They determined that food purchases in cafeterias where the labeling was introduced sold significantly more healthy side dishes, but little change was seen in entreé selections.
Eleven percent of the survey respondents indicated that there are potential disadvantages to having calorie information posted in the cafeterias, the research report said.
"The most common disadvantage cited was guilt from ordering high-calorie foods," it reported.The pilot study was conducted by the Dr. Robert C. and Veronica Atkins Center for Weight and Health, the College of Natural Resources and the School of Public Health, all at UC Berkeley.
Click here for the 33-page research report.
Restaurant bagel labels with calorie counts.
It is "absolutely essential" to eat and drink two to four hours before workouts to fuel and hydrate the body, says UC Davis sports nutrition expert Liz Applegate. Eating before exercise is particularly important when taking part in activities that require hand-eye coordination, like basketball and fencing.
Applegate recorded a 13-minute video for the UC Cooperative Extension website Feeling Fine Online that outlines what and when athletes should eat for optimum health and performance.
The pre-workout meal, she advises, should be high in carbohydrates, low in fat and contain a moderate amount of protein. Applegate's examples:
- 1 pita pocket with 3 tablespoons of fruit spread
- 1 cup of oatmeal with 4 oz. of soy or lowfat milk
- 6 oz. of vegetable juice with 1/2 cup apricots
- High carbohydrate energy bar with no more than 10 grams of protein
"After exercise is where I see lots of mistakes," Applegate says.
She recommends athletes eat a specific amount of carbohydrates within the first 30 minutes post exercise. (To calculate the amount of post-exercise carbs for you, multiply your weight in pounds by 0.7. That gives the number of carbs in grams.) A small amount of protein and antioxidants will also boost recovery. Applegate's post-exercise examples are:
- Smoothie with fruit and yogurt, protein powder or soy milk
- Bean burrito with 6 oz. of fruit juice
- Tuna sandwich with 8 oz. of cranberry juice
- 2 mozzarella sticks, a whole grain English muffin and an orange
Recovery also requires rehydration. Applegate recommends drinking 16 oz. of fluid for each pound of sweat lost.
An apple after exercise aids recovery.