Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education
University of California
Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education

Posts Tagged: conversion

Nitrogen Changes in the Soil, and it Changes Fast

At a recent meeting the question came up about the fate of nitrogen fertilizer applied through the irrigation system. If it is applied as urea, how long does it take to convert it to nitrate? If applied as ammonium, how long does it take to convert to nitrate? Urea and nitrate pretty much move wherever water moves and is very susceptible to leaching. Because of the positive charge on ammonium, it is not as mobile as nitrate, but once bacteria transform it to nitrate, it moves with water.

This is an important question, since if more water is applied than is needed by the plant, the nitrate is going to move out of the root system and no longer be available to the plant and ends up heading to ground water. Reading the literature, growers get the sense that all this transformation takes time, maybe a long time.

It turns out that soils in coastal California have a pretty rapid conversion of nitrogen. Francis Broadbent at UC Davis did a bunch of studies back in the 1950's and 60's and found enzyme hydrolysis of urea to ammonium occurring within hours. Other researchers have looked at nitrification, the conversion of ammonium to nitrate by soil bacteria, occurring within days and much of the conversion occurring within a week depending on soil temperature (see chart below).

So there is all this nitrate present and the key is what happens to it. It turns out that most plants when actively growing absorb nitrate at about 5 pounds of nitrogen per day. So with a 100% efficiency, applying 20 pounds of nitrogen, all of it would be taken up in four days. Of course, nothing in nature is that efficient. But the point is a big slug of nitrogen applied is not going to be taken up immediately and if more water is applied after that than is needed by the crop, it likely is pushed out of the avocado root zone.

Of course all the nitrogen a plant uses does not come from applied fertilizer. The bulk is coming from soil organic matter that is slowly decomposing. This nitrogen is being released at a rate that is probably in balance with the growth of the tree.

The applied fertilizer, however, is much more unstable and needs to be handled accordingly. The rule of thumb is to break the irrigation application into thirds. In the first third, run the irrigation to fill the lines and wet the soil. In the second third, run the fertilizer. This spreads it through the system and onto the ground. The last third is clear the irrigation system of the material and to move the fertilizer into the root zone. Then given time, the tree will take up the applied nitrogen. At the next irrigation then the bulk of that nitrogen will have been taken up and little will be pushed through the root system.

Low and High Nitrogen Avocado Leaves

Chart showing rapid conversion to nitrate with soil temperature

nitrogen avocado
nitrogen avocado


Posted on Wednesday, August 17, 2016 at 6:55 AM
Tags: ammonification (1), ammonium (1), avocado (1), citrus (1), conversion (2), fertilizer (1), hydrolysis (1), nitrate (1), nitrification (1), nitrogen (1), transformation (1), urea (1)

Water Terminology


I was just speaking to a group of Certified Crop Advisors and there was some confusion about the units used by different labs to report their results, so I put together this sheet to help understand the relationship between the different terms. They are usually interchangeable, but one needs to know how they convert between each other. So here is a cheat sheet.



Common ions in water: calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na1+)

sulfate (SO42-), chloride (Cl-), carbonate (CO32-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), boron (H3BO3)


Measured as parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per liter (mg/l), which are interchangeable , or milliequivalents per liter (meq/l). A milliequivalent is the ppm of that ion divided by its atomic weight per charge.

                Example: Ca2+ with atomic weight of 40 and a solution concentration of possibly 200 ppm. Ca2+ has two charges per atom, so it has a weight of 20 per charge.     200 ppm divided by 20 = 10 meq of calcium for a liter of water.


Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): measure of total salts in solution in ppm or mg/L


Electrical Conductivity (EC): similar to TDS but analyzed differently.

                Units: deciSiemens/meter(dS/m)=millimhos/centimeter (mmhos/cm)=

                                                1000 micromhos/cm (umhos/cm).

                ConversionTDSEC: 640 ppm=1 dS/m= 1 mmhos/cm=1000 umhos/cm


Hardness: measure of calcium and magnesium in water expressed as ppm CaCO3


pH: measure of how acid or base the solution


Alkalinity: measure of the amount of carbonate and bicarbonate controlling the pH, expressed as ppm CaCO3.


Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR): describes the relative sodium hazard of water


                                SAR= (Na)/((Ca+Mg)/2)1/2, all units in meq/l


1.5 feet of water with EC of 1.6 dS/m adds 10,000 # of salt per acre

and that same water with 20 mg/l of nutrient will supply 80# of that nutrient/acre

Sea water has ~ 50 dS/m, 20,000 ppm Cl, 10,000 ppm

Irrigation water WATCH OUT- 1,000 ppm TDS, 100 ppm Na/Cl, 1 ppm B


Posted on Monday, March 30, 2015 at 7:35 AM
Tags: conversion (2), deciSiemens (1), EC (1), electrical conductivity (1), TDS (1), terms (1), total dissolved soilds (1), units (1), water (1)
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