Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education
University of California
Subtropical Fruit Crops Research & Education

Posts Tagged: mandarin

Not Just Navels Split

It has been a struggle to get through these hot times and now it's getting cooler, it's even rained, and suddenly that beautiful citrus that has just broken color and is an orange globe splits.  It's most common in navels, but all citrus that ripen in the fall – tight-skinned satsuma mandarins, early clementines, tangelos and blood oranges.  With the hot summer, it seems that a lot of citrus fruit have accelerated their maturity and are ready, ripe and sweet right now, and maybe ready to split.

And that's the problem. Drought stress.  Salt stress due to drought.  Water stress due to miserly watering. A heat wave in July.  And a weird fall with maybe rain and maybe no rain and is ¼ inch considered rain or just a dedusting? Irregular watering is the key to splitting this time of year.  The sugar builds, the pressure to suck in water builds and the fruit has been held back by a constrained water pattern and suddenly some water comes and it goes straight to the fruit and Boom, it splits.

Years of drought, and a stressed tree are a perfect set up for a citrus splitting in fall varieties like navel and satsuma.  The days have turned cooler and there's less sense on the part of the irrigator to give the tree water and suddenly out of nowhere, there is rain.  That wonderful stuff comes down and all seems right with the world, but then you notice that the mandarin fruit are splitting.  Rats? Nope, a dehydrated fruit that has taken on more water than its skin can take in and the fruit splits.  This is called an abiotic disorder or disease.  However, it's not really a disease, but a problem brought on by environmental conditions. Or poor watering practices.  

Fruit that is not yet ripe, like ‘Valencias' and later maturing mandarins are fine because they haven't developed the sugar content and have a firmer skin.  They then develop during the rainy season when soil moisture is more regular.  Or used to be more regular. With dry, warm winters this may become more or a problem in these later varieties, as well.

Several factors contribute to fruit splitting.  Studies indicate that changes in weather, including temperature, relative humidity and wind may exaggerate splitting.  The amount of water in the tree changes due to the weather condition, which causes the fruit to shrink.  Then with rewetting, the fruit swells and bursts.  In the navel orange, it usually occurs at the weakest spot, which is the navel.  In other fruit, like blood orange, it can occur as a side split, as seen in the photo below.

Proper irrigation and other cultural practices can help reduce fruit spitting.  Maintaining adequate but not excessive soil moisture is very important.  A large area of soil around a tree should be watered since roots normally grow somewhat beyond the edge of the canopy.  Wet the soil to a depth of at least 2 feet, then allow it to become somewhat dry in the top few inches before irrigating again.  Applying a layer of coarse organic mulch under the canopy beginning at least a foot from the trunk can help moderate soil moisture and soil temperature variation.

Once split, the fruit is not going to recover.  It's best to get it off the tree so that it doesn't rot and encourage rodents.

blood orange split
blood orange split

Posted on Tuesday, November 27, 2018 at 7:25 AM
Tags: abiotic disorder (1), citrus (300), mandarin (64), navel (11), orange (66), split (2)

ACP - Early Detection Techniques

Western Plant Protection Network at UC Davis

https://www.npdn.org/system/files/WPDN%20Newsletter%20-%202018-07-12.pdf

Early detection technologies (EDTs) are tests that indicate the presence of disease before signs or symptoms of the disease can be seen. In the same way that a doc-tor measures a patient's blood pressure to look for heart problems, a grower might use a trained “sniffer” dog to detect changes in a tree that looks healthy but has huanglongbing (HLB) disease. By using the EDT, the grower is able to uncover HLB earlier, and can decide on an early, cost-saving course of action.

In the case of HLB, there are many EDTs under development. Some of them look for patterns in the microorganisms that live on the citrus leaves (Leveau snapshot); some look for patterns in the chemicals that are produced by the tree in response to HLB (Pourreza, Davis and Slupsky); and others look for the molecules that the bacterium injects in the tree to cause disease (Ma). A description of some of these EDTs can be found on the Science for Citrus Health website.

Why do we need EDTs for HLB?

To understand why EDTs are needed and what their potential value is, it is necessary to understand the difference between the incubation period for a disease and the latent period. The incubation period is the time between exposure to the pathogen and the appearance of symptoms. The latent period is the time between exposure and the newly-infected host becoming infectious. Huanglongbing (HLB) has a long incubation period and a very short latent period, which means that a tree can be dis-eased for a long time without showing any visible symptoms, while being infectious for a large fraction of that time. Even if a tree does not seem diseased, it can serve as a home for the bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, CLas) that causes HLB. If a psyllid feeds on the infected tissue of a tree (with or without symptoms), CLas that is present in the leaf tissue can be picked up by the insect and transmitted to other trees when the psyllid moves on to feed. Information from an EDT can help a grower detect the disease in a tree a long time before it would be detected by eye. This cuts down the time psyllids are able to feed on it and transmit the disease, slowing the spread of HLB to neighboring trees.

Why is it important to remove infected trees as early as possible?

If a tree that tests positive for CLas is not treated or removed, the bacterium will spread throughout the tree. Over time, an increasing proportion of the tree's tissues will become infected, increasing the chances that a psyllid will become infected upon feeding, and subsequently spread the infection to healthy neighboring trees. If the infected tree is removed, there is no opportunity for psyllids to feed on the infected tissue and spread the disease. Once CLas is detected, tree removal is the only surefire way to prevent the spread of the infection, and it is extremely time-sensitive. The sooner an infected tree is removed, the lower the chances that psyllids will get infected. The savings associated with early infected tree removal will be proportional to the amount of surrounding trees that would have been infected with CLas due to that tree, and the number of months that it would be left on the ground.

Who is working on the project?

Several research teams in different universities and research stations, supported by a variety of funding organizations, have been working on the development of a variety of EDTs. These EDTs, designed under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, are being validated under field conditions in Texas and Florida. In California, where HLB has not been detected in citrus orchards, samples of different citrus varieties have been collected from healthy trees and trees affected by other diseases from all over the state. These samples are being used to calibrate the EDTs, and to test if they can distinguish between healthy and HLB-diseased trees, and between HLB-diseased trees and trees affected by other common citrus diseases. Dr. Neil McRoberts and his team at UC Davis are evaluating the data from these experiments and providing support to the EDT researchers.

What are the challenges and opportunities?

Currently, regulations require HLB infected trees to be removed if a certain amount of CLas DNA is detected in leaf samples through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, CLas is unevenly distributed in the sap of citrus trees, and the leaf samples collected might not be PCR-positive even though the bacterium is already present elsewhere in the tree. EDTs offer the possibility to detect infected trees before they are PCR-positive, so they could be removed earlier in the HLB epidemic. Therefore, the value of EDTs relies on the voluntary removal of EDT-positive trees before the law requires them to be removed.

No EDT gives perfect diagnostic results. Sometimes healthy trees will produce EDT scores that look like diseased trees (so-called “false positives”). Removing such trees will result in an immediate financial loss. However, because the economic damage caused by leaving an infected tree in place is much bigger than the value of a healthy tree, using an EDT to guide decisions has the potential to result in a long-term economic benefit to individual growers and communities, by reducing the spread of HLB. Losing a few healthy trees along the way is the unavoidable cost of stopping the disease from spreading. Like-wise, some trees will seem healthy based on EDT scores but might end up showing symptoms (“false negatives”). The proportion of true positives, false positives, true negatives and false negatives represents the accuracy of a diagnostic test. Dr. McRoberts' team is analyzing the accuracy of the EDTs, and preliminary results suggest that the best performing EDTs could be correctly determining the status of the trees 95% of the time.

The results of this analysis could be used to foster the adoption of EDTs among the citrus grower community, promoting the idea that the sooner infected trees are detected and removed, the smaller impact HLB will have on California's citrus production. Unless there is sufficient cooperation in integrated management of HLB by removing infected trees as early as possible, controlling the ACP on an area-wide scale, and using certified plant material, the California citrus industry is likely to suffer un-sustainable economic losses to HLB.

http://ucanr.edu/sites/scienceforcitrushealth/Early_Detection_Techniques_EDT/

hlb defprmed citrus
hlb defprmed citrus

Posted on Wednesday, July 18, 2018 at 6:38 AM
  • Author: Sara Garcia Figuera, Jennifer Reed and Brianna McGuire
Tags: acp (75), asian citrus psyllid (51), citrus (300), HLB (58), huanlongbing (1), lemon (92), mandarin (64), orange (66)

CRB Meeting for Citrus Growers


LAST DAY TO REGISTER!

REGISTRATION CLOSES TODAY, MONDAY, JUNE 18, 2018 for the Citrus Growers Educational Seminar Series!
 
CLICK HERE TO REGISTER NOW!
 
Continuing Education Units Available:
Continuing Education (CE) Units have been approved by the California
Department of Pesticide Regulation for license categories PCA, QAL, QAC and Private Applicators. 

Certified Crop Adviser (CCA) Units have also been applied for and are pending approval.

Southern California - Desert: 2.5 "other" and 0.5 "laws and regulations" approved
Central Coast: 3.0 "other" and 0.5 "laws and regulations" approved
Central Valley: 3.0 "other" and 0.5 "laws and regulations" approved
 
CLICK HERE TO REGISTER NOW!
CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION
 
 
 
Our mailing address is:217 N. Encina Street, Visalia, CA 93291
Phone: 559.738.0246 | Fax: 559.738.0607

events@citrusresearch.org | www.citrusresearch.org


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lemon tatoo compressed
lemon tatoo compressed

Posted on Monday, June 18, 2018 at 11:21 AM
Tags: citrus (300), lemon (92), mandarin (64), meetings (2), orange (66)

California Citrus Directions

Press Release

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

For more information, contact:
Bruce Babcok: babcockb@ucr.edu
Joel Nelsen: jnelsen@cacitrusmutual.com
Gary Schulz: gary@citrusresearch.org
559.738.0246

                                   


NEW STUDY REVEALS CALIFORNIA CITRUS ECONOMIC IMPACT 
 Citrus Research Board Quantifies Industry Importance
 

May 16, 2018 – Visalia, Calif. – The total economic impact of California's iconic citrus industry is $7.117 billion according to a new study commissioned by the Citrus Research Board (CRB).

     “In updating our economic analysis, we selected a well-known expert, Bruce Babcock, Ph.D., a professor in the School of Public Policy at the University of California, Riverside, to conduct the research. His findings quantified the significant impact of citrus on California's economic well-being,” said CRB President Gary Schulz.

     According to Babcock, the California citrus industry added $1.695 billion to the state's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2016. “California citrus is a major contributor to the economic value of the state's agricultural sector and is much larger than just the value of its sales,” he said. “Estimated full-time equivalent California citrus jobs totaled 21,674 in 2016-17, and estimated wages paid by the industry during that same timeframe totaled $452 million.”

     Babcock added, “The application of management skills and capital equipment to efficiently utilize land and water to produce high-quality citrus also generates upstream and downstream jobs and income that magnify the importance of citrus production beyond its farm value.”

     In 2016-17, the most recent marketing year of data compilation, Babcock found that the total direct value of California citrus production was $3.389 billion. This value generated an additional $1.263 billion in economic activity from related businesses that supplied materials and services to the citrus industry. Layered on top was another $2.464 billion in economic activity generated by household spending income that they received from California's industry, according to Babcock, thus rendering a total economic impact of $7.117 billion.

     The study revealed that 79 percent of California's citrus was packed for the fresh market and 21 percent was processed in 2016-17, which is economically significant because fresh market fruit has a higher value than processed fruit.”

     Of further note, California produced about 95 percent of all U.S. mandarins in the most recent reporting season.

     California Citrus Mutual President Joel Nelsen commented, “The “wow” factor in this report is something as it relates to gross revenues and positive impact for the state, people and local communities.  This enthusiasm must be tempered by the fact that huanglongbing (HLB) can destroy all this in a matter of a year if the partnerships that exist between the industry and government cannot thwart the spread of this insidious disease.  Just this week, coincidentally, Brazil authorities reported a 20% reduction in fruit volume.  Reading how that would affect our family farmers, employees and the state is sobering.”

     The CRB study also looked at the possible impact of a potential 20 percent reduction in California citrus acreage or yield or a combination of the two that could result from increased costs associated with meeting government regulations, combatting the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) and warding off the invasion of HLB, a devastating disease that has decimated citrus production in many other growing regions such as Florida. Babcock calculated that such a reduction could cause a loss of 7,350 jobs and $127 million in associated employment income and could reduce California's GDP by $501 million in direct, indirect and induced impacts. The CRB currently is devoting most of its resources to battling ACP and HLB to help ensure the sustainability of California citrus.

     Babcock is a Fellow of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association and has won numerous awards for his applied policy research. The economist received his Ph.D. in Agricultural and Resource Economics from the University of California, Berkeley and his Masters and Bachelors degrees from the University of California, Davis.

     The CRB administers the California Citrus Research Program, the grower-funded and grower-directed program established in 1968 under the California Marketing Act as the mechanism enabling the State's citrus producers to sponsor and support needed research. More information about the Citrus Research Board and the full report on the “Economic Impact of California's Citrus Industry” may be found at www.citrusresearch.org.


###

 

 

CLICK HERE TO VIEW FULL REPORT

 

CLICK HERE TO VIEW FULL PRESS RELEASE

mandarin
mandarin

citrus
citrus

Posted on Tuesday, June 12, 2018 at 4:20 PM
Tags: citrus (300), industry (2), lemon (92), mandarin (64)

Colletotrichum Shoot Dieback of Citrus

Figure 1: Citrus shoot dieback (top) and gummosis (bottom) caused by Colletrotrichum.

A new disease of citrus has been found in the main growing regions of the Central Valley of California. The causal agents of this disease were identified as species of Colletotrichum, which are well-known pathogens of citrus and other crops causing anthracnose diseases. Several growers and nurserymen in various orchards in the Central Valley first noticed the disease in 2013. Symptoms include leaf chlorosis, crown thinning, gumming on twigs and shoots dieback, and in severe cases, death of young trees. The most characteristic symptoms of this disease are the gum pockets, which appear on young shoots either alone or in clusters and the dieback of twigs and shoots (Fig.1). Field observations indicate that symptoms initially appear during the early summer months and continue to express until the early fall. These symptoms were primarily reported from clementine, mandarin, and navel orange varieties. In order to determine the main cause of this disease, field surveys were conducted in several orchards throughout the Central Valley. Isolations from symptomatic plant samples frequently yielded Colletotrichum species. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies allowed the identification of two distinct species of Colletotrichum (Colletotrichum karstii and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) associated with twig and shoot dieback. Interestingly, these Colletotrichum species were also isolated from cankers in larger branches. Although C. gloeosporioides is known to cause anthracnose on citrus, a post-harvest disease causing fruit decay, it has not been reported to cause shoot dieback of citrus. C. karstii however has not been reported previously from citrus in California and our research team is currently conducting field and green house studies to determine the pathogenicity of this species in citrus. At present, it is unclear how widespread this disease is in California orchards or how many citrus varieties are susceptible to this disease. Pest control advisors are monitoring citrus trees for the presence of the disease in the Central Valley (particularly clementine, mandarin, and navel varieties) during the early summer months. Continuing research led by Dr. Akif Eskalen in collaboration with Dr. Florent Trouillas is focused on further understanding the biology of the fungal pathogens as well as factors influencing disease expression in order to develop management strategies against this emerging disease.

Posted on Monday, June 11, 2018 at 6:10 AM
  • Author: Joey Mayorquin, Mohamed Nouris, Akif Eskalen and Florent Trouillas
Tags: anthracnose (3), citrus (300), dieback (4), lemon (92), mandarin (64), orange (66), water stress (7)

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