Dr. Safeeq Khan

Assistant Cooperative Extension Specialist, Water and Watershed Sciences
UC Merced - Cooperative Extension Specialist
5200 North Lake Road
SRE 411
Merced, CA 95343
msafeeq@ucanr.edu Create VCard


Dr. Safeeq Khan is a Cooperative Extension Specialist in Water and Watershed Sciences at the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resource. He is also an Adjunct Professor in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Merced. Dr. Khan is an agricultural engineer by training with research and extension interests in hydrology and watershed systems. 

Dr. Khan's research broadly focuses on understanding the interaction between climate and ecosystems to inform land and water management. He uses data-driven numerical models as a research tool to aid in the understanding of watershed systems and predicting hydrological change. He has led several projects, from investigating the impact of non-native tree species and groundwater overdraft on streamflow in Hawaii to mapping hydrological vulnerabilities to climate change in the Pacific Northwest. More recently, his research has been focused on evaluating climate change and watershed restoration impacts on water and forest health and developing stakeholder-driven adaptive decision support tools. He serves as an associate editor for the journal of Hydrological Processes (HP). Dr. Khan is also a co-director of UC Merced’s first Innovations at the Nexus of Food, Energy and Water Systems (INFEWS) grant that focuses on connected wildland-storage-cropland subsystems in California. For a list of active projects, research team, and publications please visit: http://ecohydrology.ucmerced.edu/


Ph.D. Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2010
M.S. Agricultural Systems and Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. 2005
B.S. Agricultural Engineering, CSA University of Agriculture and Technology. 2003


  • Editors’ Citation for Excellence in Refereeing
    Presented by American Geophysical Union,  2016


Watershed Hydrology, Hydrological Modeling, Climate Change

Areas of Expertise (click to see all ANR academics with this expertise)


Peer Reviewed

  • Eriksson, Max; Safeeq, Mohammad; Padilla, Lace; Pathak, Tapan; O'Geen, Toby; Egoh, Benis; Lugg, Jaquelyn; Bales, Roger (2023). Drivers of social acceptance of natural-resource management: A comparison of the public and professionals in California. Journal of Environmental Management. Elsevier. 345, 118605. 7/22/2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.118605
  • Pelak, Norman; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Safeeq, Mohammad; Conklin, Martha (2023). Improving snow water equivalent simulations in an alpine basin by blending precipitation gauge and snow pillow measurements. Hydrological Processes. 37:1, e14796. 1/1/2023.
  • Casirati, Stefano; Conklin, Martha; Safeeq, Mohammad (2023). Influence of snowpack on forest water stress in the Sierra Nevada. Front. For. Glob. Change. 6. 6/5/2023. https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2023.1181819
  • Nanda, Aliva; Safeeq, Mohammad (2023). Threshold controlling runoff generation mechanisms in Mediterranean headwater catchments. Journal of Hydrology. 620:B. 5/1/2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2023.129532
  • Eriksson, Max; Safeeq, Mohammad; Pathak, Tapan; Egoh, Benis; Bales, Roger (2023). Using stakeholder based fuzzy cognitive mapping to assess benefits of restoration in wildfire vulnerable forests. Restoration Ecology. Wiley Online Library. 31:4, e13766. 5/1/2023. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/rec.13766
  • Safeeq, Mohammad; Nanda, Aliva; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W; lewis, Jack; Hunsaker, Carolyn T (2022). Climatic and hydrogeomorphic controls on sediment characteristics in the southern Sierra Nevada. Journal of Hydrology. Elsevier. 612, 128300. 9/1/2022.
  • Bales, Jerad; Bhaskar, Aditi; Characklis, Greg; Flores, Alejandro; Gilmore, Troy; Gomez-Velez, Jesus; Grant, Gordon; Jefferson, Anne; Khan, Safeeq; Ledford, Sarah; Loheide, Steve; Miller, Gretchen; Mishra, Ashok; Nolin, Anne; VanBriesen, Jeanne; Zarnetske, Jay; Zimmer, Margaret; Ward, Adam S (2022). COVID-19 Impacts Highlight the Need for Holistic Evaluation of Research and in the Hydrologic Sciences. Water Resources Research. Wiley Online Library. e2021WR030930. 01/12/2022.
  • Leathers, Kyle; Herbst, David; Safeeq, Mohammad Safeeq; Ruhi, Albert (2022). Dynamic, downstream-propagating thermal vulnerability in a mountain stream network: Implications for biodiversity in the face of climate change. Limnology and Oceanography. 1-14. 11/20/2022.
  • Yang, Yang; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Hunsaker, Carolyn T; Johnson, Dale W; Safeeq, Mohammad; Barnes, Morgan E; McCorkle, Emma P; Stacy, Erin M; Bales, Roger C; Bart, Ryan R; Goulden, Michael L; Hart, Stephen C (2022). Impacts of climate and disturbance on nutrient fluxes and stoichiometry in mixed-conifer forests. Biogeochemistry. Springer. 1-20. 01/18/2022.
  • Yang, Yang; Safeeq, Mohammad; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Hart, Stephen C. (2022). Impacts of climate and forest management on suspended sediment source and transport in montane headwater catchments. Hydrological Processes. Wiley Online Library. 36:9, e14684. 8/21/2022.
  • Guo, Weichao; Safeeq, Mohammad; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Xiuchen; Cui, Guotao; Ma, Qin; Goulden, Michael; Lindeskog, Mats; Bales, Roger (2022). Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Sinks in Semi-Arid Mountain Ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. Wiley Online Library. e2021GB007186. 3/16/2022.
  • Abatzoglou, John T; Marshall, Adrienne M; Lute, AC; Safeeq, Mohammad (2022). Precipitation dependence of temperature trends across the contiguous US. Geophysical Research Letters. e2021GL095414. 01/26/2022.
  • Bart, RR; Ray, RL; Conklin, MH; Safeeq, M; Saksa, PC; Tague, CL; Bales, RC (2021). Assessing the effects of forest biomass reductions on forest health and streamflow. Hydrological Processes. 35:e14114. 2/25/2021.
  • Safeeq, M., Bart, R. R., Pelak, N. F., Singh, C. K., Dralle, D. N., Hartsough, P., & Wagenbrenner, J. W. (2021). How realistic are water‐balance closure assumptions? A demonstration from the southern sierra critical zone observatory and kings river experimental watersheds. Hydrological Processes35(5), e14199.

  • Wagenbrenner, J.W.; Dralle, D.N.; Safeeq, M.; Hunsaker, C. (2021). The Kings River Experimental Watersheds: Infrastructure and data. Hydrological Processes.
  • Ackerer, J.; Steefel, C.; Liu, F.; Ryan Bart, R.R.; Safeeq, M.; O'Geen, A.; Carolyn Hunsaker, C.; and Bales, R. (2020). Determining How Critical Zone Structure Constrains Hydrogeochemical Behavior of Watersheds: Learning From an Elevation Gradient in California's Sierra Nevada. Front. Water. 2:23. 8/21/2020.
  • Safeeq, M.; Grant, G.E.; Lewis, S.L.; Hayes, S.K. (2020). Disentangling effects of forest harvest on long-term hydrologic and sediment dynamics, western Cascades, Oregon. Journal of Hydrology. 124259. 10/22/2019.
  • Bart, R.R.; Safeeq, M.; Wagenbrenner, J.W.; C., and Hunsaker (2020). Do fuel treatments decrease forest mortality or increase streamflow? A case study from the Sierra Nevada (USA). Ecohydrology. 9/17/2020.
  • Wlostowski, N. A.; Molotch, N.; Anderson, P. S.; Brantley, S.; Chorover, J.; Dralle, D.; Kumar, P.; Li, L.; Lohse, K.; Mallard, M. J.; McIntosh, C. J.; Murphy, F. S.; Parrish, E.; Safeeq, M.; Seyfried, M.; Shi, Y.; and Harman, C. (2020). Signatures of Hydrologic Function Across the Critical Zone Observatory Network. Water Resources Research. WRCR24937. 10/18/2020.
  • Haig, S. M.; Murphy, S. P.; Matthews, J. H.; Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M. (2019). "Climate-Altered Wetlands Challenge Waterbird Use and Migratory Connectivity in Arid Landscapes." Scientific Reports 9
  • Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Deinhart, A.; Bibby, R.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M.; Esser, B.; Van der Velde, Y. (2019). "Cosmogenic Isotopes Unravel the Hydrochronology and Water Storage Dynamics of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone." Water Resources Research 55(2): 1429-1450.
  • Fan, Y.; Clark, M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Swenson, S.; Band, L. E.; Brantley, S. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Dietrich, W. E.; Flores, A.; Grant, G.; Kirchner, J. W.; Mackay, D. S.; McDonnell, J. J.; Milly, P. C. D.; Sullivan, P. L.; Tague, C.; Ajami, H.; Chaney, N.; Hartmann, A.; Hazenberg, P.; McNamara, J.; Pelletier, J.; Perket, J.; Rouholahnejad-Freund, E.; Wagener, T.; Zeng, X.; Beighley, E.; Buzan, J.; Huang, M.; Livneh, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; Nijssen, B.; Safeeq, M.; Shen, C.; van Verseveld, W.; Volk, J.; Yamazaki, D. (2019). "Hillslope Hydrology in Global Change Research and Earth System Modeling." Water Resources Research 55(2): 1737-1772.
  • Awal, R.; Safeeq, M.; Abbas, F.; Fares, S.; Deb, S. K.; Ahmad, A.; Fares, A (2019). Soil Physical Properties Spatial Variability under Long-Term No-Tillage Corn. Agronomy. 9:11, 750. 11/13/2019.
  • Flitcroft, R.; Lewis, S.; Arismendi, I.; Davis, C.; Giannico, G.; Penaluna, B.; Santelmann, M.; Safeeq, M.; Snyder, J. (2019). "Using expressed behaviour of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to evaluate the vulnerability of upriver migrants under future hydrological regimes: Management implications and conservation planning." Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29(7): 1083-1094.
  • Clifton, C.F.; Luce, C.H.; Grant, G.E.; Safeeq, M.; Halofsky, J.E.; Staab, B.P. (2018). Effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the Blue Mountains, Oregon, USA. Climate Services. 10, 9-19.
  • Bales, R. C.; Goulden, M. L.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Conklin, M. H.; Hartsough, P. C.; O'Geen, A. T.; Hopmans, J. W.; Safeeq, M. (2018). "Mechanisms controlling the impact of multi-year drought on mountain hydrology." Scientific Reports 8
  • Black, B. A.; van der Sleen, P.; Di Lorenzo, E.; Griffin, D.; Sydeman, W. J.; Dunham, J. B.; Rykaczewski, R. R.; Garcia-Reyes, M.; Safeeq, M.; Arismendi, I.; Bograd, S. J. (2018). "Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems." Global Change Biology 24(6): 2305-2314.
  • O'Geen, A.; Safeeq, M.; Wagenbrenner, J.; Stacy, E.; Hartsough, P.; Devine, S.; Tian, Z. Y.; Ferrell, R.; Goulden, M.; Hopmans, J. W.; Bales, R. (2018). "Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory and Kings River Experimental Watersheds: A Synthesis of Measurements, New Insights, and Future Directions." Vadose Zone Journal 17(1)
  • Bales, R.; Stacy, E.; Safeeq, M.; Meng, X. D.; Meadows, M.; Oroza, C.; Conklin, M.; Glaser, S.; Wagenbrenner, J. (2018). "Spatially distributed water-balance and meteorological data from the rain-snow transition, southern Sierra Nevada, California." Earth System Science Data 10(4): 1795-1805.
  • Saksa, P.; Safeeq, M.; Dymond, S. (2017). "Recent Patterns in Climate, Vegetation, and Forest Water Use in California Montane Watersheds." Forests 8(8)
  • Danner, A. G.; Safeeq, M.; Grant, G. E.; Wickham, C.; Tullos, D.; Santelmann, M. V. (2017). "Scenario-Based and Scenario-Neutral Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Operational Performance of a Multipurpose Reservoir." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 53(6): 1467-1482.
  • Klos, P. Z.; Goulden, M. L.; Riebe, C. S.; Tague, C. L.; O'Geen, A. T.; Flinchum, B. A.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M. H.; Hart, S. C.; Berhe, A. A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Holbrook, W. S.; Bales, R. C. (2017). "Subsurface plant-accessible water in mountain ecosystems with a Mediterranean climate." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Water 5(3)
  • Safeeq, M.; Hunsaker, C.T. (2016). Characterizing Runoff and Water Yield from Headwater Catchments in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Journal of American Water Resources Association. 52:6, 1327-1346.
  • Safeeq, M.; Fares, A. (2016). "Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in Relation to Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Changes." Emerging Issues in Groundwater Resources: 289-326.
  • Safeeq, M.; Shukla, S.; Arismendi, I.; Grant, G. E.; Lewis, S. L.; Nolin, A. (2016). "Influence of winter season climate variability on snow-precipitation ratio in the western United States." International Journal of Climatology 36(9): 3175-3190.
  • Flitcroft, R. L.; Lewis, S. L.; Arismendi, I.; LovellFord, R.; Santelmann, M. V.; Safeeq, M.; Grant, G. (2016). "Linking Hydroclimate to Fish Phenology and Habitat Use with Ichthyographs." PLoS One 11(12)
  • Fares, A.; Safeeq, M.; Awal, R.; Fares, S.; Dogan, A. (2016). "Temperature and Probe-to-Probe Variability Effects on the Performance of Capacitance Soil Moisture Sensors in an Oxisol." Vadose Zone Journal 15(3)
  • Cooper, M. G.; Nolin, A. W.; Safeeq, M. (2016). "Testing the recent snow drought as an analog for climate warming sensitivity of Cascades snowpacks." Environmental Research Letters 11(8)
  • Penaluna, B. E.; Dunham, J. B.; Railsback, S. F.; Arismendi, I.; Johnson, S. L.; Bilby, R. E.; Safeeq, M.; Skaugset, A. E. (2015). "Local Variability Mediates Vulnerability of Trout Populations to Land Use and Climate Change." Plos One 10(8)
  • Safeeq, M.; Grant, G. E.; Lewis, S. L.; Staab, B. (2015). "Predicting landscape sensitivity to present and future floods in the Pacific Northwest, USA." Hydrological Processes 29(26): 5337-5353.
  • Shukla, S.; Safeeq, M.; AghaKouchak, A.; Guan, K.; Funk, C. (2015). "Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California." Geophysical Research Letters 42(11): 4384-4393.
  • Safeeq, M.; Grant, G. E.; Lewis, S. L.; Kramer, M. G.; Staab, B. (2014). "A hydrogeologic framework for characterizing summer streamflow sensitivity to climate warming in the Pacific Northwest, USA." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18(9): 3693-3710.
  • Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M.; Dunham, J. B.; Johnson, S. L. (2014). "Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?" Environmental Research Letters 9(8)
  • Abbas, F.; Ahmad, A.; Safeeq, M.; Ali, S.; Saleem, F.; Hammad, H. M.; Farhad, W. (2014). "Changes in precipitation extremes over arid to semiarid and subhumid Punjab, Pakistan." Theoretical and Applied Climatology 116(3-4): 671-680.
  • Safeeq, M.; Mauger, G. S.; Grant, G. E.; Arismendi, I.; Hamlet, A. F.; Lee, S. Y. (2014). "Comparing Large-Scale Hydrological Model Predictions with Observed Streamflow in the Pacific Northwest: Effects of Climate and Groundwater." Journal of Hydrometeorology 15(6): 2501-2521.
  • Safeeq, M.; Fares, A. (2014). "Interception losses in three non-native Hawaiian forest stands." Hydrological Processes 28(2): 237-254.
  • Ahmad, A.; Fares, A.; Hue, N. V.; Safeeq, M.; Radovich, T.; Abbas, F.; Ibrahim, M. (2014). "ROOT DISTRIBUTION OF SWEET CORN (Zea mays) AS AFFECTED BY MANURE TYPES, RATES AND FREQUENCY OF APPLICATIONS." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24(2): 592-599.
  • Safeeq, M.; Grant, G. E.; Lewis, S. L.; Tague, C. L. (2013). "Coupling snowpack and groundwater dynamics to interpret historical streamflow trends in the western United States." Hydrological Processes 27(5): 655-668.
  • Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M.; Johnson, S. L.; Dunham, J. B.; Haggerty, R. (2013). "Increasing synchrony of high temperature and low flow in western North American streams: double trouble for coldwater biota?" Hydrobiologia 712(1): 61-70.
  • Safeeq, M.; Fares, A. (2012). "Hydrologic effect of groundwater development in a small mountainous tropical watershed." Journal of Hydrology 428: 51-67.
  • Safeeq, M.; Fares, A. (2012). "Hydrologic response of a Hawaiian watershed to future climate change scenarios." Hydrological Processes 26(18): 2745-2764.
  • Safeeq, M.; Mair, A.; Fares, A. (2012). "Temporal and spatial trends in air temperature on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii." International Journal of Climatology 33(13): 2816-2835.
  • Safeeq, M.; Fares, A. (2011). "Accuracy evaluation of ClimGen weather generator and daily to hourly disaggregation methods in tropical conditions." Theoretical and Applied Climatology 106(3-4): 321-341.
  • Fares, A.; Safeeq, M.; Kimoto, A.; Dogan, A. (2010). Use of buffers to reduce nitrogen transport to water bodies. Advances in Nitrogen Management for Water Quality.J. Delgado and R. Follett. Ankeny, IA, Soil and Water Conservation Society. 282-313.
  • Fares, A.; Safeeq, M.; Jenkins, D. M. (2009). "Adjusting Temperature and Salinity Effects on Single Capacitance Sensors." Pedosphere 19(5): 588-596.
  • Garg, K. K.; Das, B. S.; Safeeq, M.; Bhadoria, P. B. S. (2009). "Measurement and modeling of soil water regime in a lowland paddy field showing preferential transport." Agricultural Water Management 96(12): 1705-1714.
  • Fares, A.; Abbas, F.; Ahmad, A.; Deenik, J. L.; Safeeq, M. (2008). "Response of selected soil physical and hydrologic properties to manure amendment rates, levels, and types." Soil Science 173(8): 522-533.

Non-Peer Reviewed

  • Lugg, J.; Safeeq, M. (2020). Mitigating the Lasting Effects of Wildfire. Tulare Basin Watershed Partnership Network eNewsletter. Fall 2020. 11/18/2020. https://www.tularebasinwatershedpartnership.org/
  • Hunsaker, C.T.; Safeeq, M. (2018). Kings River Experimental Watersheds meteorology data. Forest Service Research Data Archive. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2018-0028
  • Clifton, C.F.; Day, K.T.; Dello, K.; Grant, G.E.; Halofsky, J.E.; Isaak, D.J.; Luce, C.H.; Safeeq, M.; Staab, B.P.; Stevenson, J. (2017). Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the Blue Mountains. In Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in the Blue Mountains Region.J. Halofsky and D. Peterson. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-939. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific. 331.
  • Hunsaker, C.T.; Safeeq, M. (2017). Kings River Experimental Watersheds stream discharge. Forest Service Research Data Archive. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2017-0037
  • Watts, A.; Grant, G.; Safeeq, M. (2016). Flows of the Future—How Will Climate Change Affect Streamflows in the Pacific Northwest? Science Findings. USDA Forest Service, Portland Oregon. 187. http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/sciencef/scifi187.pdf
  • Fares, A.; Safeeq, M.; Jenkins, D.M. (2006). Temperature Dependent Scaled Voltage to Improve the Performance of Single Capacitance Sensors. ASABE Annual Meeting Proceeding. Portland, Oregon. 062121. https://elibrary.asabe.org/abstract.asp?aid=20712

ANR Workgroup Associations

Return to Home Page