"Trees should be firmly staked at planting"
MYTH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Read on:
Chalker-Scott, L. , Extension Specialist And Associate Professor, Washington State University
Downer, A.J., Farm Advisor, University of California
Nursery-grown shade trees are often rigidly staked to prevent blowdown and damage during cultivation. In some cases, trees are pruned to a long, untapered standard with a bushy top that requires a tight stake to hold it up. Nurseries often remove side branches from the young trunk and while this creates the illusion of a small tree, the practice actually inhibits the development of taper in the trunk (Harris, 1984; Neel and Harris, 1971). Trees without taper will not stand without staking. Poor culture of ornamental trees in nurseries necessitates staking once trees are planted into landscapes because they do not have the structural development in their trunks to stand on their own. Due to these cultivation errors, landscape installers frequently keep the nursery stake and add more stakes to firmly secure the tree in place and further prevent its movement in the landscape.
Staking takes three basic forms: rigid staking, guying, and anchoring. All methods of staking reduce development of taper, increase height growth, and decrease caliper of the developing tree relative to unstaked trees (Figure 7). Moreover, improper staking can result in increased tree breakage either during the staking period or after staking is removed (Figure 8a-b) (Thacker et al., 2018).
Decades ago, researchers discovered that movement of the trunk and branches is necessary for the development of trunk taper (Neel and Harris, 1971). Trees grown in a growth chamber without movement did not develop taper and instead grew taller, while trees in an identical chamber that were hand shaken each day developed significant taper and remained shorter.
Until trees are established in landscapes they may require some staking. In areas of high wind, guying (which involves cables staked to the ground) gives the greatest protection against main stem breakage or blowover (Alvey et al., 2009). Whatever system is used, any such hardware should be removed as soon as the tree can stand on its own:
- The traditional two stakes and ties system is the least harmful to trees staked in landscapes.
- Staking should be low and loose to allow trunk taper to develop naturally.
- Remove all staking material as soon as possible.
If a tree is not established after a year of staking, it is unlikely to ever establish
- Author: Dani Lightle
This article first appeared in Sacramento Valley Orchard Source
Missing the Target: Why you Should Irrigate Potted Trees Directly onto Potting Media
Why Emitters Should be Placed on the Root Ball at Planting
Dani Lightle, UCCE Orchards Advisor, Glenn Butte & Tehama Counties
N.B. potted trees are standard commercial container grown citrus and avocado trees
Generally, when I am working with growers on a problem related to potted-tree establishment, the cause is lack of water movement into the potted media, creating tree stress. This results from the difference in soil particle size at the boundary between the orchard soil and the tree's potting soil. When you plant a potted tree in your orchard, it has a substrate – some mix of peat and vermiculite – that is very different than your soil type. The change in texture and pore size inhibits water movement from the surrounding soil into the potting media. As a result, Irrigation water applied outside the potted soil media isn't getting to the roots.
The sequence of photos in Figure 1 demonstrates this phenomenon. I set up a mock orchard condition with soil (Tehama series silty loam) next to a potted tree (potting soil) in a ½ inch wide frame. I then slowly added water to match the soil infiltration rate, similar to a drip emitter, approximately 4 inches away from the potting soil in the ‘orchard' soil.
You will see that the water does not move into the potting soil (Figure 1C & D). Two forces – gravitational pull and capillary action – move water downward and laterally in the soil. Since the potting soil is not below the orchard soil, gravity does not move water into the potting soil. Capillary action is not strong enough to move water into the potting soil because the difference in pore size is too great. So, irrigation water goes where it can easily flow – downwards and laterally into dry, native soil but not into the potting soil. More water does not solve the problem, it will just move past your newly planted trees and wet more native soil.
For about the first month of growth, irrigation emitters should be located at the base of the potted tree to ensure the potting medium receives water. Frequently check to ensure that the potting soil stays wet – not the soil somewhere else in the tree row or mound – before, after, and between irrigation sets. The best way to do this is with a small trowel and your hands. Water will need to be applied at the base of the tree until the tree roots grow beyond the potting soil and into your orchard's native soil. The time required for this to happen will vary depending on factors such as temperature, but it should take roughly a month.
Figure 1. This sequence of photos shows the movement of water applied to Tehama series silty-loam soil. Water was applied at the blue arrow, approximately 4 inches from the potting soil. Total elapsed time was 51 minutes. Water moved downwards and laterally but did not cross the boundary into the potting soil.
A recent letter which followed a farm visit to another grower and finally a phone call about planting an avocado tree from another grower. The basics of planting are often overlooked and we should revisit them to make sure we know how to do the basics.
I am going to plant some avocado trees on a slope. I will be drilling a hole with an 18 inch auger about three feet deep.
I have lots of wood chips from avocado trimmings. Should I mix some avocado wood chips with the soil to insure good drainage when I plant the new trees?
Or should I mix in some compost to help good drainage? Some areas here have poor drainage because of clay soil.
DO NOT put anything in the planting hole. It makes drainage worse. And if its not fresh the decomposing gases will kill the roots. And gradually over time, the organic matter decomposes and the tree sinks deeper into the ground, covering the graft union and the tree dies. I[m glad you asked. Someone is spreading the word that this is how to plant. It's a disaster if you do this. DON'T. You think you are doing everything right, but it is wrong. There's physics and biology involved and a good horticulturist knows better because of experience. Mulch applied to the soil surface is not the same as organic matter – planting mix put in the hole.
And watch out for the auger. Especially in heavy soils, the auger can seal the sides of the hole, making an impenetrable surface to the roots. The sides need to be scrapped or scratched to make sure the seal hasn't been created. And don't go 3 feet deep. Go to the depth of the planting sleeve. When you go deeper, the refill soil will compact and the root ball sinks, burying the crown.
From the UCR Avocado website:
The avocado is a shallow rooted tree (most of the feeder roots are in the top 6" of soil) which needs good aeration. They do well if mulched with a coarse yard mulch. Current recommendation is to put approx 1/3 cu yd per tree when planting. When applying the mulch, be sure to stay about 6-8 inches away from the trunk of the tree. They like the soil pH around 6 - 6.5. If you can, plant your tree in a spot protected from wind and frost. Also, avocado trees typically do not do well planted in lawns so try to plant your tree in a non-lawn area.
- When should I plant my avocado tree? Avocado trees like warm ground. Ideally, they should go into the ground from March through June. If they go in during the summer there is always the risk of sun damage because the trees can't take up water very well when young.
- How big a hole should I dig? As deep as the current root ball and just as wide as the width plus a little extra so you can get your hands into the hole to plant it. Don't drop the tree into the hole, the roots don't like that, ease it into the hole. The avocado root system is very sensitive and great care should be taken not to disturb the root system when transplanting. If the tree is root bound, however, loosen up the soil around the edges and clip the roots that are going in circles.
- Should I put some gravel, crushed rock or planting mix at the bottom of the hole? No. Do not put gravel or anything else like planting media in the hole. The sooner the roots get out into the bulk soil, the better the tree will do. Planting mix creates a textural difference between the root ball and the bulk soil and causes water movement problems. Remember, there are 5 million acres of tree crops in California planted without planting mix.
- I have a heavy clay soil. Should I elevate the tree in a mound for better drainage? Yes, good idea. Make the mound 1 to 2 feet high and 3 to 5 feet around. Put down 20 pounds of gypsum spread around the base of the tree and mulch the area with 6 inches of woody mulch keeping the material about 6-8 inches away from the tree trunk.
- What do you mean by a "coarse yard mulch" and where can I get some? Redwood bark will work and maybe cocoa bean husks and shredded tree bark. Need something that is woody and about 2 inches in diameter. Coarse yard mulch is available at some garden supply centers. Be sure it is COARSE, not fine, yard mulch - and disease-free to prevent introducing diseases to your tree (like root rot). Another source of coarse mulch would be a tree trimming operation, like Asplundh or Davy. They usually have material that has been pruned from the tops of trees and doesn't contain any diseased roots. Just go through the yellow pages looking for tree services.
These directions hold true of all trees, citrus, avocado, mango..............And for a nice discussion of avocado planting and root rot, go to:
So I got an email with an attached set of photos showing a number of 18 month avocado trees that had broken at the ground line in a wind storm. It looked something like an incompatibility between scion and rootstock, since below the graft union the rootstock girth was substantially smaller than the scion. The problem is, I'd never heard of this between ‘Hass' and ‘Dusa' and the combination has been around for at least 15 years in trials.
So it was time to go out to the orchard and see the setting in which the trees had failed. And there was the answer. All of the trees had been planted too deeply. The trunk sleeves had been buried and the graft union was below grade and had been infected by disease organisms. The crown roots are the most active physiologically and that union area is a weak spot. Burying it encourages disease and a weak union.
The trees had been planted with an auger and over time the trees had settled into the soft earth and had been buried. The first time I had ever seen something like this was in Guatemala and Costa Rica. There growers had created these massive 3 x 3 X 3 foot holes and amended them 50% with compost. And over time, the trees had settled as the compost decomposed and the unions were covered with dirt. Occasionally you see people moving too fast when they are planting and this shows up in a few trees, not usually a whole orchard.
The lesson here, is that if you are going to err on plant depth, plant high. A few exposed roots won't hurt, and the settling problem doesn't become a problem. Of course it's best to plant just right.
The Buried Avocado Graft Union
I am amazed how such a simple procedure can go so wrong. For avocado and citrus growers, it’s time to think about planting in the spring. And every spring and summer I get called out to diagnose trees that are failing. It often turns out that the trees have been planted too deeply. There are various ways of killing a tree, such as digging a hole too deeply and then backfilling. When the ground settles, it settles around the root collar and the tree suffocates. Or installing a dry root ball and then not irrigating soon enough. Or adding fertilizer to the planting hole which burns the roots. One of the major problems of lack education and supervision of the planting crew. Don’t assume that everyone knows how to plant a tree.
Deep planting can result in death of woody plants either because they rot in moisture saturated soils or they dry out. In either case, the symptoms are similar: wilting, sunscald or burnt leaves, lack of growth, leaf drop and eventual death of leaves, shoots and branches. Root balls planted below grade cause several problems at establishment. Since native soil surrounds the ball, there is an immediate problem with and interface between the two soil textures. Most container media are lighter than bulk soil, which is done to make sure there is adequate drainage in the nurse. When these soil-free media are planted in soil which is of a heavier texture, the interface does not allow the water to enter the root ball.
When trees are planted too deeply, they are much more subject to fungal cankers and other pathogens that can girdle the stem, killing it and all above ground parts. Planting slightly higher than grade will prevent this. Just look for the color, textural change between the roots and stem and dig the hole no deeper than the root ball to prevent settling. Newly planted trees can’t draw water from bulk soil, not until the roots move out into the soil will they be able to absorb water. Also planting cannot be rushed, because that’s when errors in planting occur.