- Author: Chris McDonald
reposted from: https://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=41400
Stinknet (Oncosiphon piluliferum, aka globe chamomile) is a winter annual that is spreading across Southern California and poses threats to wildlands, rangelands and agricultural areas. Stinknet was first found in western Riverside County in the early 1980's. It slowly spread to surrounding areas and by the late 1990's it was found in over a half dozen locations in Riverside and San Diego Counties. By this time, it had also spread to Phoenix. While stinknet has not been one of the fastest weeds to spread across the state (stinkwort, Dittrichia graveolens, is definitely a top contender for that spot, see here) it is now currently found in every county in Southern California (except Imperial, yet) with the largest infestations in Riverside and San Diego Counties. Stinknet continues to spread north across Los Angeles, the central valley and coast, and east across Arizona, it was also recently found in Las Vegas.
Stinknet is easiest to identify when in flower. At flowering, it grows from several inches to 3 feet tall.
Stinknet in full flower (Image credit: Chris McDonald)
A closeup of stinknet flowers (Image Credit: Chris McDonald)
Stinknet is closely related to the pineapple weeds (Matricaria spp., see here) and brass buttons (Cotula spp. see here and here), and resembles those more common weeds. The main difference is the flower of stinknet is very round, like a globe, (see above) while the flowers of pineapple weed and brass buttons tend to be slightly conical to half a sphere.
Brass buttons (Cotula coronopifilia Image credit: Carol Witham)
Pineapple weed and brass buttons also tend to grow more along the ground, and stinknet grows upright. Another diagnostic feature is that stinknet stinks. All plant parts have an unpleasant turpentine, pine or tar-like smell, and even very small plants have this smell. You can even smell the odor of a large field of stinknet when you are near a very large infestation.
Successful Control Options
Stinknet can be controlled with several herbicides that can be used in wildlands. Milestone (aminopyralid), Capstone (aminopyralid and triclopyr) and glyphosate are all highly effective at controlling stinknet, but only before the plants have flowered. Often if herbicides are applied after flowering, stinknet can finish flowering before the herbicides have killed the plant. Milestone and Capstone also provide season-long control of stinknet with suppression lasting up to and in some cases beyond 12 months. Several researchers, including myself, are working on other control measures and understanding its biology to better help managers control stinknet. Those projects should wrap up in the next year or two.
What doesn't work well at controlling stinknet?
Telar XP (chlorsulfuron) was not effective at controlling stinknet in Southern California. Transline (clopyralid) was inconsistent at controlling stinknet. Transline had shown promise of effective control in relatively dry years, but in other more wet years the treated plants were able to grow out of the treatment. Mechanical removal (mowing or string trimmers) has shown to be of limited effectiveness, mostly because the cut plants resprout and flower closer to the ground. Multiple cuttings close to the ground alleviate this problem and can provide good control, but a simple single cutting is not very effective. Stinkent can grow in dense patches so hand pulling will only work on a very small scale, and multiple sessions are needed. Stinknet is not palatable to livestock, so grazing will not be an effective management strategy and can make the problem worse.
Threats to California Agriculture
In Western Australia, stinknet is a problem weed in small grain crops. In both South Africa (the home range of stinknet) and Austrailia stinknet is a problem weed in rangelands too. This is because stinknet is unpalatable to many livestock. While stinknet is not currently known to be toxic, there are reports it can taint the meat and milk from those animals. If the patterns in Australia and South Africa hold in the US (and so far in a few observed cases it appears to be similar) and if stinknet continues to spread into rangelands and agricultural areas in California, then it will cause problems.
Right now, the best way to keep stinknet from spreading locally in California is to identify early infestations and rapidly respond to those initial infestations. This strategy is called early detection and rapid response (EDRR). Fortunately, the largest stinknet populations are found in only a few locations in Riverside, San Bernardino and San Diego Counties. However, numerous small populations occur across Southern California. I have also noticed that very few stinknet patches decline in size, once stinknet colonizes a site it tends to expand, or even hold its ground during a drought. The areas with the earliest known stinknet populations, in both California and Arizona, now have large, very high-density patches. Those patches can be over a dozen and up to hundreds of acres in extent. Stinknet appears to be a strong competitor especially in disturbed areas, but also in undisturbed wildlands too, and can quickly become the dominant plant. It does this by creating numerous small patches and as those patches grow, they form large blankets carpeting acres or long strips along roads and trails. Stopping those small stinknet patches can prevent them from turning into large infestations.
More information on stinknet will be available as our research progresses and we learn more about its biology, spread and controlling it.
- Author: GAle Perez
Here's part 3 of our training videos: Weed Identification. We've broken it up into three smaller parts for easier viewing.
- Author: Gale Perez
Here are training videos on Weed Control Techniques. You may see a few familiar faces.
- Weed control techniques
- Author: Travis Bean
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside
Proper weed management is important for several reason, but in general younger orchards are much more susceptible to the negative impacts of weed overgrowth. The full canopies of mature orchards limit the amount of sunlight reaching the orchard floor, which suppresses the growth of many weed species. Younger trees also have less extensive rooting systems, putting them into direct competition with weeds for water and nutrients. The presence of weeds provides habitat for insects, pathogens, and rodents, which can affect trees of all ages through direct damage to vascular tissue and foliage, and as disease vectors. Rank growth of weeds also visually obscures irrigation infrastructure and signage, and in some cases even field roads. Weeds can also limit mobility of laborers during harvest, and snag on ladders, which is a safety hazard for workers. Frost damage is more likely in orchards with weed overgrowth because there is less transfer of heat from the sun to the soil surface and lowers the amount of heat that will radiate back into the air during the night. Further, weeds are a primary source of fuel for fires. Weed management can be broken down into four phases that correspond to different life stages of the citrus orchard: 1) best practices before the trees go in the ground, 2) best practices for young orchards, 3) best practices for established orchards, and 4) monitoring or scouting which is ongoing throughout the life of the orchard. Each of these phases or scenarios has a different set of challenges and somewhat distinct set of management opportunities and constraints.
Monitoring is critical in identifying how effective management practices are, is helpful in identifying what practices may be having unintended consequences (increasing a particularly problematic weed species for example), and provides clues for what can be done differently to achieve more satisfactory results. The first step in effective management is to know what weed species are present, their relative abundance, and where they're located (more on weed id later). This is important because different weed species have different tolerances and susceptibilities to herbicides and other control methods, and knowing where they appear in an orchard in a given year is a good predictor of where they may occur in the future. Keeping accurate records of weed species and locations and reviewing these records periodically will facilitate an adaptive approach when combined with knowledge of past management practices. Under irrigated conditions, weeds can and do germinate, grow, flower, and set seed all year long, but generally the biggest flushes of weed population growth are in the cooler months and warmer months. This is when they will be easiest to detect. However, it is worth noting that this is not necessarily the best time for management – all too often by the time they are noticed, they've reproduced, and in the case of annuals it's too late for control (annuals will die no matter if you kill them or not – what's important is to stop them from setting seed). The University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) offers some useful monitoring forms available online. These forms contain a section to sketch out the locations of weed species, infrastructure, and other landmarks within an orchard, and are already partially filled in with common weed species by season (summer vs. winter). Pay particular attention for the weeds that are most difficult to control: namely perennials (Johnsongrass, bermudagrass, nutsedge, bindweed, etc.) and species with known herbicide resistant populations in California (horseweed, fleabane, Palmer amaranth, junglerice, etc.). Also, limit monitoring to the orchard itself- weed propagule pressure can and will come from off-site, especially from roads and adjacent areas that aren't are not actively managed.
Weed management before planting is the best opportunity to reduce the overall weed seedbank, but more critically it is when the most effective management options are available to remove perennial weed species from the site. In the case of perennials this is also the most economically efficient opportunity for management as any perennial weeds left in place may incur management costs for the life of the orchard for ongoing suppression instead of a one-time cost for removal. This is one of the few times that cultivation won't have negative impacts on crop health and productivity. A useful strategy for perennials with underground storage structures is to repeatedly disc the field every few weeks to bring the roots to the surface and allow them to desiccate in the hot sun (this should take place during the summer months). For an integrated approach, supplement this strategy with a systemic postemergence herbicide, applied in the fall when the plants are preparing for dormancy. This is when weeds will have maximum translocation rates of photosynthate (carbohydrates) from the leaves to the roots. Because systemic postemergence herbicides follow this same path within the plants, this is when the weeds are most susceptible to complete kill from these herbicides. This can be repeated in the spring for regrowth and followed by discing 2-3 weeks later to again expose and dehydrate rhizomes. Once irrigation infrastructure is in place, another strategy is to irrigate to “flush” the weed seedbank. For annual species a burndown herbicide application can be used to kill emerging weeds – important to time this properly to catch the two main cohorts of annuals (cool- and warm-season germinators), so plan to repeat at least twice in one year. For perennials a systemic postemergence herbicide may work better, especially if they are not sprayed very soon after emergence when they are susceptible to contact herbicides. Repeat multiple times to greatly reduce weed seed load on site and minimize future management requirements. Additionally, properly timed preemergence applications can further deplete the weed seedbank by killing plants as they germinate in the spring or late summer/early fall. Any weeds that survive should be spot-treated with herbicide or hand rogued.
Once young trees are in the ground, it's important to minimize root disturbance, especially close to the trunks of the trees. This means more reliance on chemical control, but also keep in mind that the trees are also more susceptible to injury from herbicides at this stage from roots and foliage. The bark is also less lignified and herbicide is more easily taken up through this route than on older trees. Protect with wrappers and/or use a spray shield when applying herbicide to minimize potential damage from drift. Because roots are more sensitive to herbicide uptake it is important to select preemergence herbicide products that are labeled as safe for young trees. Postemergence herbicide options are 1) contact herbicides (includes all of the organic products), 2) systemic herbicides that are selective for grass species, and 3) glyphosate. Contact herbicides are only effective when applied to young plants below a certain height (this varies by product so refer to the label, but always better to catch them sooner than later), and are less effective on perennials than annuals. Grass herbicides, although systemic, are most effective on annual grasses, but will kill certain perennial grass seedlings below 4-6 inches in height.
Cultivation should be avoided whenever possible. Several studies demonstrate the negative impact of cultivation in citrus. These include but are not limited to damage to feeder roots, which impacts the trees ability to collect soil resources (nutrients, water, oxygen); increasing exposure to soil pathogens which can enter the vascular system of the tree through damaged tissue; and increased risk of soil erosion, especially in sloped orchards. Further, the additional passes with a tractor can contribute to compaction, especially in finer textured soils, which limits tree root growth and ability to uptake soil resources. Dust generated from cultivation practices can reduce the effectiveness of biocontrol of insects and mites, and also buries organic matter in the soil, providing a food source for certain insect pests. Cultivation also risks spreading root fragments of perennial weed species throughout the field and making weed problems worse.
A robust preemergence herbicide program can be helpful in managing orchard weeds, but preemergence herbicide efficacy and safety can be greatly modulated by several factors. Finer soil texture can bind up certain herbicides, making them less effective. Herbicides can quickly move beyond zone of seed germination in coarse soils, also making them less effective. Soil pH, especially in CA, can be high (alkaline) when calcium carbonate (aka caliche) is present in the soil, causing increased carryover or herbicide persistence and potential for injury. Knowledge of orchard soil characteristics and a careful review of the herbicide product label are critical in avoiding unintended crop injury. Many product labels will contain special precautions or rate modifications for specific soil characteristics or weather conditions. Herbicides are also broken down by sunlight on the soil surface if not immediately incorporated via rainfall or irrigation. Under prolonged moist soil conditions, certain herbicides are more quickly broken down by soil microbes, and are also moved out of the zone of seed germination. If permitted by the product label (limited by recommended application rate, max rate per year ,and pre harvest interval), sequential applications can be made to extend control.
Contact herbicides are not translocated within the weed's vascular system, they require more complete coverage as they only kill the parts they come in direct contact with. This is less of an issue for annuals (always attempt to target annuals before they set seed) but a drawback of contact herbicides is that they are much less effective at controlling perennial weeds unless applied to newly emerged seedlings. Suppression of perennials (not mortality) will likely require multiple applications of a contact herbicide. A positive aspect of contact herbicides is that their efficacy may be less affected by drought conditions than systemic herbicides.
There are few systemic postemergence herbicide products labeled for citrus. Systemic (translocating) postemergence herbicides don't require as complete coverage as contact herbicides, but they do require active growth and are highly impacted by drought. As always, young, succulent plants are more easily controlled than mature plants with waxy leaf cuticles that impede absorption. For many reasons, glyphosate usage may be restricted in some areas or situations. This is problematic because glyphosate is the only postemergence herbicide option for labeled for control of most perennial weed species in California citrus, especially broadleaves weeds (but many grass species as well). When glyphosate is not available, thorough weed management prior to planting and robust preemergence herbicide programs are even more critical to successful and effective weed management. Other postemergence weed management options include mowing (although this tends to select for more perennial weeds) and hand roguing which can be expensive when weed problems are extensive. Cover crops are another potential option, but more research is needed to help identify appropriate cover crop species, recommended cultural practices for their management in citrus orchards, and their potential positive and negative impacts on orchard productivity.
The first category of problematic weeds in citrus are those species that have known herbicide-resistant populations. This topic is covered more thoroughly in other UC publications, but for the purposes of citrus weed management the three main species of concern are horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis), and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). These species are known to have populations in California with glyphosate resistance. To manage these species 1) use herbicides with multiple modes of action, 2) use full label rate of glyphosate (no “burndown” applications), 3) treat when small, and 4) avoid incomplete control of the targeted population and adjacent populations (ditchbanks, roadsides, etc.).
The second category of problematic weed species are those with tubers, rhizomes, and/or a long-lived seedbank such as nutsedge and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is found throughout California to 3300 ft in elevation. It produces round, smooth tubers about ½ inch in diameter that are usually found in the upper 6 inches of soil, but sometimes much deeper (particularly if buried during cultivation). Yellow nutsedge tubers are only found at the ends of the rhizomes. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) is found mostly in the southern parts of California (Central Valley, South Coast, and Desert to 820 ft in elevation). Tubers are larger than those of yellow nutsedge (about 1 inch), oblong, rough, and scaly, and are chained together at the ends of the rhizomes. Nutsedge is best controlled by eliminating it from the site before planting the orchard (as described earlier), and past this time can be extremely difficult to manage. Young plants can be controlled with glyphosate, but once plants develop more than 5-6 leaves (often called the “FLS” or “five leaf stage”) translocation of carbohydrate from the leaves to the tubers is limited, meaning that only top-kill occurs. Further, yellow and purple nutsedge also do not typically reproduce from seed, meaning that preemergence herbicides are not very effective. Some sulfonyl urea preemergence herbicide products labeled for citrus are effective at controlling nutsedge when applied foliarly (postemergence), though repeated applications are likely necessary for more complete control. Nutsedge tends to dislike shade and is less of a problem once orchards are established and canopies are mature.
Johnsongrass is a rhizomatous perennial grass species with very long-lived seeds that can remain viable in the soil for more than 5 years. Like nutsedge, Johnsongrass is best to control before orchard is planted so that repeated tillage can be utilized that bring rhizomes to the soil surface where they will desiccate and die. This should be done in the summer when the soil is dry. Keep in mind that Johnsongrass can form plants from rhizomes as small as 1 inch long, so cultivation under moist conditions can exacerbate the problem by spreading rhizomes throughout the orchard. Otherwise glyphosate, specifically timed for immediately after plants finish flowering in August and September may be the best control option. This is when the plant will be moving photosynthate into the rhizomes and the herbicide will be more efficiently transported to this structure where it can kill the plant.
The UC Statewide IPM Program has several online resources available for integrated management of weeds in citrus. These include a photo gallery of common citrus weeds to aid in identification, a tutorial on how to identify weed species from common morphological traits (complete with illustrations), a chart of herbicide susceptibility by weed species, and a searchable gallery of herbicide injury photos.
Monitoring forms: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/C107/citrus-summerweeds.pdf
Weed ID and photo gallery: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/weeds_intro.html
Weed species herbicide susceptibility: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/r107700311.html
Herbicide symptoms: http://herbicidesymptoms.ipm.ucanr.edu/
- Author: Ben Faber
TOPICS IN THIS ISSUE – P. Rolshausen, Editor
- Leveraging the Genomic Landscape of Avocado for Breeding Purposes (Vanessa Ashworth and Philippe Rolshausen)
- Fresh Market Raspberry in California (Natalie Solares and Alexander Putman)
- Weed Management in Citrus Orchards (Travis Bean)
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The U.C. Cooperative Extension Farm Advisors have combined to publish this quarterly combined newsletter. It will emphasize citrus and avocado, but will also discuss the minor subtropicals.http://ceventura.ucanr.edu/news/Topics_in_Subtropics/