- Author: Ben Faber
I recently harvested 'GEM' avocados and found that some of the fruit was splitting. The split fruit was just turning from a bright green to one with dark tinges. There were also gobs of snails and slugs on the fruit. I mentioned the cracking fruit to a grower who had been harvesting ‘Hass' fruit and the comment was that their fruit was turning black on the tree and falling. This is way early for ‘Hass' to show this level of maturity.
Several mandarin growers also mention peel breakdown or rind disorder. There can be brown, water-soaked blotches or dark, sunken areas developing on the rind after rainy weather. The fruit matures rapidly, turning orange early. Secondary fungi can then colonize the affected areas. It's more of a problem in northern California where thin-skinned satsumas are grown and there are early rains. But accelerated maturity and fruit/whole plant breakdown can happen on all citrus and many other fruiting plant species.
This is another example of accelerated maturity due to wet roots. The roots need air, like we do, and when they are asphyxiated for even short periods of time, they start signaling the rest of the plant that something is wrong. Prolonged rainy periods or actual ponding conditions will lead to ethylene precursors that start the maturation process – “banana in a bag” effect. This is in spite of many crops being delayed in their maturity because of the cold winter we have had. Drown the roots, and they start responding as if they are choking. They are. In some cases, leaves will droop (epinasty or wilting) and drop, immediately. And then the fruit may drop right away or then just start rapidly maturing/ripening on the tree. Once this process starts, there's no stopping it. Some growers, seeing fruit drop have gone out to start harvests, but then inadvertently gotten their forklifts stuck in the mud. Rain can have its downsides.
- Author: Ben Faber
Why are avocado roots coarse, but dense, while grass roots are a fine mat?
It has long been one of the best kept secrets in the underground world: what determines the variation in form and function of plant roots? An international team of researchers, led by scientists from Wageningen University & Research and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research in Halle-Jena-Leipzig, has revealed the strategies that roots use to invest in their tissues: do-it-yourself or outsourcing. In Science Advances they present a new framework that allows us to understand the variation in form and function in roots. “It felt like discovering a hidden treasure”.
Plants, like many other organisms, follow rules of economics when investing in their tissue. The currency is not money, but carbon and nutrients. This economics gradient flows from ‘live fast, die young' such as the Lathyrus or ginkgo, to ‘slow and steady' as the oak does. This economic theory works well for leaves. It was long assumed that the same principle applied to the roots, but researchers' efforts to deliver proof, failed repeatedly.
Each of us had a piece of the puzzle, but no-one had the whole picture. There it is: You can do it alone, or work together. Plants are just like humans. Liesje Mommer
A new collaboration gradient: an onion outsources
This problem has now been solved using a database of root characteristics of 1781 plant species from around the globe. In addition to the classical ‘fast-slow' gradient, there is a second, independent axis that is essential in understanding the form and function of plant roots. This axis is the ‘operational' gradient for nutrient uptake. It goes from a do-it-yourself strategy with many thin roots, such as followed by the cuckoo flower, to a policy of outsourcing, such as the onion. The onion collaborates intensively with soil fungi, forming a partnership of roots and fungi (mycorrhiza). “Roots that work together with fungi must make room for an 'exchange counter' - sugars go from the plant to the fungi and nutrients go the other way around. That "counter" takes up space in the outer cells of the root, which are therefore thicker than in "do-it-yourselfers", says Prof. Liesje Mommer of Wageningen University & Research. “This new operational axis shows how roots have different ways of functioning.”
Figure: Plant root strategies. Plant roots worldwide vary in their strategy for obtaining nutrients. Do-it-yourselfers have all their equipment on baord. Outsourcers form alliances with soil fungi in exchange for sugars.
This new framework for understanding variations in root characteristics offers recommendations to better understand the way roots work. This insight is useful in future research to predict the subterranean plant response to changing environmental conditions, or to launch new breeding programmes.
Professor Liesje Mommer on how the project was started: “It was a collaboration between renowned researchrs from Europe and the United States, during an inspiring workshop in Leipzig. We knew a treasure was buried underground near the plant roots, and that finding it required collaboration. Each of us had a piece of the puzzle, but no-one had the whole picture. There it is: You can do it alone, or work together. Plants are just like humans.”
- Author: Ben Faber, University of California Cooperative Extension
- Author: Michael Spiers, HortResearch, Ruakura, New Zealand
Biological control of Phytophthora cinnamomi in avocado through the use of mulches was identified by an Australian grower and later described as the "Ashburner Method" by Broadbent and Baker. The technique uses large amounts of organic matter as a mulch along with a source of calcium. Control of avocado root rot in the Ashburner method was attributed to the presence of Pseudomonas bacteria and Actinomycetes. Multiple antagonists are more likely the cause of biological control, since no single organism has been found to be consistently associated with soils suppressive to P. cinnamomi.
The use of organic mulches has multiple effects, such as altered soil nutrient and water status and improved physical structure. Any improvements in plant status resulting from improvements in the growing environment can improve plant health. The effect of organic amendments on soil physical and chemical properties can vary considerably depending on soil texture and the environment. One of the most consistent effects of organic amendments is an increase in biological activity. Increases in organic substrate lead to increased fungal and bacterial populations. In numerous cases, this increase in biomass has been associated with disease suppression. This biological control can be ascribed to several mechanisms: competition, antibiosis, parasitism, predation and induced resistance in the plant.
The microbial biomass is responsible for release of enzyme products and polysaccharides in soils. The microbially-produced enzymes cellulase and glucanase have been demonstrated to have a significant effect on Phytophthora populations. This mechanism of antibiosis is possible because the microbes are releasing these enzymes to solubilize organic matter. Unlike other fungi, Phytophthora have cell walls that are comprised of cellulose and in the process of decomposing organic matter with enzymes, an environment is created that is also hostile to the pathogen.
In order to see if there might be potential differences in organic materials being better at combating avocado root rot, a little field trial was established with 23 different types of materials. The mulch materials were obtained from nearby hedges and chipped or obtained from commercial sources of mulch. Some of these materials would be difficult to get in large amounts, such as manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), but others are commercially available chipped greenwaste. The materials were then spread on the ground to a depth of five inches, in separate plots that were 36 X 36 inch squares. Decomposition was measured over a two year period and then cellulase was measured in the mulch, at the soil / mulch interface and at a two inch depth in the soil at the end of 2 years.
Since cellulase production is part of the decomposition process, the rate of decomposition should be a partial indicator of the amount of cellulase present. After a mulch application there is generally settling due to rainfall-caused compaction, but much of the decline by the second year is due exclusively to decomposition. The more recalcitrant materials, such as bark, wood chips and sawdust have barely lost half their depth after two years, while others such as shredded eucalyptus, manuka, avocado and willow are less than 20% of their initial depth. Much of the shredded/chipped material, such as eucalyptus had a significant fraction of leaves in the mulch. The wool disappeared a little after one year. The greenwaste + chicken manure compost is nearly the same depth as the wood chips, since it is a material that had gone through a decomposition process prior to its application and much of the easily digestible materials had already been decomposed.
The rate of decomposition has some bearing on the rate of cellulase production. Eucalyptus and manuka had the two greatest rates of decomposition and show the highest levels of cellulase production. The cellulase levels were consistent with all the different mulch materials. Using decomposition rate alone is not a complete indicator of cellulase production since, poplar, willow and avocado had high rates of decomposition, but their cellulase rates were half those of manuka and eucalyptus.
It is clear that the cellulase effect is limited to the layer of mulch and not to depth within the soil. There is some effect at the soil surface, but at 5 cm (2 inches) cellulase activity drops to background levels. There is earthworm activity at the test sites and one idea was that earthworm incorporation of organic matter would move the cellulase production into the soil. Maybe with further time this would occur. As it is, when mulches are applied to avocado, the roots tend to proliferate in the mulch, out of the soil where the cellulase activity is the least.
Something to keep in mind is that we do not know what levels of cellulase are necessary to control the root rot fungus. It may be that levels seen with pine bark are more than adequate. Also we have measured cellulase production at only one time in a two-year period and it is quite likely that this is not the best snapshot of what is happening before and after. A further reminder is that cellulase is only one of the many byproducts associated with decomposition and many of the antagonistic properties that are associated with the microbial biomass are not being measured in this trial. Having developed this screening procedure what needs to be done next is to take high, medium and low cellulase producing mulches and challenge the fungus to verify that this is a good way to evaluate mulches.