- (Public Value) UCANR: Safeguarding abundant and healthy food for all Californians
- Author: Michelle Leinfelder-Miles
UC Davis and UC Cooperative Extension will host the UC Dry Bean Field Day on Tuesday, August 15, 2023 from 9:30am to 11:30am. The field day will begin along Bee Biology Road on the UC Davis campus. The agenda is pasted below, and a downloadable version is attached to the bottom of this post. DPR (1.0) and CCA (1.0 Crop Management, 1.0 Pest Management) continuing education credits have been approved. Thanks for your interest, and we hope to see you at the field day!
9:30am Welcome and introductions: Christine Diepenbrock and Antonia Palkovic, UC Davis; Michelle Leinfelder-Miles, UC Cooperative Extension
9:35am How can we further improve lima bean? A project funded by the USDA to improve breeding resources: Paul Gepts, UC Davis
9:50am Walk through and discussion of lima breeding material: Antonia Palkovic and Christine Diepenbrock, UC Davis
10:00am Field diagnostics – bean pest identification and management: Sarah Light, Michelle Leinfelder-Miles, Nick Clark, UC Cooperative Extension
10:30am Travel to Veg Crops location (38.534222, -121.782222)
10:35am Blackeye varietal improvement - update on new pest-resistant varieties: Bao-Lam Huynh, UC Riverside
10:55am Results from round one of “speed breeding”, and testing nutritional alongside agronomic traits in limas: Christine Diepenbrock, UC Davis
11:00am From farm to (robot) stomach: what are the trait profiles of California beans after harvest?: Tayah Bolt, UC Davis
11:05am Screening for drought resilience in common and tepary beans: Matthew Gilbert, Tom Buckley, Troy Magney, Paul Gepts, Chris Wong, Antonia Palkovic, Travis Parker, UC Davis
11:20am Evaluating productivity and quality of cowpea and interspecific common/tepary bean in Davis and Parlier (contrasting temperatures): Sassoum Lo, Jonny Berlingeri, UC Davis
11:25am Developing low-cost phone apps/drone and rover platforms to measure agronomic traits: Earl Ranario, Heesup Yun, Vivian Vuong, UC Davis
11:30am Discussion and evaluation
Kimberly Jane Gibson
Monitoring insect populations in crop fields is important for managing pests and diseases. Sweep nets have been the main tool for this task but new sensor technology is being developed to conduct continuous real-timing monitoring. This summer, the Gepts Lab at UC Davis is hosting 5 such sensors from the Danish start-up company, FaunaPhotonics, in collaboration with Dr. Emily Bick, who earned her Ph.D. in Entomology from UC Davis in 2019 and is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Copenhagen.
These sensors operate by shining LEDs at 2 specific wavelengths into a conically shaped volume of approximately 30 liters extending about 2 meters out from the sensor. As insects fly through the beams, light bounces off of them and is returned to the sensor. From this returning light, 30 different data points are collected including wing-beat frequency, body-size to wing-size ratio, color, and speed. With a trained model, analysis of these data can identify insects by species, sex, age, and mating status. With an untrained model, a cluster analysis can be conducted to determine the overall diversity of the insect population.
Model-training datasets are created by flying pre-identified populations of insects in a black neoprene cage equipped with a sensor. A disadvantage of this technology is that it only monitors flying insects. While most pests and beneficial insects do fly as adults, nymphs and larva do not fly.
The sensors are mounted on posts positioned about half a foot above the crop canopy. Two portable solar panels connected with a car battery enable the sensors to run continuously. While wireless data transfer is possible for live monitoring, the sensors can also store data on memory cards for future study. Each sensor is equipped with a small external weather station which monitors temperature and humidity.
Past studies have used these sensors to study a variety of insects in olives, alfalfa, canola, apples, strawberries, corn, soy, winter wheat and other crops. While only a handful of sensors are currently in existence, one can envision a future in which permanent installations of this technology provide routine monitoring for various crops.
Our California research project with the sensors is focused on monitoring lygus bugs L. hesperus in lima beans. Currently, all five sensors are installed over lima beans. Four are positioned in unsprayed strip plantings of UC 92, UC Haskell, UC Beija Flor, and Henderson Bush respectively. The fifth sensor is located in a sprayed strip planting of UC 92. The collected data will inform our research on the specific mechanisms of Lygus-tolerance in lima bean. We also hope to gain insight into the interactions between Lygus and various beneficial insects that prey on or parasitize Lygus including big-eyed bugs, Geocoris spp., Peristenus relictus, a parasitoid wasp, and minute pirate bugs, Orius spp.
By monitoring insect presence and abundance continuously over the course of a season, these sensors have the potential to provide researchers, plant breeders, and farmers more detailed data than the snapshot measurements provided by sweep nets. Researchers may be able to identify the specific mechanisms of plant tolerance to an insect pest. For example, in my study, the sensor data may reveal differences among lima bean lines in attracting or repelling Lygus; or may reveal which lines more successfully attract beneficial insects. With a better understanding of the specific mechanisms of plant insect tolerance, plant breeders will be able to more successfully select new resistant varieties. The sensors are not yet publicly available but eventually they may be used by farmers to monitor pest populations and make management decisions.
The Gepts Lab will be showcasing these sensors at the UC Davis Dry Bean field day on August 31, 2021. We are mindful of the on-going Covid-19 pandemic and are following safety precautions to keep everyone safe. Therefore, pre-registration for the event is required. There is no registration fee, but the registration survey will help us in the event there is a need for contact tracing. Please visit https://tinyurl.com/ucbean21 to register. This link also provides directions to the dry bean field site. Thank you for your cooperation, and we look forward to seeing you later this month. A full agenda can be found at:http://beans.ucanr.org/?blogpost=50265&blogasset=91063
- Author: Michelle Leinfelder-Miles
- Author: Sarah Light
- Author: Rachael Long
We are eager to host the UC Dry Bean Field Day once again! Please mark your calendars and join us on Tuesday, August 31, 2021 from 9:00am to 11:30am at UC Davis. The field day will feature presentations from UC Davis and UC Cooperative Extension researchers. The agenda is below, and a downloadable version is available at the bottom of this post.
We are mindful of the on-going Covid-19 pandemic and are following safety precautions to keep everyone safe. Therefore, pre-registration for the event is required. There is no registration fee, but the registration survey will help us in the event there is a need for contact tracing. Please visit https://tinyurl.com/ucbean21 to register. Thank you for your cooperation, and we look forward to seeing you later this month.
9:00 am General Introduction, Paul Gepts, UC Davis
9:10 am Improving Both Productivity and Nutritional Quality in Beans, Christine Diepenbrock, UC Davis
9:20 am Garbanzo Drought Tolerance Genetic Study, Claire Spickermann, UC Davis
9:30 am Applying Novel Sensor Technology to Studying Lygus Interactions in Lima Bean, Kimberly Gibson, UC Davis
9:40 am Green cotyledon and Growth Vigor Research, Varma Penmetsa, UC Davis
9:50 am Lima Bean Breeding and Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery, Antonia Palkovic, UC Davis
10:00am Dry Bean Research Update: Seed Treatments, Plant Growth Regulators, USDA Garbanzo Variety Trials, Rachael Long UC Cooperative Extension
10:15am Nitrogen Fertility in Common Beans following Whole Orchard Recycling, Michelle Leinfelder-Miles, UC Cooperative Extension
10:30am Travel to Agronomy Field Headquarters
10:40am Release of New Bean Varieties with Heirloom-like Seed Patterns, BCMV Resistance, and Improved Yields, Travis Parker, UC Davis
10:50am Post-emergence Herbicide Options for Broadleaf Weed Control in Blackeye-beans, Jose Luiz Carvalho de Souza Dias, UC Cooperative Extension
11:00am UC Blackeye Variety Trial Updates, Sarah Light, UC Cooperative Extension and Bao-Lam Huynh, UC Riverside
11:10am Travel to Campbell Tract Field
11:20am Physiological Breeding for Drought Resilience in Common Bean, Tom Buckley, UC Davis
- Author: Rachael Freeman Long
Recently, I received a call about a blackeye bean field in the San Joaquin Valley with a lot of bean pods that did not fill out at the tips (photo). I contacted the UC Riverside blackeye bean breeders Drs. Phil Roberts and Bao Lam Huynh and they shared that this problem is primarily caused by heat, which affects pollen viability and thus fertilization. Here's their response:
It [lack of pod fill] is the typical male-sterility symptom [lack of pollen viability] associated with extreme temperatures (heat or cold). Based on the planting date you gave, we just checked the temperature in Denair, CA [farm location] and noted that it was quite warm (~100) during the flowering time (40-50 days after planting) and recently during the pod filling stage, so heat must have been a main cause. The symptom could also be more severe if water is limiting.
Always be prepared with good irrigation management practices for all crops going into heatwaves, like the one we're having now. The minimum seasonal irrigation needed to produce a blackeye bean crop being managed for full yield from one pod set is 16 to 18 inches. This estimate includes a pre-irrigation of 4-inches, and irrigations of 4-inches when floral buds first appear, and 8 to 10 inches during 5 to 6 weeks of flowering and pod filling. If additional irrigations are needed during the vegetative stage, one could increase the total irrigation requirement to 20 or more inches. Irrigating for a second flush of pods could require an additional 8 to 12 inches of water. Irrigation requirements are further increased by any water required to leach salts or to compensate for an inefficient irrigation system.
Additional water may need to be applied during extreme heat events which drive plant transpiration rates to the limit. Make sure to check the soil moisture in the top 12 to 24 inches of the soil profile and apply additional water if the soil is dry. If in doubt about how much additional water is needed, check the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and make sure to irrigate to replace at least 120% of your daily ETo in your area. The current (mid to late August) daily ETo in the San Joaquin Valley ranges from 0.25 to 0.30 in/day; make sure your applied irrigation replaces 120% of these values.
More information on growing blackeye beans can be found in the publication, UC ANR Blackeye bean production in California, http://beans.ucanr.edu/files/226601.pdf.
- Author: Rachael Freeman Long
- Author: Sarah LIght
Field trials in the Central Valley with two new varieties of blackeye beans, CB74 and CB77, show impressive resistance to cowpea aphids compared to standard CB46, CB5, and CB50 lines. Four varieties of blackeyes including CB46, CB77, CB74, and CB5 were seeded into a blackeye CB50 field, in single lines on 30-inch beds in the Sacramento Valley in May 2020 (Photo 1). By mid-summer, CB50, CB46, and CB5 were heavily infested with aphids (photo 2), whereas CB74 and CB77 were clean (photo 3).
Cowpea aphids are serious insect pests of blackeyes. These aphids can quickly colonize plants and cause injury by direct feeding and injecting toxic saliva into plants, leading to stunted growth or death of plants. Sticky honeydew released by the aphids can stimulate black mold growth on plants, reducing photosynthesis and plant health. Cowpea aphids also vector a number of viral mosaic diseases that can cause serious losses in many crops. Biological control cannot be relied on because natural enemies often appear when cowpea aphid infestations are already high and causing serious damage. Applying pesticides early in the season prevents cowpea aphid infestations but beneficial insects can be destroyed, leading to outbreaks of other insect pests. Thus, the development of cowpea aphid resistant blackeye lines is an important breakthrough in managing this pest.
Blackeye beans, also known as cowpeas, or blackeye peas in southern states, are an important food crop worldwide. In California, about 8,000 acres are grown annually for dry or canned blackeye bean markets. These new blackeye bean lines are being developed by the UC Riverside blackeye breeding program, led by Drs. Phil Roberts and Bao Lam Huynh, with support from the California Dry Bean Advisory Board and the US AID Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Legume Systems Research (formerly Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Grain Legumes). The aphid resistance and other traits have been introgressed into California Blackeye elite backgrounds using natural selection and new molecular markers to expedite the breeding process. Compared to standard varieties, CB74 and CB77 also have more stable yields resulting from heat tolerance, better tolerance to lygus bugs, and equivalent resistance to Fusarium wilt and root-knot nematodes.
Blackeye variety observation trials are being conducted in fields by UCCE Farm Advisors Rachael Long, Sarah Light, and Nick Clark in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, in collaboration with local farmers. More information on blackeye beans can be found in the Blackeye bean production manual for California, UC ANR 21518, http://beans.ucanr.edu/files/226601.pdf. The lead UC bean breeders hope to have these lines available to farmers within the next few years.