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Weed control, management, ecology, and minutia
Comments:
by Yash
on May 4, 2016 at 5:42 AM
Do you have any idea about current demand or production of Glufosinate ammonium across the globe
Reply by Brad Hanson
on May 4, 2016 at 7:59 AM
Hi Yash.  
Sorry, we don't really have access to those kind of market and production data. That falls more in the business realm vs the science realm of the pest control world.  
Brad
by Yash
on June 14, 2016 at 5:43 AM
Hi Brad,  
It will be helpful if you can tell what are the raw materials that are used in the production of glufosinate ammonium i.e. active ingredient that are used in the herbicide formulation.
Reply by Brad Hanson
on June 14, 2016 at 8:21 AM
Yash - The active (herbicidal) ingredient is glufosinate-ammonium. The list of raw materials and co-formulants is a question for a formulation chemist and, I would assume, proprietary information.
by Yash
on June 14, 2016 at 9:38 PM
Brad, I'm asking about raw materials required for the production of active ingredient i.e. glufosinate ammonium and not about the formulation i.e. glufosinate based herbicides.
Reply by Lynn M. Sosnoskie
on June 15, 2016 at 8:44 AM
Yash - A formulation chemist would have more information (and a better explanation) about the reactions involved (including starting reagents) in the generation of glufosinate ammonium. Also, you could do a google search using the terms "glufosinate ammonium synthesis" to locate papers describing the process in detail. I found this manuscript (http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00304948.2014.963461) published in 2014 describing a novel procedure, but am uncertain if this is a process used by commercial manufacturers. Additionally, you could probably find the info you are looking for by locating the patent. Cheers!
by Lynn M. Sosnoskie
on June 15, 2016 at 8:49 AM
Yash - You might also look up this article, which appears to be a seminal paper describing glufosinate and its properties.  
 
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994;138:73-145.  
Glufosinate (phosphinothricin), a natural amino acid with unexpected herbicidal properties.  
Hoerlein G1.  
Author information  
Abstract  
Glufosinate ammonium (phosphinothricin ammonium) (GLA) is the active ingredient of Basta and several other herbicides used worldwide. It is produced as part of the tripeptide L-phosphinothricyl-L-alanyl-L-alanin, which was first isolated from Streptomyces viridichromogenes or Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Its structure is confirmed by degradation and synthesis. Several processes for the preparation of D,L- and L-phosphinothricin are described. Glufosinate is a structural analog of glutamate and inhibits the glutamine synthetase. The result is a rapid build-up of a high ammonia level and a concomitant depletion of glutamine and several other amino acids in the plant. These effects are accompanied by a rapid decline of photosynthetic CO2-fixation and are followed by chlorosis and desiccation. The results of numerous toxicological studies show that glufosinate ammonium and its commercial formulations are safe for users and consumers under the conditions of recommended use. The fast and complete degradation in soil and surface water prevents movement of residues into groundwater. The toxicological threshold levels for all the nontarget organisms tested are well above the potential exposure levels and therefore do not reflect any hazard for nontarget organisms in the ecosystem. Basta is a nonselective foliar applied herbicide for the control of undesirable mono- and dicotyledonous plants in orchards, vineyards, and plantations for minimum tillage, and as a harvest aid. A synthetic phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene has been introduced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens into dicot crops, such as like tobacco, tomato, spring and winter rapeseed, alfalfa, and several horticultural crops. The PAT gene was also successfully introduced into maize protoplasts that could be regenerated into fertile plants. All transgenic crop plants tolerated a two- to threefold field dosage of Basta.
 
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