By Connie Conway, State Executive Director in California, USDA Farm Service Agency
Farmers and ranchers feed our state, our nation, and in fact, our world. You work long hours to provide essential resources for us all, and in these challenging times, I want you to know that USDA is here to support you and your operation through our Coronavirus Food Assistance Program, or CFAP. Whether you farm one acre or many more, grow food for local markets or big supply chains, CFAP can help. We're accepting applications through August 28 and encouraging producers to apply now.
In California, we have already approved 6,120 applications and disbursed $356,214,647.58 as of July 31, 2020. I know many of you have applied for CFAP already, but the numbers indicate that some who are eligible have not. If you're still unsure about CFAP and your operation, I encourage you to take five minutes today to visit farmers.gov/cfap or call 877-508-8364 to learn about eligibility and options to apply. Whether you've worked with FSA for years or this will be a first, we're here to help you every step of the way.
CFAP provides direct relief to producers who faced price declines and additional marketing costs due to COVID-19. A range of commodities are eligible for CFAP. You can access the full list of eligible non-specialty, specialty, livestock, dairy, and wool commodities by visiting farmers.gov/cfap.
We know you're busy, so we've outlined options to apply at the top of farmers.gov/cfap. We offer a CFAP Application Portal where those of you with eAuthentication accounts can submit your application online. Don't have an eAuthentication account? You can enroll at farmers.gov/sign-in. We also offer a manual application option, and a CFAP Application Generator and Payment Calculator that allows you to input information specific to your operation to determine estimated payments and populate the application form.
You can apply now for the commodities that are currently eligible, and if any other commodities you produce are added to the program, we will happily amend your application.
If you have questions, please let us know. You can call our CFAP Call Center for one-on-one support with the CFAP application process. Call 877-508-8364 to speak directly with a USDA employee ready to offer personalized assistance. And, as always, the FSA office at your local USDA Service Center is also there to help you prepare your application.
Farmers and ranchers continue to be the backbone of our nation. I know California's agricultural producers are facing unprecedented challenges with the coronavirus pandemic, and I want to make sure we at USDA are doing all we can to provide critical support. We thank our farmers and ranchers, and we encourage you to apply for CFAP today.
The days are long and the temperatures are high. This is a great time to solarize the soil in the Central Valley as a way to manage annual weeds and improve the growth of fall crops.
What is solarization? A non-chemical approach to weed control, soilborne pest management and soil enhancement using solar heating of plastic-covered moist soil. This method allows the sun's radiant energy to be trapped in the soil thereby heating the upper levels, killing and/or suppressing soil pests.
- Kills or weakens many crop pests such as plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, insects, nematodes and weeds within 2-12 inches +/- of the soil surface
- Soil physical and biological benefits
○ Increases levels of soluble, mineral nutrients available to the subsequent crop (nitrogen in the form of ammonium and nitrate, calcium, magnesium)
○ Generally less lethal to beneficial microbes than to plant pests
○ Increases breakdown of organic matter
○ Improves soil tilth
- Effects often last for multiple seasons, though best effects are directly after solarization
- Can work in combination with other pest management techniques such as steam, hot water, fumigants and pesticidal chemicals, biological controls, organic amendments (“biosolarization”), and host resistance
Temperature: Solarization should be done in the warmest part of the summer. Usually this is between June and August in California. (See http://ucanr.edu/sites/solarization/california_air_temperature_maps/ for average temperatures for different months and locations in California.)
Timing: 4-6 weeks for maximum benefits (even 1-3 can provide some effects; time may be reduced with combinations such as biosolarization)
Soil preparation: Soil should be as smooth as possible to get maximum soil-plastic contact. This can be achieved by finishing with roller or bedshaper, or working the soil by hand and removing any large debris or clumps.
Plastic*: The most commonly used plastic is transparent polyethylene. Optimal thickness is 025-.03 mm unless solarization is being done in a particularly windy or animal-trafficked environment, in which case slightly thicker plastic should be used. Infrared-transmitting plastic can be purchased to facilitate a slightly higher temperature increase. Plastic with additives to decrease brittleness-causing sun damage can also be purchased.
Moisture: Soil moisture should be at 70% of field capacity in the upper layers of the soil and moist up to 24 inches deep to obtain maximum benefits. It should crumble easily when squeezed. When moistened prior to plastic, soil should be covered as soon as possible to avoid evaporation. When done after, water can be added via drip lines, furrows or hose pipe outlets under the plastic.
Beds: Plastic can be laid in strips over beds (min. 30” beds) or continuously for complete coverage. Strip coverage tends to be less effective than complete coverage because there is a cooling effect on the edge of the beds. For complete coverage, plastic can be installed by hiring a custom applicator, or can be laid in strips and joined by glue.
Bed specifications: For strip solarization, wider bed tops will accumulate more heat. It is best to solarize on strips with north-south orientation rather than east-west, to minimize shading. Beds with no slope or a slight south-facing slope will yield optimal results.
Plastic placement: Plastic can be lain by machinery or by hand. It is important that the edges of the plastic are buried.
Repair: If tearing occurs, plastic can be patched with patching tape.
- Challenges associated with plastic disposal
- Perennial weeds, bulbous weeds, and seeds with a hard seed coat are harder to control
- Climate factors, such as fog and wind, may impede solarization
- May decrease root nodulating rhizobial bacteria in the soil
- May increase purple nutsedge under certain circumstances
Check out videos, how-to and the science of solarization here.
* Plastic can be sourced locally from Irrigation Supply Co. in Woodland. The price is $137.14 for a 60” x 4000' x 0.001” roll. Plastic is usually in stock, though should be ordered several weeks to months in advance for large orders.
Short List of Pests Controlled by Soil Solarization
(for a complete list, visit references)
Fusarium Wilt (tomato, cucumber, strawberry)
Pythium, seedling disease
Phytophthora root rot
Rhizoctonia, seedling disease
Corky Root (tomato)
White Rot (Garlic and onions)
Black root rot (many crops)
Crown gall (many crops)
Stem and bulb
Northern root knot nematode
Field bindweed (seed only)
Short List of Pests Unpredictably Controlled by Soil Solarization
Charcoal Rot (many crops)
Southern root knot nematode
White sweet clover
Elmore, C.L., Stapleton, J.J., Bell, C.E., & Devay, J.E. (1997). Soil Solarization: A Nonpesticidal Method for Controlling Diseases, Nematodes, and Weeds. (Publication No. 21377). Oakland: University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources.
Stapleton, J.J. (n.d.). Solarization for Vegetable Weed Control. California Weed Science Society. Retrieved from http://www.cwss.org/uploaded/media_pdf/59-67_2007.pdf
Yaduraju, N.T., & Mishra, J.S. (2004). Soil Solarization: An Eco-Friendly Approach for Weed Management. In Inderjit (Ed.), Weed Biology and Management. (1st ed., pp. 345-362). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science + Business Media.
Yes, mow it! Mowing works to at least prevent seed spread and regular mowing will weaken rhizomes.
Seed establishment has the greatest potential for the establishment and spread of johnsongrass and must be prevented. Therefore, mowing works to at least prevent seed spread. An individual plant can produce 28,000-30,000 seeds and a single inflorescence can measure 1,240 seeds (Keeley and Thullen, 1979). Viable seed may be produced as early as 2 weeks after flowering begins, so timely control measures throughout the season are needed to prevent seed production. Even though the viability of johnsongrass seed in soil remains high for as long as five years, seed can remain viable in soil up to 10 years.
Regular mowing can be effective in both orchard and non-crop situations. Due to its capacity to regenerate from rhizome fragments, complete control of S. halepense by mowing alone is difficult. Nonetheless, intensive grazing and mowing can be used to reduce a stand of johnsongrass. If grazed or mowed closely for at least two years, the plants become weak and stunted and the rhizomes become concentrated near the soil surface.
Consider mowing johnsongrass stands before seeds set to weaken current stands and avoid the spread through seed dispersal.
P. E. Keeley, & R. J. Thullen. (1979). Influence of Planting Date on the Growth of Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) from Seed. Weed Science, 27(5), 554-558. Retrieved June 30, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/4043118
Are you concerned with your plant growth or wondering how your winter and spring activities (compost, cover crops, pre-plant fertilizers) are contributing to plant-available nitrate? If so, now is a great time to consider taking leaf or soil samples.
Here are easy ways to test for plant or soil nitrate.
SOIL NITRATE TESTS will tell you about the current plant-available nitrate levels. This can help you understand how compost, cover crops, pre-plant fertilizers as well as soil organic matter are currently contributing to nitrate in the soil.
Soil nitrate can be determined by taking a soil sample and sending it to a lab or using test strips which can be done in the field for an immediate estimate.
- How to Soil Sample for Nitrate Determination can be found here.
- How to use Soil Nitrate Test Strips can be found here
- Also, here's an instructional video on how to use Soil Nitrate Test Strips in the field.
PLANT TISSUE samples are useful for understanding the status of your plant nutrition (NPK), which helps answer the questions: are you meeting the crop demand or should you supplement? This can also help answer questions about whether symptoms you are seeing are due to crop nutrition or something else. Below is a list of the optimal plant tissue to sample for nitrate analysis. Click here for more detailed information.
The timing and type of tissue is unique to each crop. Use these tables as guidelines for your crop of interest.
Nitrogen is one of the essential macronutrients required for a healthy, productive crop. With summer in full swing, the nitrogen demand for many crops is high. Use these graphs to understand the timing of nitrogen demand in the crops you are growing. Soil tests and tissue tests are great ways to know the current nitrogen status of your soil or crop to determine whether you have sufficient nitrogen to meet the demand. Click to learn more about soil and tissue sampling.
Visit Dr. Daniel Geisselers Lab and CDFA Fertilizer Research and Education Program for more information.
Here's a GENERAL N UPTAKE CURVE FOR ANNUALS . Click here for more information.
N Uptake Curve for MELONS. Click here for more information.
N Uptake Curve for Fresh Market Tomatoes. Click here for more information
N Uptake Curve for PLUMS AND PRUNES. Click here for more information
N Uptake Curve for STRAWBERRIES. Click here for more information.
N Uptake Curve for PEACHES AND NECTARINES. Click here for more information.