It just came to my attention that there is a map of all the oil pipelines in the US. If you go to the bottom/left side and put in the state and county, it will be revealed. This is mainly for those growers who need to be aware of pipelines and tillage or any other work in the aerea of a pipeline.
- Author: Brad Hanson
Several years ago, I had what seemed like a great weed research idea.
My idea addressed a serious agricultural weed problem in California, it was applicable to several cropping systems, it used an integrated approach to weed management, and it utilized a pretty novel approach (or so I thought). I proudly laid out this idea to my UC weed science colleague at a meeting, only to hear "That's great Brad but I think your predecessor tried that in the late 80's and it didn't work very well". After my damaged pride recovered a bit, I started thinking about the volume of research that we do that is not very easy to find out about after it is done.
As scientists, we often think about publications in terms of the work we publish in various peer-reviewed journals. These are very important but only encompass a portion of the written reports on our research. There's a whole other category of the "gray literature" that is not easily accessed or searched, but often makes up a substantial part of our extension programs or base knowledge. This includes research progress reports to commodity commissions and funding agencies, herbicide screening trials, the one-off side projects, that grad student research that wasn't ultimately published in a journal for one reason or another, the write-up prepared for an extension meeting, the pilot study that didn't generate sufficiently interesting results to follow up on, etc.
Some of this information can be accessed on online (if you look in the right place), but other than the person who created the report, much of this information is essentially lost once the report has been submitted or the presentation made. Worse yet, some research results simply aren't available anywhere but in the writers file cabinet or hard drive and can completely disappear with a computer replacement,office cleansing, or researcher retirement. Our colleagues, students, and successors (and even ourselves) cannot build upon research they don't know about (or don't remember doing).
So, to take a stab at this problem, several Weed Research and Information Center colleagues and I started building a UC Weed Science Report Database. We used an existing database platform in the UC ANR system but built a web interface with a simple search function for key words, authors, publication year, or several broad categories of reports. We elected to use an "all word search" rather than to manually categorize each report by weed/crop/herbicides, trade names vs chemical names, etc.
Although far from being a complete set of reports (that is probably an impossible goal), there are currently nearly 1700 reports, publications, research posters, and CWSS abstracts that have been uploaded so far. Our goal is to keep adding to these reports on a regular basis into the future. Where possible, we're also trying to include reports from the archives as we obtain and scan them.
I have to acknowledge the UC ANR programmers who helped answer dozens of my database questions and for programming the upload and search functions. Also, the California Weed Science Society provided some support for the scanning and uploading of several decades of CWSS proceedings that have been included in this project and will also be available at the CWSS website in whole volume format.
The database is available at this link or directly at this web address:
Please take a look if you have interest. As this project is still very much "in process", please share any comments or suggestions via the comments below.
This bulletin applies to avocado and citrus too.
DuPont Pioneer researchers have discovered a protein from a non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium source that exhibits promise as an alternative means for controlling corn rootworm in North America and Europe. Science Magazine published the finding this week. “This research represents a breakthrough for addressing a major challenge in agriculture,” said Neal Gutterson, vice president, Research & Development, DuPont Pioneer. “We have discovered a non-Bt protein that demonstrates insecticidal control of western corn rootworm with a new and different mode of action than Bt proteins currently used in transgenic products. This protein could be a critical component for managing corn rootworm in future corn seed product offerings. The work also suggests that bacteria other than Bt are alternative sources of insecticidal proteins for insect control trait development.” An extremely destructive corn pest, corn rootworm larvae and adults can cause significant economic loss for growers. The current biotech approach for insect control sources proteins from Bt soil bacteria. Field-evolved insect resistance to certain Bt proteins has been observed in some geographies. Another Pioneer study related to non-Bt insect control, recently published in Scientific Reports, shows how RNA interference (RNAi) can be applied to control corn rootworm feeding damage. RNAi is a biologically occurring process that happens in the cells of plants, animals and people. By employing the RNAi process, a plant can protect itself by carrying instructions that precisely target specific proteins in pests. - See more at: https://www.morningagclips.com/discovery-of-potential-insect-control-traits/?utm_content=articles&utm_campaign=NLCampaign&utm_source=Newsletter&utm_term=newsletteredition&utm_medium=email#sthash.nF99oEWC.dpuf
Submitted by: Lisa Blecker and Sarah Risorto, UC IPM Pesticide Safety Education Program
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently published the revised Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS). The WPS is meant to increase protections for agricultural fieldworkers and pesticide handlers from pesticide exposure when working in farms, forests, nurseries and greenhouses. The changes will definitely affect California agriculture, and soon-- as early as January 2017 in some cases.
What major regulatory changes are in store for us and when will they happen?
Several changes are required to be in place by January 2, 2017. These include:
- All 417,000 fieldworkers in California must attend annual pesticide safety training.
- Records of all fieldworker pesticide safety trainings must be kept on file for 2 years.
- Fields must be posted when the restricted entry interval (REI) exceeds 48 hours.
- Instructors previously certified via Train-the-Trainer to lead pesticide safety trainings must now attend an EPA-approved Train-the-Trainer course to maintain that certification.
The regulatory changes that are required to be in place by January 2, 2018 include:
- Additional training topics for fieldworkers and handlers must be added to the curriculum.
- “Application-exclusion zones” must be implemented to prevent the entry of anyone into areas up to 100 feet from pesticide application equipment. Application-exclusion zone regulations also require handlers to suspend an application if anyone enters the restricted area.
Who do these changes affect?
Many people who work in the California agricultural community will be impacted by the WPS revisions including fieldworkers, pesticide handlers, farm labor contractors, private and in-house safety trainers, growers, farm managers, licensed pesticide applicators (private and commercial), pest control advisors (PCAs), and crop consultants to name a few.
The new changes bring about a shared liability with all those involved in employing or training fieldworkers and handlers.
How can I get qualified as a trainer?
To become a trainer, take an EPA- and DPR- approved Instructor Training (a.k.a. “Train-the-Trainer”) workshop. The University of California Pesticide Safety Education Program (part of the UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program, UC IPM), in partnership with AgSafe, will offer multiple workshops this fall that cover the new federal requirements for fieldworker and handler training. Visit the Events and workshops page on the UC IPM website to reserve your spot. At the end of the training you will be a certified pesticide safety instructor.
Remember, even if you've already participated in a Train-the-Trainer workshop, you are required by EPA to retake the program unless you maintain certain licenses/government designations, including PAC, QAC, QAL, PCA, and certain County Biologist licenses. UCCE Advisors are also exempted from the need to retrain.
If I am currently qualified, how can I make sure I stay up to date on all these new requirements?
If you are currently qualified as a trainer because you maintain a California PAC, QAC, or QAL, or if you are a PCA, you can attend a Train-the-Trainer workshop this fall to learn about the new WPS requirements and additional training topics. While a certification may qualify you, a Train-the-Trainer Workshop will prepare you to train! Register today.
There are numerous species of ants present in citrus orchards, however, the most common are the Argentine ant (southern and coastal California), the native gray ant (San Joaquin Valley) and the southern fire ant (statewide). The red imported fire ant has been found in Southern California, but is not yet established in citrus orchards. It is important to identify the primary ant species in the orchard, because management tactics depend on which ant species is present.
The Argentine ant, is a small, uniformly deep brown ant. Worker ants travel in characteristic trails on trees, the ground, or irrigation lines and build their nests underground. Ant populations peak in mid-summer through early fall.
The southern fire ant is light reddish brown with a black abdomen. These ants build nests of loose mounds or craters near bases of trees, do not aggregate in colonies as large as those of the Argentine ant, and will sting and bite.
Native gray ants are gray and considerably larger than the other two species. They nest in topsoil or under rocks and debris and move in irregular patterns. In contrast to Argentine and fire ants, the native gray ant is solitary and its importance in disrupting biological control is often underestimated.
Red imported fire ant is new to California and can make large, dome-shaped mounds. They feed on almost any plant or animal material.
Most ant species feed on honeydew excreted by various soft scales, mealybugs, cottony cushion scales, whiteflies, psyllids, and aphids. As part of this relationship, they protect these pest insects from their natural enemies, thus interrupting biological control. They also protect some non honeydew-producing pests, such as California red scales.
Argentine and native gray ants are the most common ant species that aggressively protect pest insects. In addition, Argentine ants and fire ants can plug up irrigation sprinklers. Fire ants directly damage citrus by chewing twigs and tender bark of newly planted trees; they also sting people working in the orchard and may cause allergic reactions.
No effective natural enemies of ants are known.
Skirt prune trees, i.e., remove branches within 12 to 30 inches of the ground, and apply sticky material to the trunk to prevent access to the trees by ants. Use polybutenes, as oil-based materials may cause phytotoxicity and should not be used.
The application of sticky polybutene materials directly to the trunk of citrus trees can cause bark cracking, especially if multiple applications are applied to the same area of the trunk, the area is exposed to sunlight (topworked trees), or both. The sticky material can be applied on top of a tree wrap or a base layer of latex paint. Young trees, which have a very thin cambium layer, are most susceptible to damage.
Sticky material should last from 1 to 4 months and will also prevent the access by Fuller rose beetles. If the sticky material contains tribasic copper sulfate, it will also control brown garden snails. The persistence of sticky material can be increased by applying it higher above the ground to reduce dust and dirt contamination and to decrease irrigation wash-off.
Argentine ant adults are liquid-feeding only and have physical digestive "blocks" in the mouth and gut to prevent them from swallowing and digesting solid food particles. They may bring back solid food to the colony to feed the brood (but solid-food digestion not been confirmed in Argentine ant brood), or harvest the bodily fluids inside of insect prey/moisture in food items. Dry insects or food items are of little use to them, even though they may pick these things up. Feeding studies have shown ants feed several times faster on liquids than gels and gels than solids. This faster feeding resulted in much higher toxicity with liquid. Gel was intermediate, and solids provided the lowest control.
Put out bait in the shade to increase feeding and overall kill. You do not need to obscure it. The soil temperature and moisture are going to be more moderate in the shade, particularly under the canopy. This is the environment the ants will prefer to feed in. There will be less evaporative loss in the shade, as well. Sometimes when the toxins become too concentrated they are less attractive to the ants. The other issue is that many toxins (like borax products) may photodegrade at a faster rate in direct sunlight.