Lacto-Fermentation - An Overview
Lacto-Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, and/or alcohol. Lactic acid bacteria breaks down a food and in the process lowers the pH of the food making it more acidic. Examples of this are cucumbers turned into pickles and milk turned into yogurt.
Lactobacillus strains are the main microorganisms in fermentation with a few other microorganisms assisting. Lactobacillus are also referred to as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus, when given a favorable environment, will convert carbohydrates – sugars and starches – into lactic acid. The lactic acid environment then prevents other microorganisms from colonizing the food and prevents further decomposition. There are many different strains of lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus in conjunction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast, will convert flour and water and give us sourdough bread. Yogurt is fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus
Why do we ferment food?
We do not have to use the process of fermentation to preserve food. We have dehydration, canning, refrigeration and freezing as good methods of keeping food safe. The main reason we practice fermentation today is to take advantage of the health benefits that are realized with eating fermented foods. Fermented foods add live cultures to our food - probiotics.
How do you ferment vegetables?
Fermentation is managed by creating a favorable environment for the lactobacillus to grow. In most vegetable ferments, this is done with non-iodized salt. Limiting the exposure to air also helps this process and keeps undesirable bacteria away from the food.
Water - use non-chlorinated water. To remove chlorine, boil water and let it cool. Or use filtered water. Bottled water is fine but not do not use distilled water.
Salt - non-iodized salt without any anti-caking ingredients. It is best to weigh the salt for accuracy. See below for more information.
Containers - a large food-safe container with a way to keep vegetables submerged and a lid that will allow gases to escape. More on containers from the National Center for Home Food Preservation.
Linda Harris, Cooperative Extension Specialist in Microbial Food Safety (http://ucfoodsafety.ucdavis.edu/?facultyid=929) addressed various questions about botulism recently.
Botulism (Clostridium botulinum ) Q & A.
Are these statements correct?
1. Botulism bacteria die at boiling.
2. Botulism spores die at 250 F.
3. Botulisum toxin that is the cause of the disease dies at 185 F (below boiling) or boiling for 10min.
From the Helpline
Ever wonder what questions other Food Preservers ask? Here are answers to commonly asked questions....
Spring Garden Show 2015
The annual Spring Garden Show starts on Thursday, April 23rd and runs through Sunday, April 26th. This will be the second year that UCCE Master Food Preservers have been privileged to have an exhibit booth at this wonderful show. Plan to stop by and talk ‘preserving’ with us! Bring your canning, freezing and dehydrating questions for us – or just stop and say hi!
More information about this show can be found at: http://www.springgardenshow.com/.
Have questions? Contact us at email@example.com.
Hope to see you there!